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Depiction of Algirdas by the chronicler Alexander Guagnini
Seal of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Algirdas in Ruthenian "Ольгер печатьки (Seal of Olger)"

Algirdas ( Polish Olgierd , Belarusian Альгерд , German Olgerdt ; * 1296 ; † May 24, 1377 ) was the son of Gediminas from 1345 Grand Duke of Lithuania .


Originally he was only part of his father's heir. But he disempowered his younger brother, Grand Duke Jaunutis in Vilna . He worked with another brother, Kęstutis , who defended the border with the Teutonic Order and was also dissatisfied with Jaunuti's rule. The collaboration continued for the rest of his life.

Algirdas expanded the frontier of his state at the expense of the Ruthenian principalities and their overlords, the crumbling Golden Horde . In 1362 he defeated three Tartar princes in the Battle of the Blue Waters on the Bug and finally added Kiev to his possessions. His national territory thus extended in the west via Volhynia , in the south via Kiev and in the east to the border of the Grand Duchy of Moscow . Algirdas also waged three wars against the aspiring Moscow Grand Duke Dmitri Donskoy , which twice ended only in front of the Kremlin fortress .

Algirdas' political program was the unification of the principalities of the former Kievan Rus under his leadership.

He was less successful in the war against the Teutonic Order . In 1348 the Lithuanians on the Streva were badly beaten and the following period brought no relief either, in 1362 an army of the order destroyed the castle of Kaunas . An invading army led by Algirdas and Kęstutis suffered a heavy defeat in the Battle of Rudau not far from Königsberg in 1370 .

Algirda's successor was his son Jogaila , who prevailed in heavy battles against his uncle Kęstutis.


Algirdas was married to Maria von Vitebsk (until 1346) and his second marriage to Uljana von Tver (1350-1377). Numerous sons and daughters resulted from the marriages.

The order of the children is not always clear.

As sons are known
of Maria

  • Andrej (1325–1399), Prince of Polotsk (1342–1387), ruler of Pskov (1342–1348), regent of Novgorod (1394)
  • Dmitrij (1327-1399). Prince of Bryansk (1356-1379, 1388-1399), Pereyaslavl-Ryazan (1379-1388)
  • Constantine (? –Before 1390), Prince of Chartorysk
  • Vladimir (? –From 1398), Prince of Vitebsk (until 1367), Kiev (1362 / 67–1394), Kopyl , Słuck
  • Fiodoras , (? –From 1394), Prince of Rylsk (1379–?), Ratno (1377 / 87–1394), Bryansk (1393)

from Uljana

  • Skirgaila (around 1354–1394), Prince of Vitebsk (around 1373–1381), Trakai (1382–1392), Polotsk (1387–1394), Kiev (1394), regent in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1386–1392)
  • Dmitrij Korybut (around 1355 – before 1404), Prince of Novgorod-Seversky (1386–1392 / 93)
  • Lengvenis (around 1356 – from 1431), Prince of Mstislavl (1390–1431), Regent of Novgorod (1389–1392)
  • Jogaila (around 1362–1434), Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1381, 1382–1392), King of Poland (1386–1434)
  • Karigaila (around 1364 / 67–1390), Prince of Mstislavl
  • Minigaila (around 1365 / 68–1382)
  • Vygantas (around 1372–1392), prince of Kernavė
  • Švitrigaila (around 1373–1452), Grand Duke of Lithuania (1430–1432), Prince of Volhynia (1437–1452)


  • Fiedora , wife of Svyatoslav von Karachev
  • unknown (? –after 1370), wife of Prince Ivan Novosilski
  • Agrippina (from 1342–1393), wife of Boris of Suzdal
  • Kenna (around 1350–1368), wife of Casimir IV of Pomerania-Słupsk
  • Euphrosina (around 1352–1405 / 06), wife of Grand Duke Oleg von Ryazan
  • Helen (around 1357 / 60–1438), wife of Vladimir Chrobry
  • Maria (around 1363–?), Wife of Vaidila and Dawid von Gorodets
  • Wilheida ( Katharina ) (around 1369 / 74–1422), wife of Johann II. Von Mecklenburg-Stargard
  • Alexandra (around 1368 / 70–1434), wife of Siemovit IV. Of Mazovia
  • Jadwiga (around 1375 – after 1407), wife of Jan III. from Oświęcim


  • Klaus Conrad: Lithuania, the German Order and Charles IV. 1352-1360. In: Journal for East Research. Volume 21, 1972, pp. 20-41.
  • Rasa J. Małzeika: The relations of Grand Prince Algirdas with eastern and western Christians. In: La cristianizzazione della Lituania. Atti del Colloquio internazionale di storia ecclesiastica in occasione del VI centenario della Lituania cristiana. Roma, 24-26 giugno 1987. (= Pontifico Comitato di scienze storiche. Atti e documenti. 2). Città del Vaticano, 1989, pp. 63-84.

Web links

Commons : Algirdas  - collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. ^ Karl Friedrich Pauli : General Prussian State History , fourth volume, publishing and printing by Christoph Peter Franckens, Halle 1763.
  2. A wife Anna was also mentioned. T. Wasilewski (1990) adopts a third wife, T. Tęgowski (1999) an identity with Maria
  3. Recent research on these topics are: Tadeusz Wasilewski: Synowie Giedymina W. ks. Litwy a następstwo tronu po nim. In: Annales Universitatis Marie Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio F. Historia. Volume 45, 1990, pp. 124-137; Jan Tęgowski: Pierwsze pokolenia Giedyminowiczów. Poznań / Wrocław 1999 and Jarosław Nikodem: Synowie Giedymina. Próba ustalenia kolejności urodzeń. In: Genealogia. Studia i Materiały Historyczne. Volume 13, 2001, pp. 7-30.
  4. The list follows Josef Wolff: Ród Gedimina. Dodatki i poprawki do dzieł K. Stadnickiego: «Synowie Gedymina», «Olgierd i Kiejstut» and «Bracia Władysława Jagiełły». Kraków 1886, a z. J. Tęgowski (1999) suggests a different order.
predecessor Office successor
Jaunutis Grand Duke of Lithuania