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Collaboration ( Latin co- 'mit-', laborare 'work') is the ideal collaboration between people or groups of people. In particular, it means working with the enemy in times of war or occupation ; a person who collaborates with the opponent in this sense is referred to as a collaborator . The term is particularly often related to the collaboration with the Germans at the time of the Second World War in the countries of Europe occupied by National Socialist Germany and at other theaters of war between 1939 and 1945 ( Nazi collaboration ).

Definition of terms

The term "collaboration"

In German, the term usually has a negative connotation, except in certain marginal areas, and means “cooperation with the enemy”.

From a feminist point of view, some representatives also describe certain forms of cooperation between women and men, in particular the voluntary subordination to dominant male behavior during sexual encounters, as "collaboration" and rated negatively in the context of the gender struggle; In this sense, the feminist Alice Schwarzer declared : "Female masochism is collaboration!"

The expression collaboration is used without value in economics and other application-related sciences as well as in project management . In this value-free sense, the term collaboration is also common in English and French . Collaboration here generally means a form of intellectual cooperation or collaboration. The demarcation between cooperation and collaboration is seen in a perspective imported from Anglo-Saxon usage in that the partners in a collaboration are creatively involved in the end result of the cooperation and are not mere contributors or content providers. In this sense, one speaks of collaboration in music production when several musicians publish a music album together ( collaboration album ). Another example of the value-free use of the term is collaborative robotics , where collaboration stands for the cooperation between humans and robots.

The term "collaborator"

In other languages ​​such as English, Spanish and Italian , collaborator, colaborador or collaboratore only generally means employee. In English, however, someone who cooperates with the enemy is referred to by the word quisling . This expression for a collaborator in war, which is also widespread in other languages, is derived from the surname of the Norwegian Vidkun Quisling , who collaborated with the National Socialists before and during the occupation of his country by the Germans . In Spanish, we call such a collaborator colaboradorista , in Italian collaborazionista .

In French, the term collaborateur is used for both terms, so depending on the context, it can mean either “employee” (non-judgmental) or “collaborator” in the negative sense described here. In addition, the term collaborationniste, which has a clearly negative connotation , is also used for the term collaboration with the opponent .

In German, the neutral use of the word collaborator in the sense of “employee” (non-judgmental) is primarily to be found in Austria and is considered Austrianism . In the 19th century, however, the Latinized job title “ collaborator” was also to be found in Germany, especially in southern Germany, for certain auxiliary workers (such as vicarious clergy, auxiliary teacher in secondary schools, etc.); the corresponding office was then called collaboration . In this sense, for example, in the story Die Frau Professorin by Berthold Auerbach, the "library collaborator Serienmaier" appears.

The use of the term to designate a person collaborating with the enemy during wartime has been documented in German usage since the 19th century. Even then, he played a role in the various Franco-German conflicts since the Napoleonic wars (keyword “ hereditary enemy ”). So it seems only a logical development that the term gained new relevance during the time of the German occupation of France in World War II and is still particularly related to these processes today.

The immediate reason for using this expression in occupied France was a speech by Head of State Pétain on October 30, 1940 after his meeting with Adolf Hitler in Montoire-sur-le-Loir on October 24, in which he asked the French to Cooperation "( collaboration ) with the German occupiers. In this context, the involvement of French police forces and authorities in the deportation of French Jews to the Nazi extermination camps, which has only become fully known in the past few decades, is particularly explosive . The accusation of collaboration with the Third Reich led to numerous arrests and mistreatment of actual or even supposed collaborators in liberated France in the immediate post-war period.

During the Cold War , the word collaborator was also used in Germany as a swear word for ideological opponents who were accused of working with the political system on the other side of the Iron Curtain or who wanted to be exposed as its sympathizers (see also: “ Fifth Column ").

In many conflict situations was and the term collaboration or collaborator used frequently in recent years, the cooperation of local groups with foreign, regarded as colonial or occupying powers forces to identify pejorative - such as in the Maghreb , in Afghanistan , in the Balkans and in Iraq .

Collaboration with Nazi Germany

At the time of the Second World War, there were organizations, movements and individuals in the areas occupied by the Germans who collaborated with Germany.


See main article Austria in the time of National Socialism , especially Austria in the time of National Socialism # Austrians as perpetrators .


In the Netherlands, especially the Nationaal-Socialist Moving and the smaller Nationaal-Socialist Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij were very connected to Nazi Germany. Dutch people also volunteered to join the Waffen SS like Ernst Hermann van Rappard . On May 7, 1945 Anton Mussert founder of the National Socialist Movement arrested, placed in November for collaborating in court and because of treason to death by firing squad condemned.


Luxembourg has been criticized by international historians for the fact that no objective processing of its history has taken place during the persecution of the Jews and that Luxembourg has so far falsely stylized itself as a victim.

The subsequent research reports by the Luxembourg historians Denis Scuto and Vincent Artuso showed that the Luxembourg Administrative Commission, which acted as a substitute government after the official government of Luxembourg went into exile, was actively involved in the deportation of the Jews . Not only did she collaborate with the Nazis, but she also extradited Jews, including many Jewish children, to the Nazis of her own accord. She acted actively and not only as a recipient of orders from the Nazi occupiers.

Even before the Second World War, there was widespread open anti-Semitism in Luxembourg. The Third Nuremberg Race Law was voluntarily adopted by Luxembourg in the 1930s before the Second World War and marriage to Jews was forbidden. Jews who fled to Luxembourg were registered separately. Jews were classified as second class people and, among other things, hindered their job search.

To date, Luxembourg has not apologized for the collaboration, nor for the active persecution of Jews, nor for the expropriations of Jews for the benefit of Luxembourg citizens. To this day, Luxembourg has not returned the expropriated property, real estate or companies, or given any compensation or financial reparation. There was hardly any denazification in Luxembourg either .


Rexists - a fascist organization in Belgium that was founded around 1930 . The Rex movement was formed in the early 1930s under the leadership of the Walloon fascist Léon Degrelle as a Catholic-national Walloon movement. In 1935 the movement organized itself as a party independent of Catholic Action and recorded its first electoral successes. From May 1940 the Rexists collaborated with the Nazi German occupation. After the end of the Second World War , the Rexist party was banned.

Also Flemish nationalists in northern Belgium took part in the collaboration and came forward voluntarily to the Waffen-SS .

The then chairman of the Belgian Workers 'Party, Henri de Man , dissolved the party and helped found a workers' organization comparable to the DAF . His nephew, the literary theorist Paul de Man , was posthumously accused of collaborating with the Nazis in articles for the Belgian newspaper Le Soir .

In February 2007 the Center for War and Social Research in Ceges published a report entitled The Submissive Belgium , in which six historians examined in particular the deportations of Jews in 1942 and the involvement of the Belgian authorities on behalf of the current Belgian government. As a result, around 40 percent of Belgian Jews died. As a result, however, 60% were able to hide from the persecutors in the war and survive. Most of the watchdogs on Wehrmacht construction sites in northern France were Belgians.


After the military debacle of the French army in June 1940 and the subsequent armistice , the National Assembly entrusted the 84-year-old Marshal Pétain , a war hero from the First World War , with the formation of a government that had its seat in Vichy, in the unoccupied part of France (11 November 1942, the Wehrmacht also occupied Vichy France, see Anton company ). The National Assembly gave him and his government the power to draw up a new constitution. Pétain therefore called himself Chef de l'État ; he had almost unlimited powers.

In the beginning, the anti-communist , conservative and Catholic Vichy regime , which initially ruled most of the colonies and had an army of 100,000 men, was welcomed by many French. The regime countered the traditional slogan of the French Revolution Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité (freedom, equality, brotherhood) with the slogan Travail, Famille, Patrie (work, family, fatherland) for the moral renewal of France. On the side of Nazi Germany, France was supposed to regain its old size, the main ideological enemy now being Great Britain ( Vive la France, mort à l'Angleterre! ).

With increasing collaboration with the occupiers and the Nazi regime , brutal murders and persecution of dissenters, the regime's popularity declined.

In addition, the Vichy regime adopted tough measures to ostracize and persecute foreigners, Freemasons, and especially Jews . In 1942 the Jewish star was also introduced in Vichy France, and later part of the Jewish population of Vichy France was deported to Eastern European extermination camps and murdered there (see chronology of the collaboration of the Vichy government in the Holocaust ). Hundreds of thousands of French people were forced to work in Germany ( Relève ).

The Parti Nationaliste Breton (PNB) , organized in the 1930s, partly collaborated with the Nazi regime during the German occupation of France. The Breton Bezen Perrot Brigade , affiliated with the SS , fought against French partisans. Many members of the right-wing extremist and anti-republican terrorist organization Cagoule , founded in the 1930s, held important posts in Vichy France.

In response to the Allied invasion of North Africa on November 11, 1942, the Wehrmacht also marched into the “free” southern zone in breach of the Compiègne ceasefire conditions . At the same time, the power of the Vichy regime visibly waned.

When the Allies landed in Normandy in 1944 ( D-Day ) and the defeat of Germany became foreseeable, the resistance of the Resistance grew into a "popular movement". With the liberation by the Western Allies and the establishment of a provisional French government under General de Gaulle on August 25, 1944 - on that day Paris also surrendered - the four-year Vichy regime ended. Prime Minister Pierre Laval and Head of State Philippe Pétain were transferred to the German Reich, where they lived in Sigmaringen and Wilflingen until April 1945 .

Many Vichy collaborators fled to the French-speaking part of Canada (e.g. Québec ), Argentina or the Iberian Peninsula ( Spain and Portugal had both been neutral during the war). By fleeing, they wanted to avoid possible judicial punishments (possibly winning justice ) and possible lynch justice or start a new life. Some had also become wealthy during the occupation and feared that they would lose that wealth in post-war France.

Those French who had worked with the German occupying power or the Vichy regime under Marshal Pétain, controlled by Nazi Germany, were now referred to as collaborators . They were accused of having helped the enemy out of selfish motives or of sympathizing with him and thus becoming traitors to their own state or people. Often this also affected women who had a relationship with German soldiers (" horizontal collaboration ").

A common form of collaboration in this era were, for example, spy services for the occupying power or propaganda and denunciation, for which z. B. Robert Brasillach (* 1909) was executed in February 1945; the historian Bernard Faÿ got away with his life, but was sentenced to a labor camp and loss of honor . Marshal Pétain himself was sentenced to death on August 14, 1945, but pardoned by Charles de Gaulle to imprisonment and died there in 1951.

Between 1941 and 1944, with the help of French officials and other collaborators, around 75,000 Jews, including 12,000 children, were deported to concentration camps and murdered there. For decades after the war this was hardly discussed. Some of these incidents were only dealt with in court proceedings in the 1990s . It became known to the wider public that French police rounded up around 13,000 Jewish Parisians - including around 4,000 children - in the Vélodrome d'Hiver (a stadium in Paris) in July 1942 , days later in cattle wagons to the Drancy assembly camp near Paris and then to the extermination camp Deported Auschwitz . The most famous collaborator was Maurice Papon , who was given a brilliant career in post-war France. Paul Touvier was and is considered an example of the active connection between anti-Semitic right-wing Catholicism and collaboration. His contacts enabled him to hide from the judiciary for decades after 1945. Some of those who knew influential personalities such as the founder of L'Oréal , Eugène Schueller , from their work in the Cagoule were not only able to evade justice, but also found a privileged livelihood on corporate management abroad.

The allegation of collaboration led to numerous (including arbitrary) arrests, abuse and lynching in the post-war period . After the liberation, more than 10,000 people were murdered because of proven or suspected collaboration in wild extrajudicial "cleansing" ( épuration sauvage = "wild cleansing"). Various commissions for puration / cleaning / cleansing were supposed to check the police service and others for their actions during the time of the Vichy regime.

Great Britain, Ireland

British National Socialists under their leader Oswald Mosley wanted to work with the “ Third Reich ”, and some of them also served in the Waffen SS .

It is known that the fascist Greenshirts movement sought an alliance with the Third Reich.


In the course of the 1930s there was also a fascist-oriented party in Switzerland , the “ National Front ” , but it always remained a minority in the democratic system. In 1934 an attempted coup failed. Like the NSDAP in Germany, the party owed its sudden success to the global economic crisis and domestic political crises. In 1940, after France had been conquered by Germany, fascist-oriented circles wanted Switzerland to rejoin Hitler's Germany, but part of the movement also wanted to maintain an independent state and only reorganize the form of government in an authoritarian manner. The Swiss nationalists were banned, like the communists on the left edge of the political spectrum. Quite a few followers, however, went into “exile” in the “German Reich”, where they found themselves e.g. B. joined the SS .

But even official Switzerland practiced a partial collaboration, later called "adjustment", which was partly forced by external circumstances (enclosure by the Axis powers ), for example, by allowing all arms exports to only go to Germany and Italy despite its neutrality status , especially during the war and exchanged German looted gold for foreign currency , which the empire needed to buy raw materials for armaments.


Here there was the NSDAP offshoot " Volksdeutsche movement in Liechtenstein ". According to the final report of the Independent Commission of Historians Liechtenstein, Second World War ( ISBN 3-0340-0806-6 ), which attempts to answer questions relating to refugees, assets, art and armaments production, a possible influence of the NSDAP offshoot on the Liechtenstein population was identified very restricted and found relatively few followers. In addition, the majority of the population reacted negatively to the "Volksdeutsche movement" at the time.


In the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , Emanuel Moravec was Minister of Education and Public Enlightenment. His name is now a symbol of the collaborator in the Czech Republic (a Czech quisling , a collaborator ). The last Czechoslovakian President Emil Hácha was arrested as "President" of the Protectorate and as a collaborator after the liberation in 1945. The President of Slovakia collaborating with National Socialist Germany , Jozef Tiso , was executed as a collaborator in 1947.


Strictly speaking, Hungary experienced two Nazi dictatorships in 1944/1945 , which did not follow one another and of which only the second (the Arrow Cross regime under Ferenc Szálasi from October 1944 to April 1945) was identified as such; The first, however, was the penultimate (not the last!) government of the Horthy period under Prime Minister Döme Sztójay from March to August 1944.

Even before Hungary entered the Second World War on the German side (June 27, 1941), the parliament and the respective governments under Prime Minister Béla von Imrédy and Pál von Teleki in 1938 and 1939, respectively, and immediately after the war in 1941 Prime Minister László von Bárdossy passed three Jewish laws (ung .: Zsidótörvények ), which severely restricted the public and social rights of Jews; in addition, instead of military service, Jews had to do a 'labor service' (ung .: Munkaszolgálat ), which was particularly effective from 1941 Forced labor was equal to under the toughest conditions; In the course of the war in occupied Yugoslavia and on the Eastern Front, parts of Hungarian military and gendarmerie units had already participated in war crimes against Jews, among others, in 1941 and 1942. Organized physical persecution of Jews had not yet taken place in Hungary until 1944.

In March 1942, however, Hungary changed its political course after the Nazi opponent Miklós von Kállay was appointed Prime Minister, who tried to enter into secret negotiations with the Western Allies to exit the war. After the German secret services had found out about this, Hungary was occupied by German troops on March 19, 1944, and SS Brigadier Edmund Veesenmayer took over the de facto supreme command over the country with the rank of 'Reich Plenipotentiary'. Reichsverweser Horthy was urged to depose Kállay and instead appoint a Nazi-friendly head of government. So he and Veesenmayer agreed 'by mutual agreement' to appoint the long-time Hungarian ambassador in Berlin Döme Sztójay (non-party, but completely pro-German and a staunch anti-Semite) as prime minister.

Prime Minister Sztójay now formed a coalition government with two right-wing extremist parties (but not with the Arrow Cross members of Ferenc Szálasi - to his great disappointment), which immediately brought about political conformity: all non-right-wing extremist opposition parties (socialists, liberals and the small farmers' party) were banned, and From then on, a Nazi-style terror regime prevailed , which fully met the expectations of the German occupiers: the continuation of the war on Germany's side and more 'active' participation in the 'final solution to the Jewish question' than before. As a result, all Jews in Hungary had to wear the yellow star and were ghettoized, and soon afterwards the organized deportations began : between April and June 1944, under the Sztójay government, the SS with the help of the Hungarian gendarmerie brought in more than 400,000 Jewish people The German extermination camps were transported away, a large number of which were immediately murdered there (since deportations began in the countryside, the Budapest Jews were initially 'spared'). In addition to Veesenmayer, SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann , who had also traveled to Hungary for this purpose, was responsible for the logistical handling of the transports .

In view of the hopeless military situation and the increasingly obvious loss of war, resistance within Hungary's political elite increased in the summer of 1944 (there were also rumors that the country would have to reckon with heavy Allied area bombing if it remained on the German side) , and a parliamentary group was formed which was able to persuade Reich Administrator Horthy to forbid Hungarian participation in the deportations, which were stopped on July 6th. After all Nazi-friendly functionaries were gradually removed from leading positions in the power apparatus, Döme Sztójay was finally deposed on August 29 and Colonel General Géza von Lakatos was appointed as the new Prime Minister. As a staunch Nazi opponent, Lakatos set up a military dictatorship and had all parties except the ruling party banned (including all right-wing extremist parties): the Nazi conformity under Sztójay was followed by a 'counter-conformity' under Lakatos. However, after Romania ceded to the Allies on August 23, the Red Army began invading Hungary on the country's eastern borders. Since the former secret negotiations with the Western Allies under Kállay (see above) were unsuccessful, the Lakatos government now openly sought (after consultation with Horthy) to conclude a separate peace with the Soviet Union. After this 'repeated' attempt to leave it became clear to Hitler that Hungary under Horthy as head of state could not be relied on as a whole : on October 15, 1944, the German occupiers forced him to depose Prime Minister Lakatos as well as his office as Reich Administrator to renounce. This ended the Horthy era, and only now followed, from a German point of view as a last resort , the second 'actual' Nazi dictatorship of the Arrow Cross , with its leader Ferenc Szálasi combining the office of Head of State and Government - his official title was henceforth " National Guide of Hungary " (Hungarian: " Magyarország nemzetvezetője ").

After the Arrow Cross took power in October 1944, a terror dictatorship was established again, with a number of functionaries of the Sztójay government (who had been deposed under Lakatos in August) were reinstated. The deportations of the Jews (which had been 'dormant' since July) were also to be continued, and Veesenmayer and Eichmann resumed their work. However, large parts of Hungary were already under Soviet control at that time, so that transports to the extermination camps towards the east were hardly possible. Therefore, the remaining Jews (now mainly Jews from Budapest) were now driven on death marches towards Germany by the SS and by Arrow Cross units . On December 25, 1944, Budapest was finally completely surrounded by the Red Army and suffered a heavy and grueling siege. Before that, however, almost the entire Arrow Cross government (including Ferenc Szálasi) together with the German command elite (Veesenmayer and Eichmann said) first moved to West Hungary, then to Germany, so that there was now an Arrow Keruzler rule in the capital without political leadership. As a result, a kind of wild terror raged there from November / December 1944 to April 1945 , during which numerous units, some of which were randomly thrown together, raged through the city and carried out cruel murders: for example, Jews were shot into the river in public on the banks of the Danube . It was not until April 1945 that Hungary surrendered and was occupied by the Red Army - the consequences, as is well known, were the Sovietization of the country and 40 years of communist dictatorship.

During the Arrow Cross regime under Szálasi in 1944/1945 almost 100,000 Jews lost their lives (as well as numerous other murder victims and war dead); Even if this unleashed wild terror has remained synonymous in historiography for the Hungarian co-responsibility in the Holocaust, then - in purely numerical terms - most of the Hungarian Jews (over 400,000 people) had already been sent to German extermination camps in spring 1944 under the Sztójay dictatorship deported.

Eastern Europe

In the case of the Eastern European so-called volunteers of the German armed forces , the boundaries between collaboration and forced labor are fluid . After these smaller countries were divided up between Hitler and Stalin in a secret treaty in violation of international law in 1939 and then occupied by the two great powers, Hitler broke this secret treaty, also conquered the countries that had initially been surrendered and presented himself there as a liberator. The Eastern Legions of the Wehrmacht, part of the Eastern Troops (1,000,000), comprised all collaborating members of Soviet minority peoples. They included the Georgian Legion and Latvian SS units , for example .

In the occupied Polish territory, which was administered as the General Government by Hans Frank, around 10,000 former Polish police officers were forced to serve the occupying power on pain of death . A special case against a more criminal background are the activities of the so-called Szmalcowniks .

The approx. 1000 “willing” Ukrainians and Lithuanians in German service, also known as Trawnikis , “helped” with the murder of the two million Jews in the General Government of Poland. The training camp for these collaborators was in Trawniki, about 40 km east of Lublin . In addition, there were combat units on the German side, which consisted of Ukrainian volunteers, such as B. the 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (Galician No. 1) , (22,000 men) or the battalions "Nachtigall" and "Roland" , (approx. 1000 men).

The Russian Liberation Army (ROA) was a Russian association that fought on the side of the Wehrmacht under General Andrei Andreevich Vlasov at the end of the Second World War . Around 50,000 volunteers belonged to it. These were Cossacks , former soldiers of the White Army and Russian prisoners of war who wanted to avoid starvation. Since Hitler initially refused, for racist motives, to let Russians, that is, "sub-humans", fight for himself, the ROA was only set up towards the end of the Second World War. Before that there was the XV. Volunteer Cossack Cavalry Corps, which was subordinate to the Waffen SS .

The White Ruthenian Home Guard was founded in February 1944 and used to fight partisans.


Handschar SS Division (June 1943)

The Serbian Chetniks of Dragoljub Draža Mihailović and the Serbian Volunteer Corps of Dimitrije Ljotic collaborated with the occupying forces of the Axis in the Yugoslav Civil War of 1941–1945. Milan Nedić formed a puppet regime in Serbia.

The Croatian and Bosniak Ustasha militias, under the leadership of Ante Pavelić, collaborated with the occupying forces of the Axis in the Yugoslav Civil War of 1941–1945. The Muslims of Greater Croatia and Greater Albania were integrated into Bosnian SS units and Albanian SS units .

Slovensko domobranstvo (Slovenian Landwehr, also known as Slovenian Heimwehr or Slovenian Domobranzen / Domobrancen) was an anti-communist and conservative Catholic military organization set up in the province of Ljubljana in September 1943 during the Second World War, in which Slovenes served. A relative was accordingly called Domobranec, German Domobranze. As collaborators, they supported the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS in the fight against the People's Liberation Army . The majority of the equipment was initially of Italian origin; it was confiscated by the German Wehrmacht after Italy's surrender on September 8, 1943. Most of the Domobranzen served as infantrymen. On September 23, General Leon Rupnik declared himself in command of the Slovenian Home Guard.

Norway, Denmark

The name "Quisling", which is used around the world, is derived from the surname of the Norwegian collaborator Vidkun Quisling . His Nasjonal Samling movement existed before the war. The Danish government, which continued to work under German occupation, did not join the anti-Hitler coalition but the Anti-Comintern Pact and tried to appease the occupying power through cooperation until 1943/44. Thousands of Danish volunteers fought in German units.


During the German occupation of Greece, local sympathizers of National Socialism were installed in political posts, sometimes completely foreigners. Georgios Tsolakoglou , Konstantinos Logothetopoulos and Ioannis Rallis were the prime ministers. They were not democratically legitimized, but used by the occupying power. It was the role of governments to act as an extension arm. The choice of people only based on political convictions turned out to be unfavorable for the occupiers as well, because they lacked knowledge of how to implement the orders: For example, the medical professor Logothetopoulos proved unable to develop a strategy to combat partisans.


In April 1941 an anti-British National Defense Council under ex-Prime Minister Rashid Ali al-Gailani seized power in a military coup . Despite some active German help (air strikes on British positions and columns), he was put down by British troops in May 1941. The evaluation of this movement as a collaboration is controversial, Iraqi patriots see it as a national uprising, even the Communist Party of Iraq in 1988 classified its former rejection of Gailani as a historical error.


In anticipation of an imminent victory for the approaching German Africa Corps , anti-British and pro-German demonstrations and acts of sabotage took place in Alexandria and Cairo in late 1941 and early 1942. The nationalist party Hizb Misr El-Fatat (Young Egypt), referring to the Urabi movement , set up paramilitary groups ("green shirts"), and the chief of staff of the Egyptian army established secret contacts with the German staff. The British ambassador, who feared an overthrow from the Egyptian-Sudanese King Faruq and the Egyptian aristocracy during the state crisis in Egypt in 1942 , had the palace surrounded with tanks in the spring of the same year, officers arrested and a new neutral government under Mustafa an-Nahhas Pascha deploy.

Morocco, Tunisia

After the Second World War, the Istiqlal Party (Independence Party), which was actually loyal to the king, was accused of having worked with Nazi Germany, and leading party members were imprisoned. The same happened with the Destur Party (constitutional party ) in Tunisia. In fact, it was an attempt by France to discredit and weaken the Moroccan and Tunisian independence movements.

South Africa

In the South African Union, allied with Great Britain, the Boer nationalist or fascist Ossewabrandwag and its Secret Army operated underground, committed acts of sabotage and provided convoy information for the U-boat war against Great Britain. Two divisions intended for other theaters of war were thus bound. On the other hand, pro-Nazi politicians, z. B. Balthazar Johannes Vorster , about a withdrawal of South Africa from the war against Germany and maintained relations with Vichy France until 1942.

Israeli territories

Palestinian territories

After the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel set up an information network of collaborators according to a Palestinian source. In exchange for permits, exit permits, work permits, medical treatment, custody and money, Palestinians disclosed information about their neighbors. If this did not help, blackmail was used, such as compromising fake photos of girls or a deliberately spread rumor that someone was “working for Israel”. The Israeli authorities were avoided for civil disputes and compensation for accidents in order not to be suspected of being collaborators.

For the technical surveillance of the Palestinians, the army maintains a cyper unit, Unit 8200 , whose job it is also to find discrediting information with which informants can be recruited. For this, the Palestinian Internet traffic is completely monitored. In this case, people with homosexual tendencies are of particular interest , since making such a sexual orientation public is particularly dangerous in Arab society. In a reply from members of the unit, these allegations are vehemently denied.

It is estimated that over 1,000 Palestinians were murdered by Palestinians during the two intifadas on charges of collaborating with the army. Of these, however, only 40–50% were in contact with Israeli forces.

Lynchings and official charges of collaboration continued to exist under the PA. According to Palestinian law, this crime carries the death penalty. On the other hand, the Palestinian secret service works closely with the Israelis and repeatedly arrests people on instructions.

The withdrawal of Israel from the Gaza Strip increased the need for informants; the lockdown is ideal for “persuading” people who are dependent on border crossings (e.g. for special medical treatment) to cooperate. Even if the technical possibilities for surveillance are enormous today, it is still informants who z. B. make the "targeted killings" so accurate. The Hamas government in the Gaza Strip sentenced collaborators to death several times, which were also executed without the necessary confirmation from the president. There were large numbers of public executions during Operation Protective Edge in the summer of 2014 after the Army said some successes had been possible based on the excellent information provided by collaborators. Even if there is a few collaborations out of opposition to Hamas, most of them work with Israel for financial reasons or because of blackmail.

Palestinian land buyers are a special form of collaboration. They buy Arab land on behalf of Jewish settler organizations from owners who would never sell directly.

In some cases, Israel generously granted asylum in Israel to exposed informants or advocated their emigration. In other cases their illegal residence in Israel is tolerated.


During the Israeli occupation of the south of the country between 1978 and 2000, the South Lebanese Army monitored the area for Israel . After the hasty withdrawal, Israel was forced to take in former SLA soldiers and their families temporarily or to naturalize around 2,000 and to support them financially.

Palestinians in the Gulf States

The displacement of the Palestinians from Kuwait in 1991 took place immediately after the Second Gulf War , when some 450,000 Palestinians were expelled from the country by Kuwait . The exodus was due to the leader of the PLO, Yasser Arafat , and his support for Saddam Hussein and his approval of the Iraqi annexation. The Palestinian Arabs were accused of collaborating with the Iraqi invaders and were expelled from Kuwait within a few days. Other Gulf states stopped their support.


  • Jeffrey W. Jones: "Every Family Has Its Freak": Perceptions of Collaboration in Occupied Soviet Russia, 1943-1948. In: Slavic Review. Volume 64, No. 4 (Winter, 2005), pp. 747-770.
  • Werner Röhr (ed.): Occupation and collaboration. ( Europe under the swastika. Supplementary volume 1), Hüthig, Berlin / Heidelberg 1994, ISBN 3-8226-2492-6 .
  • Contributions to the history of National Socialism , Volume 19 (Babette Quinkert, Christoph Dieckmann , Tatjana Tönsmeyer , eds.): Cooperation and crime. Forms of “collaboration” in Southeastern and Eastern Europe 1939–1945. Wallstein, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-89244-690-3 (Tatjana Tönsmeyer: Collaboration as an action-guiding motif? The Slovak elite and the Nazi regime. Tim Cole: Levels of “collaboration” - Hungary 1944. Mariana Hausleitner : On the way to “Ethnocracy” - Romania during the Second World War. Klaus-Peter Friedrich: Cooperation and complicity in Poland 1939–1945. Frank Golczewski : The collaboration in Ukraine. Tanja Penter : The local society in Donbass under German occupation 1941–1943. Katrin Reichelt: The Latvians' share in the expropriation of the Jews from their country between 1941 and 1943. )
  • Klaus Kellmann: Dimensions of complicity. The European collaboration with the Third Reich , Böhlau Verlag, Vienna / Cologne 2019, ISBN 978-3-205-20053-6 .

France (1940-1944)

Poland (1939-1945)

  • Itamar Levin, Rachel Neiman: Walls Around: The Plunder of Warsaw Jewry During World War II and Its Aftermath. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003 (English).
  • Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Entry via "Blue Police". Macmillan Publishing Company, New York NY, 1990. ISBN 0-02-864527-8 (English).
  • Tadeusz Piotrowski: Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide… McFarland & Company, 1997, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3 , pp. 108–110 (English).
  • Tadeusz Wroński: Kronika okupowanego Krakowa. Wydawnictwo Literackie, Krakau 1974, pp. 235-240 (Polish).

Web links

Wiktionary: Collaboration  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: collaborator  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Ulf Schleth, Seda Niğbolu: Power lies in consensus . Article in the TAZ of July 23, 2014; accessed on September 6, 2016.
  2. ^ Ron Ashkenas: There's a Difference Between Cooperation and Collaboration. In: HBR , April 20, 2015.
  3. Jewish persecution with system
  4.;art1715,4132406 The ugly side of history
  5. Processing of national history. The myth is crumbling.
  6. Vincent Artuso. “It was a great moment”.
  7. wird-mitreden-21577742 ARTUSO REPORT. Everyone will have a say
  8. We are not heroes
  9. reaction to Artuso report. “Nobody should be denounced”.
  10. List of 280 Jewish children presented to Nazi occupiers
  11. Why did Luxembourg collaborate?
  12. Jewish persecution with system
  13. From the taboo zone
  14. Historians examine Luxembourg complicity in Jewish deportations
  15. Wollen- unabhaengige-historikerkommission- 5127af2ce4b0e3da456a7a02 Nazi collaboration: Liberals demand independent historians commission
  16. Paul Dostert: Denis Scuto dashes forward too quickly
  17. Archived copy ( Memento of February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Where is the Luxembourg truth about World War II?
  18. Archived copy ( memento of February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) 40-45 - The fairy tale of the resistance: The sympathizers of the Nazis in Luxembourg
  19. Archived copy ( Memento of February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) There was hardly any denazification in Luxembourg
  20. Archived copy ( Memento from February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) No space for turning necks and historical untruths
  21. Archived copy ( Memento from February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) The story becomes a joke
  22. Archived copy ( Memento of February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Luxembourg collaborators: Even more names German chief Nazi is still today a Luxembourg medalist!
  23. Archived copy ( memento of February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Abduction of Jewish schoolchildren, which was also made possible by “Letzebuerger” school staff
  24. Archived copy ( Memento of February 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Grand ducal family cut off cowardly from Nazis
  25. - ( Memento from November 20, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) 480 names for the Gestapo
  26. where, for example, Marc Augier became an army instructor (and Eva Perón's ski instructor )
  27. Handbook of Swiss History , Volume 2
  28. Jürg Fink: Switzerland from the perspective of the Third Reich , dissertation University of Zurich, 1985
  29. there lit., also in German (Kum'a N'Dumbe, IKO Frankfurt, 1993)
  30. ^ Collaborator , Palestine Monitor, August 28, 2010.
  31. ^ Mutiny in the Israeli Stasi: exposing the occupation's worst filth , Ha-Aretz on September 14, 2014
  32. [1]
  33. ^ One Year Al-Aqsa Intifada: Fact Sheets And Figures - Collaborators. (No longer available online.) Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group, October 1, 2001, archived from the original June 6, 2007 ; Retrieved February 24, 2008 .
  34. ^ Palestinian collaborators executed , From occupied Palestine, October 24, 2003.
  35. ^ Palestinian collaborator: 'I am a traitor. I sold my people. But for what? ' , The Guardian on May 17, 2011
  36. Whoever helps, will be helped , Süddeutsche Zeitung on May 17, 2010
  37. Jonathan Cook: Israel's Dark Art of Ensnaring Palestinian Collaborators , The National, September 13, 2008.
  38. Hamas executes two 'Israel collaborators' in Gaza , Ha-Aretz, April 15, 2010.
  39. Gaza widow offers rare insight into Israel-Hamas espionage wars , Ha-Aretz on September 18, 2014
  40. Spotlight shines on Palestinian collaborators , Al-Jazeera on February 17, 2014
  41. Palestinian Spies Risk Lives for Israel , Die Welt, November 24, 2012
  42. Germany offers asylum to SLA , BBC on June 5, 2000
  43. Palestinians Kicked in the sand, Kuwait drives out the last Palestinians, Jordan suffers from the burden of refugees. Der Spiegel June 8, 1992