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The dictators Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler in Munich , 1940

Fascism was initially the name given to a political movement that, under the leadership of Benito Mussolini, was the dominant political power in Italy from 1922 to 1943/45 and established a dictatorial system of government , Italian fascism .

From the 1920s the term was all extremely nationalist , after the leader principle used organized anti-liberal and anti-Marxist movements, ideologies or regimes that since the First World War , the parliamentary democracies sought to replace. The generalization of the concept of fascism from a temporally and nationally limited name to the generic name of a certain type of rule is controversial, especially for the German Nazi state . The fascism theory deals with the description and explanation of fascism .

In a narrower sense, neo-fascism refers to the political movement in Italy after Mussolini's overthrow, supported by supporters of fascism ( Movimento Sociale Italiano , 1946–1995). In a broader sense, right-wing extremist movements and parties that exist in other countries are also referred to in this way insofar as they are linked to the program, symbolism and forms of action of fascism and National Socialism . The Swiss Foundation against Racism and Anti-Semitism summarized 2015: “Just as fascism has become a generic term in parlance, neo-fascism can also be used as a collective term for all modern currents with fascist and national socialist content .” In political disputes the term is also used as a swear word often applied to right-wing and right-wing extremist groups according to vague criteria.


The Roman fascis , symbol and namesake of the Italian fascists, is a bundle of rods with an inserted hatchet that protrudes from the center. The ax symbolized the death penalty.

The term fascism, derived from the Italian word for federal government - fascio - is described by historians as "to a certain extent devoid of content" , since it "says next to nothing about the essence of what is or should be fascist" . This is where this ism differs quite decisively from other isms , such as conservatism , liberalism or socialism . “A fascio is an association, a federation”, therefore fascists would literally be translated as “bundlers” and “fascism” would be bundlers.

The etymology of the word fascio is mostly derived from the Latin fasces . These bundles of rods were symbols of power at the time of the Roman Empire , which the lictors carried before the highest Roman officials, the consuls , praetors and dictators .

In the 19th century the word fascio referred to the self- image of the Italian national and labor movement as a revolutionary force. The bundle of rods in the national movement in the 19th century symbolized the unity of the nation, and in Italy, which had been unified since 1870 , fascio referred to independent and even anarchist workers' organizations.

The term Fascismo , which had become the banner of the revolutionary labor movement around 1900, was identified from 1919 with the “ Fasci di combattimento ”: those “fighting alliances” that Mussolini founded in March 1919.


A definition of "fascism" is difficult because neither the term itself says anything about its nature (see above ), nor did most of the European movements of the interwar period , which are generally referred to as fascist, even use the word - other than almost all communist parties and regimes that preferred to call themselves communist.

What fascism is or should be was primarily determined by its opponents, who developed theories of or about fascism. Since the 1920s, there has been an intense debate about fascism as a comprehensive generic term that is intended not only to explain the movement and dictatorship led by Mussolini, but also to identify similar organizations and regimes in other European countries. The empirical research has primarily aimed at the identification of structural core elements of fascism.

An overarching (generic) concept of fascism that encompasses the regimes that existed in Italy , the Nazi state and Japan until the end of World War II is controversial in historical research. Some historians want to limit the term to Italy. Others like Bernd Martin consider “fascism” as a generic term only useful for the “movement phase”:

“Fascism as a superordinate generic term is therefore only suitable for the movement phases of the three genuinely created, commonly known as fascisms in Germany, Italy and Japan. As a comprehensive term for the regime phases, however, the expression does not carry and cannot do justice to the completely different safeguarding of rule. It would therefore correspond better to historical reality as well as to the historical self-image of the regimes of that time in Berlin, Rome and Tokyo to give up the well-worn concept of fascism. "

- Bernd Martin

Fascism researchers such as Roger Griffin , who start from a generic concept of fascism, aim at the ideological core of fascism:

“Since the definition aims at the ideological core instead of the concrete historical manifestations ( leader cult , paramilitarism , politics of the spectacle, etc.), in other words: because it treats fascism exactly like other generic political ideologies ( liberalism , socialism , conservatism ) It makes sense to regard a political phenomenon as fascist even if it only exists in the embryonic state in the head of an ideologist and without expression in a political party, let alone a mass movement. Furthermore, it may make sense to identify some form of political energy as fascist, even if it abandons the intention to operate as a party political and / or paramilitary force and instead follows an approach that has to do with political quietism rather than revolutionary fanaticism seems to have. "

- Roger Griffin

The French psychoanalyst Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel and the German social scientist Samuel Salzborn argue against subsuming National Socialism under the concept of fascism, arguing that this would move its essence, namely racial politics and the Holocaust , out of focus. In this perspective, the Nazi regime appears to be “a completely banal dictatorship”, nothing different from that in Italy, in Franco's Spain or in Pinochet's Chile . This rationalizes the incomprehensible extermination of the Jews and is ultimately a strategy of refusing to remember and warding off guilt.


Coat of arms of Italy during the
fascist rule

Mussolini founded the Fasci d'azione rivoluzionaria for Italy's entry into the war in 1915 and formed the Fasci italiani di combattimento ("Italian combat unit") on March 23, 1919 from the Fasci dēi lavoratōri and Fasci siciliani , which made a bundle of rods its symbol. Initially it consisted mainly of supporters of syndicalism , a further development of trade union socialism, until Mussolini sharply demarcated it from socialism and communism in 1921 . The syndicalist trade unions in Italy successfully defended themselves against infiltration and excluded the groups affinity for fascism. His party, now known as Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF), was thus also eligible for election by the middle class and supported by parts of the Catholic Church, the civil servants and the Italian army.

With the help of paramilitaries , street terror , a strong personality cult , mass propaganda and the effectively staged “ March on Rome ” Mussolini conquered the office of Italian Prime Minister in 1922. He then gradually built up a one-party dictatorship under a “ Great Fascist Council ” led by him in Italy with an enabling law, a ban on other parties , abolition of civil rights and freedom of the press , expansion of the party militia and political murders .

In 1932 he presented the ideology of his state system in writing ( La dottrina del fascismo ) : Features were extreme nationalism, a great power position for Italy in the Mediterranean region aimed at through war, the emphasis on the “ will to power ” ( Friedrich Nietzsche ), the authoritarian leader principle ( Vilfredo Pareto ), “direct action” as a “creative design principle” ( Georges Sorel ) and a totalitarian amalgamation of the state and the sole ruling party monitored by a secret police. The social revolutionary component of the ascent period receded; decreed unified organizations of workers and employers should prevent class struggle . In order to gain not only power but also hegemony in the sense of Antonio Gramsci , the state also took over the sports movement. This was to gain body cult, glorification of strength , masculinity , demonstration of Italian superiority in body-related activities such as sports , soccer world championship and Olympic Games. The Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano was nationalized and top-class sport made internationally efficient with state amateurs .

The characteristics of fascism based on the Italian model are therefore voluntaristic and futuristic political concepts that take precedence over the will to power over economic constraints and strive for the future radical transformation of society as a national determination, an openly terrorist and dictatorial form of rule that poses as the will of the people, with a pronounced personality cult and a strong aestheticization of politics, which should overarch and hold together opposing interests and currents.

The fascist “New Order” in Italy differed significantly from the Nazi regime in terms of its statism , in that Mussolini's strong state incorporated the old elites.

For the conquest of living space (spazio vitale) the fascist system was built on military expansion. From 1923 to 1932 Italy waged the second Italian-Libyan War , from 1935 the Abyssinian War , from 1936 it took part in the Spanish Civil War , in 1939 the Italian occupation of Albania followed , in 1940 it entered the Western campaign and the Greco-Italian War , in 1941 participation in the Balkan campaign against Yugoslavia and the fighting against the Soviet Union and in North Africa. The Italian repression in the occupied territories of Africa with the liquidation of the Ethiopian intelligentsia and the clergy is comparable to the German terrorist occupation in Poland before the attack on the Soviet Union. To repression against the underground movement in the Balkans, the same strategy of scorched earth, ethnic cleansing, mass internment in Italian concentration camps , hostage-taking, hostage shooting and Italian colonization was adopted as previously practiced by the Italian military in Africa. It was clear to the fascists that the Balkans and Italian East Africa were dealing with culturally, if not biologically inferior races. Through this anti-Africanism and anti- Slavism the repression became charged.

Initially, fascism was not anti - Semitic . Mussolini repeatedly rejected the racism and anti-Semitism of the National Socialists in public statements , in which he saw a return of " Germanism ", which he had always fought in his youth. It was not until the mid-1930s that there was anti-Semitic agitation as a result of Mussolini's political coalition with the German Reich , which then led to the enactment of the Italian race laws . However, this policy was never aimed at the extermination of European Jews , but at their disenfranchisement, expropriation and expulsion .

Overview of the fascist movements in Europe

The following tables are based on the research results of comparative fascism research and deal exclusively with fascist movements , which are mainly classified as such by this.

Fascist parties that set up a regime or were able to participate in one (sorted by year of foundation)
country Party /
Flag /
founding Greeting Regime phase annotation
Italy Fascists
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF) 2.svg 1919 “Saluto al Duce! - A noi! ”
( Greetings to the Führer! - To us! )
“ Viva il Duce! ”
( Long live the Führer! )
1922-1945 Since 1922 part of a coalition government with conservatives and nationalists, from 1925 dictatorial ruling. After the conquest of Albania, the Albanian Fascist Party existed there from 1939 to 1943 as a local descendant of the Italian fascists.
Germany Nazis - NSDAP Flag of the NSDAP (1920–1945) .svg 1920 " Heil Hitler! "
" Sieg Heil! "
1933-1945 From 1926 to 1938 (from 1933 underground) there was an Austrian NSDAP in Austria as a local descendant of the German National Socialists.
Romania Iron Guard Flag of the Legionary Movement.png 1927 "Trăiască Garda şi Căpitanul!"
(Long live the guard and the captain!)
1940-1941 During the regime phase the Romanian state party in a coalition with the military under Ion Antonescu .
Croatia Ustasha Ustaše symbol.svg 1929 Za Dom - Spremni! "
(For home - ready!)
1941-1945 Long form of the greeting: "Za poglavnika i dom - Spremni!" (For the Führer and the home - ready!)
Spain Falange Bandera FE JONS.svg 1933 "Arriba España!"
(Forward Spain!)
1936-1977 From 1937 as part of the French state party FET y de las JONS .
Hungary Arrow Cross Flag of the Arrow Cross Party 1937 to 1942.svg 1935 "Kitartás!" ( Hold on
1944-1945 Ferenc Szálasi ;
Parties that are predominantly classified as "fascist" but have not been able to build their own regime
country Party / movement founding annotation
Belgium Rexists (Wallonia)
1930 Initially conservative right, fascist during the German occupation
Verdinaso (Flanders) 1931
Bulgaria SBNL 1933
Denmark Danish National Socialist Workers' Party 1930
France Faisceau 1925
Mouvement Franciste 1933
Parti populaire français 1936
Rassemblement national populaire 1941
Great Britain British Union of Fascists 1935
Ireland National Corporate Party 1935
Iceland Nationalist party 1933
Latvia Thunder cross 1932
Liechtenstein Volksdeutsche movement in Liechtenstein 1938
Lithuania Iron wolf 1927
Luxembourg Volksdeutsche movement 1940
Netherlands National Socialist Movement 1931
Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij 1931
Norway Nasjonal Samling 1933
Austria NSDAP (Hitler Movement) 1926
Poland Falanga 1935 fascist secession from the national radical camp
Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego 1937
Portugal Movimento Nacional-Sindicalista 1932
Sweden Nationalsocialistiska Arbetarepartiet 1933
Switzerland National front 1930
Soviet Union Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists 1929 Increasingly terrorist methods and orientation towards German National Socialism
Russian Fascist Party 1931
Belarusian National Socialist Party 1933
Czechoslovakia National Fascist Community 1926
Vlajka 1928
Sudeten German Party 1933 Initially oriented more towards the Austrian corporate state, then turned to German National Socialism

Non-European countries

Egypt (1933–1938)

The Young Egyptian Party was founded in October 1933 as a radical nationalist group with a religious orientation by the 22-year-old Ahmed Husayn and Fathi Radwan. The party's goal was to create a great empire through the incorporation of Sudan into Egypt, which was to assume the role of a "leading power both within the Arab and Islamic world". With the so-called green shirts, the party had a paramilitary organization. With the increase in political power in Germany, the Young Egyptian Party also oriented itself towards the National Socialist German Reich, the opponent of Great Britain , and also pursued the strategy of national capitalism. Under government pressure, the green shirts were banned in 1938.

Brazil (1932–1938)

The Brazilian integralism was a right-wing political movement in Brazil , which in the party founded in 1932 Ação Integra Lista Brasileira was formed (integralist action of Brazil). The Integralists gained political influence under the presidency of Getúlio Vargas , but were disbanded with the proclamation of the Estado Novo in 1937. An integralist coup attempt against the president in 1938 failed and led to the final fragmentation of the movement.

Chile (1932–1939)

The National Socialist Movement of Chile or Nacismo was a National Socialist party in Chile . Although the party always remained a small party in terms of membership numbers and election results , it was not insignificant, especially because of an attempted coup in 1938. The most important person was the "Jefe" Jorge González von Marées . In early 1939 the party was renamed Vanguardia Popular Socialista and distanced itself from fascism.

British Mandate Palestine (1930–1933)

The Revisionist maximalism , which is part of the Brit HaBirionim fraction of Revisionist Zionism was, was one of Abba Ahimeir , Uri Zvi Greenberg conceived and Joshua Yeivin ideology. She combined fascism with Zionism : her goal was to found a " Jewish state " based on the model of fascist Italy. In 1933 the British administration arrested several members, including Ahimeir, and charged them with the murder of Chaim Arlosoroff . Although acquitted, the group's reputation suffered under the charges, resulting in their isolation and eventual disbandment.

Japan (1926-1945)

The revolutionary impulse of numerous theorists (such as Kita Ikki or Takabatake Motoyuki), groupings and parties from the 1920s onwards was weaker than in Europe and directed more towards the domination of a bureaucratic, non-democratic, constitutional monarchy based on traditional values ​​than towards a completely new order . The starting in 1936 most groups after the Hitler Youth created Great Japan Youth Party ( 大日本青年党 , Dai-Nippon His-tō ) and the political party society of the Eastern route ( 東方会 , Tōhōkai ), were not fascist movements were but fascist Organizations closest to you. Japanese authoritarianism from 1940 onwards can be described as a complex mix of state bureaucrats, conservative business leaders and military Praetorians .

The initial period of the Shōwa period from 1926 to 1945, especially from the attack on China in 1937 , to be called fascism is problematic. Nevertheless, the term Tenno fascism is used. Western scholars grant the differences to the European fascisms wider space, modify the term to “military or imperial system fascism” or reject it - despite parallels in terms of authoritarianism , militarism , imperial claims and racial ideology - as unsuitable for Japan. George M. Wilson considers the concept of “Japanese fascism” to be a mistake, since no political movement in Japan wanted to usurp power, the formal constitutional authority remained intact, at least externally, and a certain degree of pluralism continued to exist. Gregory J. Kasza refers to the lack of essential elements of fascism, such as a unitary or mass party or a "leader", as well as the introduction of "typical fascist" elements, largely due to the war. The order of “movement - ideology - regime” of European fascism is to be found in Japan in exactly the opposite order. An attempt to establish a unity party based on consensus was the Taisei Yokusankai (1940-1945) of Prime Minister Konoe Fumimaro , which, however, was dominated by internal trench warfare and from which, for example, the Tōhōkai in 1941 resigned. Before the Shūgiin election in 1942 , Prime Minister Tōjō Hideki founded the Yokusan Seijikai ( 翼 賛 政治 会 ), banned all other parties and forcibly accepted all elected representatives.

South Africa (1939–1952)

The Ossewabrandwag movement was founded in 1939 by Calvinist Boers . The organization had a positive attitude towards the National Socialist government in Germany and vehemently opposed the participation of the South African Union in the Second World War on the side of the Allies . Members refused to participate in the war and harassed uniformed soldiers. On February 1, 1941, there was an outbreak of violence in Johannesburg , in which 140 soldiers were injured by OB members. The Stormjaers ("Sturmjäger") were the paramilitary wing of the organization and were modeled after the SA . During the war, they carried out explosive attacks on supply lines and railway lines. In 1941 the Ossewabrandwag had around 350,000 members. In December 1942 the Ossewabrandwag was banned by President Jan Smuts ; Thousands of members, including the future Prime Minister Vorster, were imprisoned in internment camps until the end of the war . The group finally disbanded in 1952.

Syria and Lebanon (1932–1943)

The Pan- Syrian Syrian Social Nationalist Party was founded in Beirut in 1932 by the Greek Orthodox journalist Antun Sa'ada . The political scientist Gilbert Achcar described it as “a (en) Levantine clone of the Nazi party in almost every respect: in its political ideology, including hostility to the Enlightenment, and its geographical-racial-nationalist theory with a pseudoscientific coating as well as in its organizational structure and in the Leader cult. Even the party flag in red and black with a four-pointed screw instead of the swastika is modeled on the Nazi flag. ”After the movement was not supported by Germany in a planned coup attempt in 1935, it gradually distanced itself from National Socialism and Sa'ada finally emigrated in 1938 South America.

In Lebanon, the Kata'ib was also founded by Pierre Gemayel in 1936 and was inspired by the Spanish Falange . The original uniforms included the brown shirts . The party took part in the Lebanese struggle for independence from France , which was achieved in 1943.

United States of America (1933–1939)

Originally founded in 1933 as Friends of New Germany by Heinz Spanknöbel in Chicago , the American-German Bund developed into the largest National Socialist organization in the USA . The Amerikadeutsche Bund committed itself to the idiosyncratic "constitution, the flag, and a truly free America directed by white non-Jews". He pursued several goals, including the fight against the Jewish goods boycott of Nazi Germany initiated by Samuel Untermyer , the formation of a primordial cell for a new US army in the fight against communism and the takeover of the parts of the Nazi economy that were intended for Restoration after the Great Depression considered useful. The federation was organized according to the leader principle under the "federal leader" as "historical personality". According to the Nazi idea that blood is more important than citizenship or place of birth , all German-Americans who were called “Germans in America ” were connected to the “ fatherland ”. Adapted were u. a. the Hitler salute , blood and honor belts , swastika flags. In 1939, Bund leader Fritz Kuhn was sentenced to several years imprisonment for embezzling funds from his organization and tax evasion. Several new Bund leaders followed him for a short time. The organization dissolved in the following period.

Derived terms

With the attached suffix -fascism, various derogatory terms such as Islamic fascism , left- wing fascism and eco-fascism were coined.

See also


Comparative research on fascism
Individual states

Web links

Wiktionary: Fascism  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Fascist  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Fascism  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikiquote: Fascism  - Quotes

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The Brockhaus in fifteen volumes. Fourth volume, ice cream - Fra. Leipzig / Mannheim 1997, p. 280 f.
  2. ^ Neofascism according to Meyers Lexikon online , quoted from belltower.news
  3. ^ National Socialism - Neo-Nazi / Neo- Fascist GRA Foundation against Racism and Anti-Semitism, 2015
  4. ^ Fritz Schotthöfer : Il fascio. The meaning and reality of Italian fascism. 1924; quoted from Wippermann: Fascism. A world story. 2009, p. 7.
  5. Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml, Hermann Weiß (eds.): Enzyklopädie des Nationalsozialismus , 3rd edition, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, p. 453.
  6. ^ Bauerkämper: Fascism in Europe 1918–1945. P. 13.
  7. ^ Bauerkämper: Fascism in Europe 1918–1945. P. 14.
  8. Hans-Georg Herrnleben: Totalitarian rule. Fascism - National Socialism - Stalinism , Ploetz, Freiburg 1980, p. 21.
  9. ^ Payne: History of Fascism. P. 11 f.
  10. ^ Wippermann: Fascism. A world history , p. 7.
  11. ^ Bauerkämper: Fascism in Europe 1918–1945. P. 27 f.
  12. Bernd Martin: On the suitability of an overarching fascism term . In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte , 29th year 1981, pp. 48–73 (PDF; 6.3 MB).
  13. Roger Griffin (2005): Völkischer Nationalismus as a pioneer and continuer of fascism: An Anglo-Saxon view of a not only German phenomenon. In: Heiko Kauffmann, Helmut Kellershohn, Jobst Paul (eds.): Völkische Bande. Decadence and Rebirth - Analyzes of Right Ideology. Münster: Restlessness.
  14. ^ Samuel Salzborn: Global anti-Semitism. A search for traces in the abyss of modernity. Beltz Juventa, Weinheim 2018, p. 175 f.
  15. ^ Franco Bertolucci: No man, no money for the war, in: Andreas Hohmann (ed.): Ehern, brave, forget. The unknown international. Pp. 157-159.
  16. The Great Brockhaus in twelve volumes. 18th edition, third volume, Wiesbaden 1978, p. 651 f.
  17. Arnd Krüger : Sport in Fascist Italy (1922-1933) , in: G. Spitzer, D. Schmidt (Ed.): Sport between independence and external determination. Festschrift for Prof. Dr. Hajo Bernett. P. Wegener, Bonn 1986, pp. 213-226; Felice Fabrizio: Sport e fascismo. La politica sportiva del regime, 1924–1936. Guaraldi, Rimini 1976.
  18. Manfred Hinz: The future of the catastrophe. Mythical and Rational Theory of History in Italian Futurism , pp. 1–18 and 89–111.
  19. Cf. Clemens Zimmermann: The picture of Mussolini. Documentary formations and the refraction of media effectiveness. In: Gerhard Paul : Visual History. A study book. P. 225 f.
  20. Wolfgang Schieder: The repression of the fascist perpetrators past in post-war Italy. In: The first fascist war of extermination . Ed .: Aram Mattioli, ISBN 978-3-89498-162-4 , p. 181 f.
  21. Aram Mattioli: A Forgotten Key Event of the World War II . In: The first fascist war of extermination . Ed .: Aram Mattioli, ISBN 978-3-89498-162-4 , p. 22.
  22. Rodogno, Davide: Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War . Cambridge. Cambridge University Press 2006, ISBN 978-0-521-84515-1 , pp. 333 ff.
  23. Wolfgang Schieder: The displacement of the fascist perpetrators past in post-war Italy . In: The first fascist war of extermination . Ed .: Aram Mattioli, ISBN 978-3-89498-162-4 , p. 183 f.
  24. ^ Hugo Valentin : Anti-Semite mirror. Anti-Semitism: history, criticism, sociology. Vienna 1937, p. 72; Ernst Nolte: Fascism in its epoch. Munich 1984, p. 288 f.
  25. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, p. 15.
  26. Elemer Mihalyi: Memoirs of a Survivor of the twentieth century. From Transylvania to the United States. iUniverse, San Jose / New York / Lincoln / Shanghai 2001, p. 66.
  27. ^ Roger Griffin: The Nature of Fascism. Pinter, 1991, pp. 132-133.
  28. ^ Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, pp. 307-308.
  29. ^ Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, p. 305.
  30. ^ A b Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, p. 306.
  31. ^ A b Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, p. 308.
  32. ^ A b Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, p. 302.
  33. ^ A b c Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, p. 309.
  34. ^ Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, p. 323.
  35. ^ Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (WI) 1995, p. 310.
  36. a b Gregory J. Kasza: Fascism from above? Japan's kakushin right in comparative perspective . In: Stein, Ugelvik, Larsen: Fascism Outside Europe. The European Impulse Against Domestic Conditions in the Diffusion of Global Fascism . Columbia University Press, 2002, pp. 185 ff.
  37. ^ Stanley Payne : History of Fascism. The rise and fall of a European movement. Propylaea, 2001, ISBN 3-549-07148-5 , p. 411.
  38. See for example Georg Blume: Pokémon does not count , taz of March 31, 2001, and Ruth Schneider: Tennofaschismus. Basic structures of Tenno fascism and its foreign policy guidelines. ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) japanlink.de , both accessed on October 7, 2009.
  39. George M. Wilson: A New Look at the Problem of Japanese Fascism . In: Comparative Studies in Souety and History , 1967/68, pp. 401–412; quoted from Payne 2001, p. 402.
  40. Mayumi Itoh: The Hatoyama Dynasty . Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, ISBN 978-1-4039-6331-4 , p. 68.