|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||147.50 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||168 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||20-001 to 20-900|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 81|
|License plate :||LU|
|Economy and Transport|
|Next international airport :||Lublin|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||2304 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0663011|
|Administration (as of 2010)|
|City President :||Krzysztof Żuk|
|Address:||pl. Łokietka 1
Lublin , ( yidd . לובלין Lublin) is the capital of the voivodeship of the same name in eastern Poland and is located around 160 kilometers southeast of the capital Warsaw . The largest Polish city east of the Vistula is the ninth largest city in the country with around 340,000 inhabitants (as of 2019) . Lublin is the seat of five universities.
Lublin was one of the most important centers in Polish history. In 1569 the Lublin Union was closed here. In 1809 and 1944/45 Lublin was briefly the capital of a new Polish state.
The municipality of Lublin covers an area of 147.5 km². Lublin consists of the following districts:
- Old town (Stare Miasto)
- Majdan Tatarsky
Archaeological finds show that people settled here 5000 years ago. The prehistory began in the 6th century with a settlement on the Czwartek hill, the town's history with the construction of a castle over 700 years ago.
Lublin was first mentioned in 1198. In 1205 Prince Roman of Volhynia besieged the castle unsuccessfully. In 1241 Lublin was destroyed by the Tatars . In 1244 it was conquered by Lithuanians with Prussians and Jatwingers . In the same year Prince Daniel Romanowitsch of Galicia conquered the place and fortified it.
Under the protection of the castle, the settlement developed into an important trading center. She was on 15 August 1317 by Władysław I the Elbow-high the Magdeburg rights conferred. The city complex grew with the influx of craftsmen and traders.
Since Lublin is on the Via Regia from Breslau to Kiev between Krakow and Vilnius , there was a great boom at the time of the Polish-Lithuanian Union . In 1474 Casimir IV Jagiełło founded the capital of the newly created Lublin Province here. The medieval castle and fortress structures were converted into a fortified royal residence in the style of the Italian Renaissance by Italian builders and artists. In today's old town numerous churches and monasteries as well as magnificent trading houses and aristocratic city palaces were built.
In the 16th century Lublin was one of the centers of the nobility-borne Reformation .
Lublin Union 1569
In 1569 the real union between Poland and Lithuania was completed in Lublin . This increased the regional importance of the city. Lublin was one of the most important centers in Poland at this time.
The relocation of the capital from Krakow to Warsaw in 1596 was a severe blow for the political importance and economic prosperity of Lublin , because the city was now off the main traffic and trade routes. Due to the chaos of war in the 17th century, economic and cultural decline followed.
In the course of the Counter Reformation in 1631 the Protestants were forcibly expelled from the city. A little later, many traders emigrated. In 1655 Cossacks sacked the city and the following year Swedish soldiers. After the Northern War , the city began to be rebuilt. Stanislaus II August Poniatowski allowed the Protestants to resettle in the city. The Holy Trinity Church was built in 1784 .
In 1792 the city was occupied by Russian troops on the orders of Catherine II . With the Third Partition of Poland , Lublin became part of Austria in 1795 . In 1807, after a devastating fire four years earlier, Lublin had just under 7,000 inhabitants and was thus at a historic low. In the Austrian campaign against the Duchy of Warsaw troops of the Duchy of Warsaw in May 1809 Lublin. In the Treaty of Schönbrunn, the Duchy became a duchy and, in 1815, Congress Poland , a state governed in personal union with the Russian Empire . The nobility left the city and moved to the country.
In 1837 Lublin became the provincial capital of Russia. After further economic and demographic depletion by the Napoleonic wars, a gradual increase in population had started again, which received stronger impulses from industrialization, which did not start here before the 1880s. However, this growth never reached the proportions of other industrial cities, so that Lublin only had around 83,000 inhabitants when the First World War broke out.
Second Polish Republic
Since 1918 the city has been part of an independent Polish state again . Shortly before independence was regained, the Catholic University was founded in Lublin on July 27, 1918 as the successor to the Higher Theological Academy in St. Petersburg , which was closed by the Bolsheviks .
Under German occupation
During the German occupation of Poland , the city was part of the " General Government ". The Polish government had decided in advance that in the event of war, Lublin would become the temporary seat of the president . The first air raid on the city took place on September 2, 1939. A little later, the city was occupied and parts of the Polish intelligentsia shot. A Gestapo prison was set up at the castle. The city became the headquarters for Aktion Reinhardt , whose goal was the murder of all Jews and Roma in the Generalgouvernement. The Jewish population of the city of Lublin was forced into a ghetto in which 26,000 people lived at times. A large part of the population was deported and murdered.
People's Republic of Poland
From July 23, 1944 to January 17, 1945 Lublin was the seat of a Polish government recognized only by the Soviet Union under Josef Stalin . This Polish Committee of National Liberation , under the direction of the Soviet government and especially the NKVD, created the prerequisites for a totalitarian post-war Poland . The castle prison continued to be used until 1954. After the Second World War, the historic old town was quickly rebuilt, and several satellite towns were built on the periphery.
In July 1980 a strike movement began in and around Lublin, which was stopped after two weeks through concessions from the communist government. A little later, the strikes in Gdansk and other parts of Poland led to the establishment of Solidarność .
Since the 1960s, several large housing estates have been built using prefabricated panels. An example of this is the northern Czechów district, which was developed from the 1970s and subsequently built on with residential blocks. Many of these buildings have been refurbished in recent years. Some of the facades of the prefabricated buildings were extensively redesigned.
Third Polish Republic
Regardless of the former large housing estate, currently mostly multi-family houses characterize the "new" cityscape. B. the southwestern district of Węglinek since 2009.
In 2017, the city received the European Prize for its outstanding efforts to promote European integration.
With 353,000 inhabitants, Lublin ranks 9th in the population statistics of Polish cities. About 100,000 students also live in the city. The unemployment rate is 8.9% (according to CIS ). At the end of the 20th century there was a significant increase in population.
- 1807 - 7,082
- 1814 - about 12,500
- 1829 - approx. 15,800
- 1870 - 21,346 (of which approx. 51% Jews)
- 1900 - 57,237
- 1914 - 83,126
- 1939 - 122,000
- 1946 - 99,400
- 1970 - 238,500
- 1980 - 304,400
- 1990 - 351,400
- 2000 - 355,800
- 2004 - 355,998
- 2006 - 354,967 (according to CIS)
- 2007 - 353,483 (according to CIS annual report)
- 2009 - 349,440 (according to CIS)
Lublin is the seat of the archdiocese of the same name , in whose area 97.6% of the population are Catholic (as of December 2011). Episcopal Church is the "Arch-Cathedral of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist ” .
Lublin as a Jewish center
Since the 14th century there was a Jewish merchant settlement at the foot of the castle. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Lublin was the most important center of Jewish culture in Poland. The first yeshiva was founded here in Poland in 1517, and the second Hebrew printing house in Eastern Central Europe in 1547 . Lublin became the most important meeting place of the Jewish council of the four countries for Poland. Students from many parts of Poland-Lithuania learned about the yeshivot of Solomon Luria and Meir Lublin .
When Yaakov Jizchak Horowitz , the seer of Lublin, moved to the city around 1792, Lublin became a center of Hasidism . For Eastern Jews, Lublin became the shtot of toyre, rabbones and khsides, and Polish Jerusalem . Most of the city's Jews lived under the castle in extremely poor conditions.
Since 1862 Jews could settle in the whole city. In 1865 59% of the population of Lublin were Jews, in 1900 47%. In 1930 the Chachmei Lublin Yeshiva (Hebrew ישיבת בתי לובלין) was consecrated under Yehuda Meir Shapiro and in the presence of 20,000 people . This college of Orthodox Judaism was the largest Talmud school in the world at that time.
In 1939 German troops occupied the city. The university had to close. A ghetto was established. The ghetto residents were deported to concentration camps. Over 14,000 Jewish residents of the city were killed. In 1942 the remains of the former Jewish town were blown up and demolished.
The Majdanek extermination camp was located in a southern part of Lublin during the Second World War . Only 230 Lublin Jews survived the German occupation in the city.
A city president is at the head of the administration . Since 2010 this has been Krzysztof Żuk from Platforma Obywatelska . In the 2018 election, his electoral committee was supported not only by the PO but also by Nowoczesna , the PSL , the SLD and local movements. The choice led to the following result:
- Krzysztof Żuk (Electoral Committee Krzysztof Żuk) 62.3% of the vote
- Sylwester Tułajew ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 31.5% of the vote
- Jakub Kulesza (independent) 3.0% of the vote
- Remaining 3.2% of the vote
So Żuk was re-elected in the first ballot.
The city council consists of 31 members and is directly elected. The 2018 city council election led to the following result:
- Electoral Committee Krzysztof Żuk 54.5% of the vote, 19 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 36.0% of the vote, 12 seats
- Kukiz'15 / KORWiN 4.4% of the vote, no seat
- Lublin City Movement Election Committee 3.1% of the vote, no seat
- Remaining 2.0% of the vote, no seat
Lublin maintains partnerships with the following cities (the year of establishment in brackets):
- Ramallah , Palestinian Territories , (2010)
- Jiading, Shanghai , (2012)
- Granada , Andalusia , (2012)
- Novi Sad , Serbia , (2013)
- Belgrade , Stari Grad, (2013)
- Vinnytsia , Ukraine , (2013)
- Xiangyang , China , (2015)
- Poprad , Slovakia , (2015)
- Nikšić , Montenegro , (2015)
- Kamyanets-Podilskyj , Ukraine , (2016)
- Hjørring , Denmark , (2017)
- Krywyj Rih , Ukraine , (2017)
- Dnipro , Ukraine , (2017)
- Vanadzor , Armenia , (2017)
- Kharkiv , Ukraine , (2017)
- Maribor , Slovenia , (2017)
- Vitebsk , Belarus , (2018)
- Vilnius , Lithuania , (2019)
There are four consulates in Lublin:
- British Consulate
- Consulate General of Ukraine
- Honorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Honorary Consulate of Brazil
Culture and sights
There are many historic buildings from the 15th to 17th centuries in the city center, especially in the old town. Two gates to the old town have been preserved from the historical city fortifications, the Kraków Gate and the Grodzka Gate . Between the Grodzka gate and the castle there was a Jewish quarter until 1942 , which was completely destroyed during the German occupation of Poland . The Lublin Castle was first built in the 14th century and later rebuilt many times. The historic Rybna Gate was reconstructed in 1952. The royal chapel at the castle is of great art historical importance , in which old Byzantine and Old Russian paintings from the Jagiellonian era are preserved. The St. John's Cathedral , built as a Jesuit church, is one of the first baroque buildings in Poland. The state memorial and the Majdanek Museum are located on the site of the former concentration and extermination camp south of the city on the road to Zamość .
There are currently nine theaters in Lublin: the Teatr im. Juliusza Osterwy , the Teatr Lalki i Aktora im. Hansa Christiana Andersena , the Teatr Muzyczny , the Ośrodek Praktyk Teatralnych Gardzienice , the Teatr Provisional and the Kompania Teatr . Under the umbrella of the Catholic University of Lublin (KUL), student stages were created: the Scena Plastyczna KUL theater , the Teatr Enigmatic , (previously Teatr ITP ) and the Prevue Stage Invitro - these are live and experimental theater.
The most famous cinemas include CINEMA CITY and BAJKA CINEMA .
The memorial and at the same time the national memorial of the former Majdanek concentration camp in the Kosminek district is known beyond the national borders. The Lublin Castle complex is a national cultural monument and houses several museums and collections. The Muzeum Lubelskie provides information about the castle and town history, with the exhibition locations : Muzeum Zakładu Historii Farmacji , the Muzeum Literackie im. Józefa Czechowicza , the Muzeum Martyrologii "Pod Zegarem" , the Dworek Wincentego Pola and the Diocesan Museum of the Catholic Church Province of Lublin. Within the old town there are numerous private exhibitions and collections that can be viewed individually or during city tours, including a special tour through the medieval corridors and cellar vaults under the market square . Lublin was the center of a thriving Jewish community for many centuries. The Yeshiva Chachmej - Thorah school commemorates this time . The ethnographic museum Muzeum Wsi Lubelskiej, located near the city, provides information about the development of the Lublin region . In a 27 hectare village complex, the house types of the region, traditional culture and customs as well as old craft techniques are presented. The 25 hectare Botanical Garden in Lublin is located on the banks of the Czechowka, and visitors can get to know 6500 different plants over the course of the year. The park is also a popular setting for open-air concerts and summer parties.
The Lublin art scene works closely with the universities. For example, students and graduates can gain their first experience in the art world at the art gallery of scena plastyczna . Other galleries are the Andzelm Gallery, the PO SCHODACH Gallery , the PRZY BRAMIE GALLERY and the Galeria Biała in the cultural center.
Music and opera
The Henryk Wieniawski Philharmonie is famous as a house for classical music . The opera house is located in the city center.
Numerous associations, choirs, orchestras and project groups contribute to the cultural offerings of the city of Lublin. Professional support and sponsorship lies with the Lublin Cultur Center or (for student projects) the Akademickie Centrum Kultury "Chatka Żaka" .
Centrum Spotkania Culture
Since then, concerts, theater performances and various cultural events have taken place in the meeting center of cultures (pol. Centrum Spotkania Kultur), which opened in 2015.
Gray Office Park
The 104-meter-high transmission tower in ul. Raabego is striking because of its unusual design, as it consists of a free-standing concrete tower that is in an open box-shaped construction. In general, versatile residential and office towers characterize the cityscape of the post-war period. The Gray Office Park office complex in the LSM district exemplifies a glass-emphasized office architecture. Another 19-storey, 58.5-high residential tower was designed and built in the vicinity.
Economy and Infrastructure
The economic strength of the major city in Eastern Poland forms the basis for economic cooperation with the neighboring Eastern European states of Belarus and Ukraine . Currently (2010) the city owns 38,000 businesses and companies, including 645 companies with foreign participation. The city's economic structure offers 111,600 jobs - of which around 23,100 are in industry and construction, 86,500 in the service sector (with education and research) and 1,800 in agriculture and forestry. Over 715,000 people live in the Lublin metropolitan area, including around 100,000 students. From a demographic point of view, Lublin is a city of youth. The Zemborzyce reservoir was created to supply the city with drinking water .
Lublin has been an important transport hub since the Middle Ages. Guide through the city:
- Droga krajowa 12 : Łęknica - Leszno - Kalisz - Piotrków Trybunalski - Radom - Lublin - Dorohusk - Kiev
- Droga krajowa 17 : Warsaw - Lublin - Lemberg
- Droga krajowa 19 : Białystok - Lublin - Rzeszów
The city has developed into a rail hub since the first railway line opened in 1877. The station, which was rebuilt in the 1920s, is one of the most important in the country. The line via Nałęczów to Dęblin is currently being modernized. During this time, IC buses to Radom and regional buses take over rail replacement services. (As of November 2018)
The Lublin Airport (Port Lotniczy Lublin - IATA airport code LUZ) should be up to the European Football Championship 2012 to go into operation. The total cost of this investment was PLN 200 million (approx. EUR 56 million). A 2,200 m long runway was part of the expansion. On December 17, 2012 at 12:20 UTC, a Boeing 737 of Ryanair (EI-DLK) coming from London-Stansted with flight number FR9524 landed at Lublin Airport as the first scheduled aircraft . The return flight to London-Stansted with flight number FR9525 took place at 13:05 UTC. There is also the Lublin-Radawiec airfield in the west of the city.
After the war, the car factory Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych (FSC) was founded in Lublin , in which, among other things, the Transporter Żuk (1958–1998) and the Daewoo Nexia (1995–1998) were manufactured.
- The Międzynarodowe Targi Lubelskie (Lublin International Fair) is the organizer of the largest trade fairs and exhibition events in eastern Poland. Representatives from the Polish construction, automotive, tourism, agriculture, energy, health and education sectors take part in the annual trade fairs.
- Lubliner Großhandelsmarkt AG - the wholesale market is the company with the highest turnover for agricultural products and food in south-east Poland.
Economic associations and institutions
Lublin is the headquarters or major branch of the following institutions:
- Polish Employers' Association - Lublin branch
- Business Center Club
- Foundation for the Development of the Lublin Region
- Chamber of Crafts and Entrepreneurship in Lublin
- Lublin Foundation for Development
- Polish Chamber of Crafts - Lublin branch
- Lublin Sejmik for Economy
- Lublin Employers Forum
- Polish Foundation of Centers for Economic Development Promotion "OIC Poland"
- Lublin Region Entrepreneurship Council
- Regional Chamber of Commerce Lublin
Education and research became an important industry, with over 100,000 students living in the city. Five state universities and twelve private universities and technical colleges emerged, the oldest university being the Catholic University (KUL), founded in 1918.
Lublin is home to five universities and more than ten private universities
- Catholic University of Lublin ( Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, KUL ) - is the oldest university in the city, it was founded in 1918.
- Maria Curie Skłodowska University ( Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, UMCS )
- Medical University of Lublin ( Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie ) and
- Natural History University of Lublin ( Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Lublinie )
- Technical University of Lublin ( Politechnika Lubelska )
The College of Polish and Ukrainian Universities is also located in Lublin (www.ekpu.lublin.pl).
- University of Economics and Innovation (www.wsei.lublin.pl)
- College of Entrepreneurship and Administration (www.wspa.pl)
- University of Social Sciences (www.wsns.lublin.pl)
- University of Social and Natural Sciences (www.wssp.edu.pl)
- King Władysław Jagiełło University in Lublin (www.lsw.edu.pl)
- Business School Lublin (www.lbs.pl)
- Warsaw University of Education, branch in Lublin (www.wsptwp.eu/n/lublin)
- Inter-university Melchior Wańkowicz Institute for Journalism and Social Sciences in Lublin (www.lublin.euczelnia.com)
Institutes and research centers
With the support of the EU , they were created at the research location in Lublin
- Center for Biotechnology at Maria Curie Skłodowska University
- Center for Electronics, Optoelectronics and Teleinformatics (Technical University Lublin)
- Center for Environmental Protection (Technical University Lublin)
- Center for Nanotechnology (Maria Curie Skłodowska University)
The following are still under construction:
- Center for Medicines and Vaccines
- Center for Food Technology
- Center for technology transfer and project management
sons and daughters of the town
- Jan z Lublina (around 1490 - around 1550), composer and organist
- Joel Serkes (1561-1640), Jewish scholar and rabbi
- Stanisław Kostka Potocki (1755–1821), politician
- Karol Lipiński (1790–1861), violinist, composer and opera conductor
- Wincenty Pol (1807–1872), writer, geographer and ethnographer
- Władysław Taczanowski (1819–1890), zoologist
- Ludwik Karol Teichmann (1823–1895), anatomist
- Henryk Wieniawski (1835–1880), composer and violinist
- Józef Wieniawski (1837–1912), composer and pianist
- Johannes Hermann Zukertort (1842–1888), chess master
- Sergei Lebedew (1874–1934), Russian chemist
- Bolesław Bierut (1892–1956), politician
- Larissa Reissner (1895–1926), writer and revolutionary
- Zygmunt Puławski (1901–1931), aircraft designer and pilot
- Leo Zuckermann (1908–1985), German communist
- Julia Hartwig (1921–2017), poet, essayist, translator and children's book author
- Wanda Półtawska (* 1921), concentration camp survivor and author
- Joseph Mélèze-Modrzejewski (1930–2017), legal historian, papyrologist and university professor
- Zvi Lothane (* 1934), psychiatrist and psychoanalyst of the Jewish faith in New York City
- Andrzej Czuma (* 1938), Polish politician
- Piotr Szczepanik (* 1942), popular musician and actor
- Waldemar Tura (* 1942), chess composer
- Salomon Korn (* 1943), chairman of the Jewish community in Frankfurt am Main
- Janusz Lewandowski (* 1951), politician
- Józef Niewiadomski (* 1951), theologian
- Zofia Popiołek (* 1952), member of the Sejm
- Władysław Żmuda (* 1954), football player and coach
- Jerzy Kornowicz (* 1959), composer, chairman of the Polish Association of Composers
- Elżbieta Kruk (* 1959), politician
- Marcin Wierzbicki (* 1969), composer and music teacher
- Piotr Chmielewski (* 1970), racing cyclist
- Jacek Bąk (* 1973), football player
- Adam Bab (* 1974), Roman Catholic clergyman and auxiliary bishop in Lublin
- Krzysztof Hetman (* 1974), politician
- Agnieszka Polska (* 1985), artist
- Paulina Barzycka (* 1986), swimmer
- Michał Kabaciński (* 1988), politician
- Michał Szyba (* 1988), handball player
- Patryk Szysz (* 1998), football player
- Jörg Gebhard: Lublin. A Polish city in the backyard of modernity (1815–1914) , Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2006, ISBN 978-3-412-07606-1 (dissertation University of Konstanz 2005, 394 pages).
- Andrzej Rozwałka: Lubelskie wzgórze staromiejskie w procesie formowania średniowiecznego miasta. (The Lublin Old Town Hill in the Process of Formation of the Medieval City) . Wydawnictwo Uniwersitetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin 1997, ISBN 83-227-1017-8 .
- Andrzej Rozwałka, Rafał Niedźwiadek, Marek Stasiak: Lublin wczesnośredniowieczny. Studium rozwoju przestrzennego (= Origines Polonorum , Volume 1). Fundacja na rzecz Nauki Polskie, Wydawnictwo Trio, Warszawa 2006, ISBN 978-83-7436-054-8 .
- Website of the city of Lublin
- Tourist website of the City of Lublin ( Memento of November 25, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Lublin European Capital of Culture 2016 (Polish)
- Friends of Münster-Lublin eV
- German-language publications about Lublin at LitDok East Central Europe / Herder Institute (Marburg)
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Website of the city, Prezydent Miasta ( memento of March 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 12, 2015
-  Poland only regained its independence in November 1918; to the succession
- Lublin City Council: Resolution Uchwała nr 925 / XXXVII / 2009 , December 17, 2009
- Data for the 19th century based on archival research by Jörg Gebhard, in: derselbe, Lublin. A Polish City in the Backyard of Modernism (1815–1914), Böhlau 2006, p. 362
- Yiddish : "City of the Torah, Rabbinism and Piety", s. Jörg Gebhard, Lublin. A Polish City in the Backyard of Modernism (1815–1914), Böhlau 2006, p. 54
- Magocsi, PR (2002): Historical Atlas of Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press. P. 109
- Result on the website of the Election Commission, accessed on July 22, 2020.
- Result on the website of the Election Commission, accessed on July 22, 2020.
- Lublin - business-friendly environment (image brochure of the city marketing department Lublin). (PDF; 3.9 MB) (No longer available online.) In: Lublin.eu online magazine of the city administration. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010 ; Retrieved August 25, 2010 .
- Lublin - City of Inspiration. ( Memento of May 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: Lublin.eu. Online magazine of the city administration. August 25, 2010 (PDF; 3.2 MB; city marketing image brochure).
- Przegląd obiektów z emisjami ( Memento of November 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Seen at http://www.flightradar24.com/RYR9524