Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
The Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art , the counterpart to the Prussian Order Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts , founded in 1842 , is today the highest award of the Free State of Bavaria and was founded on November 28, 1853 by King Maximilian II of Bavaria . By 1932 the medal had been awarded a total of 351 times. There was no award between 1932 and 1979. In 1980 the high honor was reintroduced by the then Prime Minister Franz Josef Strauss, encouraged by the then Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs, Hans Maier , and was first awarded again in 1981. Since its reintroduction, the Maximilian Order has been awarded to 222 personalities, including 36 women. The number of living medal bearers should not exceed 100. After the award ceremony in 2018, the number of living order bearers is 95 personalities.
The order was awarded to a total of 573 personalities from 1853 to 2018.
Since its establishment, the Bavarian Maximilian Order has not only been understood as a visible distinction, but also as a religious community in which the scientific and artistic members meet to exchange ideas. Such encounters, combined with lectures and discussions, take place annually.
In continuation of the old Bavarian tradition, the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art is created. It is intended to honor outstanding achievements in the fields of science and art.
Two words appear in this article: religious community and religious council. To make it clear what these actually are, a brief explanation follows:
- Order community: Is the totality of all bearers of the order, who meet at the invitation of the Prime Minister for a ceremony
- Order Advisory Board: Is the group of people who advise on the award of the order and who transmit their decision to the Prime Minister for the final decision.
The Maximilian Order should preferably be awarded to German scientists and artists, so it is not limited to citizens of the Free State of Bavaria . Its foundation took place in one stage in two departments for art and science , with a men's and women's version. The number of order holders is limited to 100 living holders, whereby the number can be supplemented accordingly due to death or other reasons (e.g. withdrawal).
Appearance, texture and way of wearing
The medal consists of a blue enamelled Gothic cross with a white border and four rays in the corners, surrounded by a white gold-braided ring. The center of the cross is formed by a round medallion with gold borders, which shows the upright Bavarian lion in the center on a white background, which is also surrounded by the golden inscription: For science and art . The reverse shows the Bavarian diamond coat of arms. On a cross arm, there was also - in earlier copies - the date of the foundation , November 28, 1853 . The medal is worn as a collar medal on a white ribbon with a blue border, where a square miniature, a blue and white rosette or a fraquette on the left lapel can be worn.
Authority to award and propose
The Maximilian Order is usually awarded by the Prime Minister with a corresponding award document, with the award being announced in the Bavarian State Gazette . However, the medal can also be presented by someone else on behalf of the Prime Minister. The certificate must bear the large state seal. The Prime Minister, the Minister of State and the two departments of the Order are entitled to make proposals. These proposals are voted on by both classes of the Order in a meeting of the Order by secret ballot and then examined by the Order Advisory Board and sent with a recommendation to the Prime Minister for decision.
Composition of the Order Advisory Council
The order council consists of:
- the President of the Landtag ,
- a member of the state government who represents the prime minister ,
- the Minister of State for Science, Research and the Arts ,
- the President of the Academy of Sciences ,
- the President of the Academy of Fine Arts as well
- the president of a Bavarian art college,
- the president of a Bavarian academic university and
- a representative of applied research, who is appointed by the Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister sends all members to the Advisory Board for a period of five years, whereby the Advisory Board makes its decisions with a majority of the votes of the statutory number of members.
Order statute (implementing regulation)
The statute of the order of the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art further specifies the award moonalities and the activities of the order advisory board. The following is regulated in extracts:
The proposals which should lead to the award of the order are to be forwarded to the State Chancellery. The proposals must contain the following information:
- First and last name, date of birth, place of birth, nationality, occupation at the time of the proposal as well as its address and a short curriculum vitae.
- Information on domestic and foreign awards, titles and positions of honor of the proposed person and
- a detailed justification for the proposal.
The proposals developed by the two departments (i.e. art and science) require the approval of the majority of the order holders present in the respective department. Following the vote, the state chancellery then presents the result with a statement to the order's advisory board.
Withdrawal of the order
The Maximiliansorden is stripped to the proposal of the Religious Advisory Council, when because of the owner:
- has been convicted of an act based on dishonorable convictions.
It can be revoked if the holder:
- has lost his respectability because of other final convictions or
- if such reasons already existed at the time of the award and only became known afterwards.
In such cases, the revocation is then pronounced by the Prime Minister. The order cross must then be returned to the State Chancellery with the award certificate.
Archiving of the award dates
The Bavarian State Chancellery is responsible for keeping the dates of awarding the Maximilian Order. It maintains a register of the order , which contains all the people who have been awarded the order. In this matriculation all data regarding name, address and date of award, together with the documents of the borrower, are archived. Finally, the number of members of the religious order (number of carriers) is specified. So people who have reached the age of 85 are no longer listed in the group of "entrusted", although they expressly retain their status or rights in the religious community (number of members).
Bearer of the Maximilian Order
- see main article: List of Bearers of the Maximilian Order
- see also category: Bearers of the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
- Arnhard Graf Klenau: Order in Germany and Austria. Volume II: German States (1806–1918). Part I: Anhalt – Hanover. Offenbach 2008. ISBN 3-937064-13-3 . P. 138.
- Georg Schreiber: The Bavarian orders and decorations. Prestel-Verlag, Munich 1964.
- Hans Körner: The Bavarian Maximiliansorden for science and art and its members.
- Information from the Bavarian State Chancellery
- Legal text
- The Bavarian Order of Merit and the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art in the Order Museum
- The Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art and its members in the Journal for Bavarian State History
- Law on the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art. From March 18, 1980 , (BayRS II p. 177), BayRS 1132-4-S, Article 1
- Act on the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art of March 18, 1980. Articles 2 and 3
- Law on the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art of March 18, 1980. Article 4
- Law on the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art of March 18, 1980. Articles 5 and 7
- Order of the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art of January 1, 1983. § 4
- Law on the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art of March 18, 1980. Article 6 Paragraph 1 and 2
- Law on the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art of March 18, 1980. Article 6 Paragraph 3 and 4
- Order of the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art of January 1, 1983. § 1
- Order of the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art of January 1, 1983. § 7
- Statute of the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art from January 1, 1983. § 6