Golden Horde

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Golden Horde ( Mongolian ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ , Алтан Орд Altan Ord ; Kazakh Алтын Орда Altin Orda, Tatar Алтын Урда Altın Urda , Russian Золотая Орда Zolotaya Orda is the name of even Kipchak Khanate) medieval Mongol Khanate , stretching from Eastern Europe to extended to Western Siberia .

After the Mongol invasion from 1237 to 1240, the steppe empire emerged as the dominant power, after the division of the Mongolian empire from 1260 it also became formally independent and belonged to the late medieval great powers of Eastern Europe. It was tightly organized until around 1360, but then fell into internal disputes over the legacy of the extinct lines of the founders Batu and Berke . From the middle of the 15th century, several sub-kingdoms split off: Khanate Kazan , Khanate Astrakhan and Khanate Crimea .

The Empire of the Golden Horde in 1389

Origin of names and alternative names

The order in 1236 by Mongolian nomadic horsemen Khanate founded was the Mongol prince Batu (r. 1236-1255), grandson of Genghis Khan , as Ulus Jochi called ( "people Dschötschis"). According to ancient traditions, this khanate consisted of a right and a left wing. These "wings" were formed from two hordes: the right one consisted of the White Horde , the left one of the Blue Horde . The color names are fluent and not always distinguishable from each other.

Because of their wealth, this now united horde was called by the Russian-speaking population Золотая Орда / Solotaja Orda , "Golden Horde". It is also believed that this name is derived from the tent color of the dynasty founder. According to old records, this is said to have lived in a gold-colored yurt ( Mongolian Алтан Ордон / Altan Ordon "Golden Palace"). The Mongol rulers and the Volga-Ural Tatars under them eventually adopted this designation themselves. Before that they had also used the term "Khanate Kipchak" to denote their territory in relation to their Turkic-speaking subjects, the Kipchaks .

After the Golden Horde split up, the rest of the empire was also referred to as the Great Horde from the middle of the 15th century .

State building, partial rule

Some khans of the Golden Horde did not show undue interest in government institutions. It is said of Uzbek Khan (r. 1312–1341 / 42), for example, that he only looked after the affairs of his empire in general, was satisfied with the money he received and did not ask any further questions about how it was received and then spent. As in other parts of the Mongol Empire, the army and government apparatus were divided into functional areas; however, the highest-ranking viziers and emirs did not have the same right of appointment as in neighboring Ilchanat . The women of the khans were also more influential than there.

Because of the particular position of the Prince Nogai Khan († 1299) tray, the so-called formed in the southern regions of the Golden Nogaier tray- out, at least temporarily a degree of autonomy possessed. The khans of the Crimea and some other princes, who can be traced back to Toqa Timur , a brother of Batu, were probably not comparable, but also politically privileged .

Centers of power

The Mongols ( sometimes referred to as " Tatars " in Rus ) settled mainly on the Volga and Kama . After their conquests, they placed themselves at the top of the elite of the conquered culture - including those conquests that became the Golden Horde after the death of Genghis Khan . However, the bulk of the population of the Golden Horde was made up of members of Turkish tribes. In many cases, the cities of the Golden Horde emerged from tent cities with a permanent settlement as their core. Since the khans protected the landowners and tenants from Berke (r. 1257–1267), the basis of an urban culture was given, even if the majority of the population, especially Mongolian, lived as nomads for a long time . The khans themselves also preferred to live in tents rather than in palaces during the summer.

From the 13th to the 16th century, the centers of the state were the cities of Sarai in Astrakhan (until approx. 1342), New Sarai (also called Berke-Sarai), Bolgar , Ukek , Kazan and Azov . They were often built by displaced craftsmen and financed by Russian taxes or tributes from vassal states as well as trade. The knowledge about this was partly borrowed from Egypt (through immigrants), from the former Volga Bulgaria and Turkestan (water supply). New Sarai had half a million inhabitants and was destroyed by Timur Lenk (Tamerlan) in 1395 .

Successor to the Mongol Empire:
  • Khanate of the Golden Horde
  • Chagatai Khanate
  • Ilchanate
  • Yuan Dynasty Empire
  • history

    The khanate emerged around 1236 as the "Ulus Dschötschi" of Dschötschi Khan . In the Mongolian Empire , the Khanate formally existed as part of it until around 1368. However, the princes acted extremely autonomously in this , as the sovereignty of the Great Khan was only loosely according to old nomad traditions.

    Dominion over the Russian principalities

    The defeated Mikhail Yaroslavich stands in front of Uzbek Khan ( historicizing illustration)
    A darughachi (tax collector) of the Horde in a Russian city, 13th century (historicizing illustration)

    The khans of the Golden Horde ruled Russia from 1238 to 1480 . The institutionalized dependence on the Mongols established itself after the end of the Kievan Rus with the siege of Kiev (1240) under the Grand Duke Yaroslav of Vladimir , who in 1243 publicly praised Batu Khan as the lord of all Russian princes. Even Daniel Romanovich of Galicia , King of Galicia , and Alexander Nevsky had the Khan each have their submission testify and confirm solicit their title. The Russian princes not only had to make regular pilgrimages to Sarai for almost 250 years in order to be allowed to remain in their respective offices; they also had to pay tribute to Mongol governors ( Darughachi in Mongolian ) and to report them, to give an account and to provide troops for wars. Occasionally, Russian princes dared to revolt against Mongol rule. Such in the area of ​​today's Poland was z. B. according to the chronicler Martin Cromer in 1257 in a three-month campaign bloodily suppressed and led, among other things. to burn down Sandomierz twice and destroy Krakow . Until the fall of Mongol rule under Ivan III. († 1505), however, the Russian princes only managed to do this for a short time and, above all, locally. The khans promoted the division of Russia into insignificant principalities and therefore repeatedly undertook military campaigns in the country (especially 1259, 1281, 1293, 1317, 1327, 1382, 1408 - see Mongol invasion of the Rus ).

    Campaigns and the military

    The first conflicts between European ( Slavic ) peoples and the Mongols under Genghis Khan occurred in the 1220s. In the Battle of the Kalka (1223) the Russians were defeated by the Mongols. About 20 years later the Mongols, this time under Batu Khan , a grandson of Genghis Khan, besieged Krakow and Wroclaw in 1241 and advanced into other parts of Silesia . They remained undefeated there at the Battle of Liegnitz and the Battle of Muhi (Hungary). In 1242 they advanced to Wiener Neustadt (Austria) and Dubrovnik (Croatia). In European historiography, this part of the Mongolian conquests is referred to as the Mongol storm.

    The military success of the Mongols of that caused them especially being ahead in the 13th century, the reputation of invincibility, was the Middle Ages superior, lightly armored and highly mobile cavalry (especially in the European army form cavalry justified). The classic European Feudalheer was divided into two or more parts - a heavily armored and with long lances armed horsemen unit from noble or wealthy landowners was made, and not armored and equipped with simple weapons infantry ( infantry ). The army of the Golden Horde was the army of a steppe people - mostly fully mounted and armed with light weapons such as bows and arrows , spears or sabers . It was also tactically trained and (unlike the knightly lone warriors, who after an initial onslaught usually split up into groups) was able to maintain its order of battle (see Mongolian warfare ). Even so, by the second half of the 14th century, both Lithuanians and Russians were finally able to raise troops and develop tactics that could rival the cavalry of the Golden Horde.

    Foreign policy

    The Golden Horde was of the four khanates into which the Mongolian empire was divided after the death of Genghis Khan , that part of the empire that was least loyal to the respective Mongolian Great Khan . Even the Great Khan Kublai Khan (from 1260) was not fully recognized by the respective Khan of the Golden Horde. The campaigns of the Golden Horde against Poland in 1259 and 1285/86, against Hungary in 1262, against Lithuania in 1259 and 1275, and in Wallachia and against Bulgaria in 1264, 1277/80 and 1285 were for the most part waged without the support of the other three khanates of the Mongolian Empire.

    The outsider role of the Golden Horde within the Mongolian Empire was reinforced by the centuries-long conflicts with the Ilkhan and Timurids - the khanate that had established itself south of the Golden Horde and remained loyal to the respective Great Khan - at least until 1405. There were military conflicts in particular over the Caucasus , which the Golden Horde was never able to regain permanently under their control after 1256. In these conflicts the Golden Horde even allied itself with the Mamluks of Egypt, some of whom had previously served as Turkish mercenaries of the Golden Horde. Ultimately defeated the Golden Horde in 1395, this time under Tokhtamysh , the Emir Timur and was so badly destabilized in this war, now that it and later on to several spin-offs more than 100 years for the resolution came.

    Despite the inadequate political unity, the solidarity within the Mongol Empire was still clearly recognizable. It manifested itself among other things in the law codified in the Jassa , the postal and communication system (Örtöö and Païza), and the common art and cultural assets such as writing and language in particular .


    A minority of the Mongols and Tatars, along with Berke Khan and Nogai Khan, had adopted Islam as early as the 13th century . In the 14th century, under Uzbek Khan (r. 1312–1342), the Golden Horde was comprehensively Islamized , which - combined with a state reorganization - led to a heyday. The upper class converted to Islam, as it were, on orders, but the population tolerated shamanistic and also many Christian Turks and Mongols ( Assyrian Church , Orthodox Church ) for a long time . Similarly, under Uzbek Khan, Islamic law prevailed, and in the 14th century only a few important provisions of the Jassa were adhered to . In contrast to the Mongolian Ilkhan in Persia or later Timur, the khans of the Golden Horde formally recognized the shadow caliphate of the Abbasids in Cairo established by the Mameluks .

    Plague and confrontations with Lithuania and Moscow

    Under Dschani Beg (until 1357) the Golden Horde was afflicted by the " Black Death ": in 1338 or 1339 he first appeared in the Christian community of the Assyrian Church on Lake Issyk- Kul in what is now Kyrgyzstan . In 1345 the first people fell ill in Sarai and the Crimea ; 1346 the first inhabitants of Astrakhan . In the following years there were around 85,000 fatalities in the Crimea alone. When the Genoese- held port city of Kaffa was captured by the Golden Horde, the besiegers reportedly tied epidemic dead onto their catapults and hurled them into the city. The residents of Kaffa are said to have immediately thrown these bodies into the sea. The invented catapult story with its clear assignment of the culprits - heretics and barbarians who resorted to a kind of medieval biological warfare - comes from the pen of Gabriele de Mussis from Piacenza, who wrote about the plague in Italy in 1348.

    After Dschani Beg , the decline of the Golden Horde began through internal strife: some aspirants to the throne only lasted a year or two, powerful emirs like Mamai in the Crimea rose to become the de facto rulers. Large parts of the territory around the Dnepr were lost to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , after the Battle of the Blue Water in 1362 the Lithuanian Grand Duke Algirdas was able to move into Kiev , which was an important symbolic act. In addition, the Golden Horde faced the growing Russian principalities led by Moscow. Mamais's attempt to weaken Russia by means of a new, large raid led to the complete annihilation of his army by united Russian forces under Dmitri Donskoi in the battle of the Kulikowo Pole in 1380 . Although the Mongols took revenge under Khan Toktamish in 1382 with a bloody, this time successful, campaign on the Russians and, among other things, caused a great bloodbath in Moscow , the Russian victory of 1380 - albeit not yet final - was the nimbus of the invincible Mongols broken and the foundation stone laid for a new self-confidence of the Russians.

    Timur's ideas

    During the reign of Khan Toktamish (1380 to 1395), a descendant of Genghis Khan , the Golden Horde experienced another peak of political power in Eastern Europe. In particular, Toktamish restored Mongol supremacy over Russia after only two years. This, however, he succeeded in the first place with the support of auxiliary troops from the Middle East, where another Mongol dynasty, namely from the Chagatai Khanate derived Timur Lenk, prevailed. These auxiliary troops consisted to a large extent of warriors of Turkish descent, so that for the first time the army of the Golden Horde did not consist predominantly of Mongols. This was also the beginning of a gradual Islamization of the Golden Horde.

    After only ten years Toktamish came into conflict with his former sponsor Timur and was defeated by him on April 14, 1391 near Samara on the Volga . But since Timur Lenk did not use his victory to conquer the territory of the Golden Horde, Toktamisch was able to quickly regain control of the Horde.

    Timur Lenk then took to the field a second time against Toktamisch. This time, after his hard-won victory on the Terek (April 14, 1395), he destroyed numerous cities of the Golden Horde, including Sarai , Astrakhan and Bolgar , and devastated the Crimea .

    Toktamisch fled to Lithuania , where he entered into an alliance with Grand Duke Witold (r. 1392–1430).

    New heyday

    Western part of the Golden Horde in the late 14th century

    In the meantime, the Emir Edigü († 1419) appointed by Timur Lenk took over power in the Golden Horde. Edigü initially acted for and in the name of the Genghiskhanid Timur Qutlugh, a grandson of Urus Khan († 1376), after his brother Shadi Beg's death in 1401 from the Namagan patrimony († 1407), after his brother's death Bolod (Pulad), after his death in 1410 Temür Qutlugh's son Temür († 1412) and finally Chekre. In fact, however, Edigü made a large part of the important foreign policy decisions every time. Coins of the Golden Horde from that time often adorn Edigu's portrait alongside that of the respective Khan.

    The Golden Horde experienced its last heyday under Edigü's reign. Edigü was able to successfully defend himself against attempts by Witold and Toktamisch; Among other things, he was victorious in the Battle of the Worskla in 1399 . Toktamisch later tried to regain power over the Golden Horde in the east of the empire, but was defeated by Shadi Beg near Tyumen in the winter of 1406/1407. After a temporary alliance with the Golden Horde against the Teutonic Order, Witold tried again later to attack the Golden Horde; Under the pretext of wanting to help a son of Toktamisch to enforce his claim to rule over the Golden Horde, he attacked the Golden Horde in 1414/15. Edigü was also able to repel this attack. A last son of Toktamisch, Jeremferden, succeeded in 1417 with Witold's help against Edigü, but Edigü negotiated a peace treaty in 1419 that preserved the independence of the Golden Horde.

    Edigü was also able to renew the supremacy over Russia in 1408: He accepted the homage of the Russian princes of Tver and Ryazan . Only Prince Vasily I of Moscow resisted for the time being. In another campaign in Russia, Edigü conquered Pereyaslavl and Nizhny Novgorod and stood before Moscow on December 5, 1408 . He only withdrew from there after paying a ransom of 3,000 rubles.

    Further punitive expeditions against Russian principalities followed in 1410 on Ryazan and Vladimir and in the summer of 1416 against Kiev. Under Edigü, the Mongols took part successfully on the side of the Lithuanians in the Battle of Tannenberg (1410) against the Teutonic Order.

    Under Chekre's successor Ulug Mehmed (r. 1419–1438 / 45), the Golden Horde gradually began to decline again.

    Separation and dissolution of the state

    The meeting on the Ugra River in 1480

    In 1438 the Kazan Khanate split off from the Golden Horde , in 1441 the Crimean Khanate and in 1485 the Astrakhan Khanate . The rest of the Golden Horde were now also called the Great Horde . Coins in the semi-independent areas on which the respective Khan of the Golden Horde is depicted, however, suggest that this independence was only conditional. The Golden Horde also remained dangerous to their neighbors; For example, in 1445 Grand Duke Vasily II of Moscow was captured .

    It was not until 1480 that the Golden Horde under Akhmat Khan (r. 1465–1481) lost supremacy over Russia: The Russian and Mongolian armies stood facing each other on the Ugra for several weeks before Akhmat Khan finally withdrew almost without a fight. He was eliminated shortly afterwards by rivals who split off as the Sibir Khanate .

    In December 1501, Ivan III. one last time by a Mongolian Khan - Khan Shaykh Ahmad (r. 1481–1502) - formally enfeoffed and paid tribute to this. In 1502 Khan Shaykh Ahmad was defeated by the Khan of the Crimean Tatars Meñli I. Giray (r. 1467–1514) and executed a little later in Lithuania. The date of his death is commonly used as the date for the end of the Golden Horde and he is believed to be the last Khan of the Golden Horde.

    The descendants of the khans of the Golden Horde remained important personalities in the successor states. In most of the Russian principalities, too, for example at the court of the Muscovites, they were ranked above all boyars and knees . In 1574, Sajin Bulat , the great-grandson of Khan Shaykh Ahmad, rose to be Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army and from 1575 to 1576 Grand Duke of Russia.

    Reich territory and population

    Reich territory

    Approximate location of Transoxania

    The eastern border of the Golden Horde, which was stable until the late 15th century, was formed by Transoxania , more precisely the Oxus and Jaxartes rivers in present-day Uzbekistan ; Here the Golden Horde bordered the Chagatai Khanate .

    In the Caucasus, the Georgian and Armenian princes under Batu Khan (until 1255) still belonged to the Golden Horde; Under his successor Berke Khan (until 1267), however, Hülegü , another grandson of Genghis Khan , expanded the areas in the Middle East that had belonged to the Mongol Empire since 1219; Hülegüs conquests in this region, among others, the subject small Armenian king Hethum I supported, laid the foundation for intra-Mongolian conflicts over the mountainous region between the Caspian and Black Seas , which should last 200 years more.

    Wallachia around 1390

    The south-western border of the Golden Horde was formed by Wallachia and Bulgaria , the latter being dominated by the Golden Horde until the middle of the 14th century, but afterwards it became independent; This independence is probably due to Nogai Khan , who practically ruled large parts of the Golden Horde from around 1280 and thus weakened the influence of the empire in certain areas. In 1343, Genoese sources name the Dniester as a border river.

    In the west, the border of the Golden Horde ran from Hungary via Galicia , where there were several revolts against the Mongols, to Novgorod . Several military incursions were made to Hungary and Poland long after 1242. There are numerous award certificates from the khans to various Lithuanian grand dukes, in which the latter are entrusted with various countries by the former. Most of these documents are not preserved in their original form, but are only used in later documents, e.g. B. 1507, mentioned and confirmed (so-called Transsumpte ). Therefore, the actual border with Lithuania cannot be determined with certainty.

    Several border regions of the Golden Horde, especially the Russian principalities, were ruled only indirectly; the Mongols themselves settled according to historical records and archaeological finds (especially cemeteries of nobles) in the north to Yaroslavl , Rostov and Ryazan , in the west to Podolia , Bryansk and Kursk and in the east to the borders of geographical Europe . Its core area was the territories of today's Ukraine and the southern half of the European part of Russia, especially along the Don , Volga and Urals .


    Metropolitan Alexius heals the "Tatar" queen Taidula (historicizing illustration)

    When first Jebe and Subutai and later Dschötschi and Batu Khan conquered the area of ​​the later Golden Horde, the area was already relatively - for that time - densely populated by different peoples, most of whom were either Russian or Turkish; The latter were wrongly generalized as Kipchaks and / or Cumans - even then . Since the Russian principalities were mostly only ruled indirectly, the population of the core area of ​​the Golden Horde was more of a Turkish character. However, the Mongols always remained in charge of the state and almost all leading figures were of Mongolian descent. The army, too, was mainly recruited from Mongols, although - since Genghis Khan - also warriors of Turkish origin and at the time of the Golden Horde also Russian warriors performed military service; Russian warriors were also ordered to serve as bodyguards to Great Khan Toqa Timur in 1330 .

    Mongolian remained the state language at least until Khan Toktamisch . Correspondence with foreign powers, for example with the allied state of the Mamluks in Egypt, was conducted in Mongolian at least until 1368; a Mongolian law firm was set up specifically for this in Cairo. The coins, for example under Tohtu Khan and Toktamisch, show at least the name in Mongolian. Finally, the naming has also made use of Mongolian names in many cases.

    When the first Mongols adopted Islam, a merger of Mongolian and Turkish populations began, which intensified over the course of the 14th century. This growing together contributed to the fact that the population of the Golden Horde was referred to by numerous neighbors as "Ta (r) tars".


    Course of the main route of the Silk Road in the Middle Ages

    A not insignificant part of the income of the Golden Horde consisted of tributes from subjugated peoples: The Bulgarians, for example, paid tribute to the Golden Horde from 1253 (and for more than 100 years) at the latest; Since there were no Mongol campaigns against Bulgaria between the Mongol storm and 1253, the tribute obligation has in all probability already existed since Batu Khan's campaign in 1242. As early as 1242, the Nestor Chronicle reports Mongol censuses in the name of Batu Khan for taxes from the Rus to collect. For the year 1257 tax counters (čislenicy) are mentioned in the Russian areas, who “rode through the streets and wrote down the Christian houses” in the name of Möngke Khan . As part of the Mongolian Empire, a tenth of the tax revenue of the Golden Horde had to be delivered to the respective Great Khan .

    Trade routes of Venice and Genoa

    The stable political conditions within the huge Mongolian Empire, known as Pax Mongolica , allowed for the first time efficient trade relations between regions as far apart as the Baltic States , Italy, the Middle East, India and China, with the Silk Road playing a special role. The Golden Horde had extensive trade links. Trade via the Crimea to Egypt was particularly pronounced and can only be compared with the trade relations with the Italians , especially Genoa and Venice . There was also trade by land via Kiev and along the rivers to the north. Merchants from Wroclaw , Greater Novgorod and Riga brought goods to Central Europe .

    The goods exported by sea included skins, furs, leather, wax, incense, grain, cheese, wine, carpets, salt, silver and fish. Both the Mongols themselves and the Italians also exported slaves; the Mongols, in particular mercenaries of Turkish origin who came to Egypt later as Mamluks (in 1420 it was 2000) and the Genoese Abkhaz and Circassian slaves in the West. Textiles, spices, incense and smelling oils, cattle, hides, silver and weapons, among other things, were exported by land. An extensive horse trade existed with India .

    The Mongolian income in this context came on the one hand from the trade itself, but also from tributes from Genoese and Venetians who set up bases on Mongolian territory, as well as from customs duties amounting to 5% (4% for Genoese and Venetians).


    In addition to direct political effects, the Golden Horde also left its mark in other areas: The Pax Mongolica connected Europe with far-flung areas of Asia for the first time , thus laying the foundations for trade, travel and technology transfer. The US anthropologist Jack Weatherford attributes the change in Western clothing style ( trousers and jackets instead of tunics and robes ) to the Mongols; several European languages ​​were influenced by Mongolian (not only Slavic: the exclamation Hurray , according to Weatherford's assumption of Mongolian origin, has for example caught on far into Western Europe). Russian aristocrats of Mongolian origin are documented up to the 17th century; Estimates assume 156 families, 37 of them Genghisids - but only three of the high nobility (Juspovy, Cerkasskie and Urusovy).

    Successor states

    See also


    • German A. Dawydow: The Golden Horde and its predecessors . Koehler & Amelang, Leipzig 1972.
    • Devin DeWeese: Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 1994, ISBN 978-0-271-03006-7 .
    • René Grousset : The steppe peoples. Attila, Genghis Khan, Tamerlane ("L'empire des steppes"). Magnus, Essen 1975 ( DNB 770315755 ).
    • Charles J. Halperin: Russia and the Golden Horde. The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Bloomington 1985.
    • Henry H. Howorth: History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century . Ch'en Wen Publ., Taipei 1970 (reprint of London 1876–1923 edition)
    • Denise Klein: signs and wonders. The conversion of the Golden Horde to Islam in the eyes of their descendants (16th – 18th centuries). In: Andreas Helmedach, Markus Koller, Konrad Petrovszky, Stefan Rohdewald (eds.): The Ottoman Europe. Methods and perspectives of early modern research on Southeast Europe. Eudora Verlag, Leipzig 2014, ISBN 978-3-938533-30-7 , pp. 381-404.
    • George Lane: The Mongols. IB Tauris, London / New York 2018, pp. 71ff.
    • Klaus Lech (Ed.): The Mongolian Empire. Al-Umari's representation of the Mongolian empires . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1968.
    • Tilman Nagel : Timur the Conqueror and the Islamic World of the Late Middle Ages . Beck, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-406-37171-X .
    • Raschid ed Din : The successors of Genghis Khan . University Press, New York 1971, ISBN 0-231-03351-6 (translated by John Andrew Boyle)
    • Fahreddin Rizaeddin: Altın Ordu ve Kazan Hanları . İstanbul 2003
    • Emanuel Sarkisyanz : The oriental peoples of Russia before 1917. A supplement to the East Slavic history of Russia . Oldenbourg, Munich 1961.
    • Bertold Spuler : The Golden Horde. The Mongols in Russia; 1223-1502 . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1965.
    • Michael Weiers (Ed.): The Mongols. Contributions to their history . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-17-017206-9 (Urban pocket books; 603).
    • AY Yakubovski: Altın Ordu ve İntihatı . İstanbul 1955.

    Web links

    Commons : Golden Horde  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. So both the Mongolian Алтан Орд and the Tatar Altın Urda mean "Golden Army". Compare the word ordu , which also means "army", in the various Turkic languages .
    2. ^ JJ Saunders: Matthew Paris and the Mongols. Toronto 1968, p. 124.
    3. Carsten Goehrke et al .: Russia , p. 79.
    4. ^ Charles J. Halperin: Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Indiana University Press, Bloomington 1987; Donald Ostrowski, Muscovy and the Mongols: Cross-Cultural Influences on the Steppe Frontier, 1304–1589. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998.
    5. René Grousset: The Gengiskhanid Mongols. Magnus Verlag, Essen 1975, pp. 540-545.
    6. Jack Weatherford: Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. Minnesota 2004, pp. 241-265.
    7. David Morgan: The Mongols. Second Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford 2007, ISBN 1-4051-3539-5 , pp. 74-98.
    8. So inter alia. Gerhard Fouquet , Gabriel Zeilinger: Disasters in the late Middle Ages. WBG (Scientific Book Society), Darmstadt 2011, ISBN 978-3-534-24699-1 , p. 107 ff.
    9. ^ O. Benedictow: The Black Death 1346-1353: The Complete History. Woodbridge 2006.
    10. J. Giessauf and J. Steiner: Lords over the peoples in the felt wall tents. Graz 2009, p. 100.
    11. ^ Howorth: History of the Mongols. P. 226; Safargaliev: Raspad Zolotoj Ordy, attached.
    12. ^ Spuler, Goldene Horde, p. 151.
    13. see Schiltberger and Abdul Ghaffar.
    14. Detlef Jena: Mysterious retreat of the Mongols. Thuringian newspaper from October 8, 2014.
    15. PA Sadikov: Ocherki po istorii oprichniny. AN SSSR, Moscow 1950 (reprint de Gruyter, 1969, ISBN 978-3-11-198369-1 ).
    16. B. Spuler: The Golden Horde: the Mongols in Russia 1223–1502. 2nd edition. Wiesbaden 1965, p. 265.
    17. J. Giessauf: Mongolia. Graz 2001, ISBN 978-3-901921-12-4 , p. 68.
    18. B. Spuler: The Golden Horde. The Mongols in Russia 1223–1502. 2nd edition, Wiesbaden 1965, p. 277.
    19. René Grousset, Die Dschingiskhaniden-Mongolen (Magnus Verlag Essen, 1975) p. 545.
    20. B. Spuler: The Golden Horde: the Mongols in Russia 1223–1502. 2nd edition. Wiesbaden 1965, p. 279.
    21. B. Spuler: The Golden Horde: the Mongols in Russia 1223–1502. 2nd edition. Wiesbaden 1965, p. 278 ff.
    22. B. Spuler: The Golden Horde: The Mongols in Russia 1223–1502. 2nd edition. Wiesbaden 1965, p. 281 ff.
    23. J. Giessauf: Mongolia. Graz 2001, ISBN 978-3-901921-12-4 , p. 58.
    24. ^ R. Michell / N. Forbes: The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471. London 1914, p. 88.
    25. J. Giessauf and J. Steiner: Lords over the peoples in the felt wall tents. Graz 2009, p. 94 f.
    26. B. Spuler: The Golden Horde: The Mongols in Russia 1223–1502. 2nd edition. Wiesbaden 1965, p. 388 ff.
    27. Jack Weatherford: Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. Minnesota 2004, p. XXIV, ISBN 0-609-80964-4 .
    28. Hartmut Rüß: The old Russian principalities under the rule of the Golden Horde. Graz 2009, p. 110.