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Tohtu , also Tochtu , Tochtai or Tochtogai ( Tokta Khan ; † around 1312), was the Khan of the Golden Horde between 1291 and 1312.

The son of Möngke Timur came to power in a coup d'état that killed his cousin Tulabugha , the ruling Khan, in 1291. The initiator of the coup was the influential Prince Noqai. The administration was initially contradictory due to this Noqai-Tohtu double government: rivalries broke out among the princes and Noqai used Tohtu's brothers for his interests, taxes were also collected several times and those affected rose. Around 1296, after several attempts at mediation between the two parties, an open war broke out, which Tohtu was able to win after initial failures in 1298/99. Noqai was murdered while fleeing after his defeat. In addition, Tohtu Khan survived a rebellion between two princes in 1301. After the success he took control of the until then relatively decentralized administration and carried out a coin reform around 1310.

During his reign in 1293 there was also a major encroachment on Russia, which killed fourteen cities. It was triggered by disputes between Grand Duke Dimitri I on the one hand and his brother Andrei and several Russian princes on the other hand, who asked Tohtu for help. Additional smaller campaigns against Poland, Bulgaria, Serbia and Byzantium, against the Ilkhanate in Georgia and in the Caucasus in general, and against Genoa in the Crimea had no significant results for the Horde.

The Khan inclined to Islam in the last years of his life, but was not a Muslim. His successor was his nephew Uzbek .


  • Bosworth, CE: The Islamic Dynasties. A Chronological and Genealogical Handbook . Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1967.
  • Morgan, David: The Mongols . Malden (Mass.): Blackwell, 2 2007.
  • Spuler, Berthold: The Golden Horde. The Mongols in Russia, 1223-1502 . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2 1965.
predecessor Office successor
Tulabugha Khan of the Golden Horde
Uzbek Khan