|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||262.2 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||0-180 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||80-009 to 80-958|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 58|
|License plate :||GD|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||DK 1 Gdańsk ↔ Cieszyn|
|DK 6 Kołbaskowo ↔ Pruszcz Gdański|
|DK 7 Żukowo ↔ Chyżne|
|Rail route :||
Warsaw – Gdansk
Gdansk – Stettin
|inner city: Wrzeszcz – Osowa|
|Next international airport :||Danzig|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1785 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||2261011|
|Administration (as of 2019)|
|City President :||Aleksandra Dulkiewicz|
ul.Nowe Ogrody 8/12 80-803 Gdańsk
Gdańsk ( Polish Gdańsk [ ɡdaɲsk ] , Kashubian Gduńsk ) is the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship in northern Poland . Gdansk is also the center of the geographical and cultural region of Kashubia . The independent city is located on the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea around 285 km northwest of Warsaw . With over 468,000 inhabitants, it is sixth on the list of the most populous cities in Poland .
In its complex city history, Danzig was under Polish , Prussian and German rule. From 1807 to 1814 and from 1920 to 1939 it was an almost sovereign city-state . From 1454/1466 to 1793, Danzig was part of the Polish crown, with considerable autonomy . At that time Gdansk was one of the richest and largest cities in Poland until Warsaw overtook Gdansk in the 18th century. With its shipyards, Danzig is an important port location and was an important Hanseatic city in the 14th and 15th centuries .
In the interwar period, not least because of its multi-ethnic composition and history, Danzig was claimed by Germany and Poland, which caused tensions due to its location in the so-called Polish Corridor . This finally culminated in Germany's attack on Poland outside the city gates of Gdańsk, followed by World War II and the flight and expulsion of large parts of the German population in 1945. In the 1980s, Gdańsk was the center of the opposition movement around the Solidarność union under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa . This played an important role in the end of communist rule in Poland and later influenced the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Together with the port city of Gdynia (Gdynia) and the seaside resort Sopot (Sopot) , Danzig forms the so-called Trójmiasto (Tricity) with more than 740,000 inhabitants. More than 1.2 million people live in the entire urban agglomeration of Gdansk (Aglomeracja gdańska).
The city is located in the south of the Gdańsk Bay and west of the mouth of the Vistula River in a hilly landscape surrounded by large pine forests. The Hel Peninsula is 20 kilometers north . The Old Town of Gdańsk is located on the Motława River . The historical region of Kashubia lies in the west of Gdańsk . The area is also known for the occurrence and processing of amber .
In the northwest, Gdansk borders on the Baltic Sea resort of Sopot . Together with the city of Gdynia further north, these three cities form the Trójmiasto agglomeration with almost 750,000 inhabitants. Around 1.25 million people live in the entire agglomeration (the Aglomeracja gdańska ), including the cities of Dirschau (Tczew), Neustadt (Wejherowo) and Rahmel (Rumia). In the north the city borders on the Gdańsk Bay, in the east on the main river of the Vistula . There are only smaller villages here that belong to the rural community of Steegen (Stegna). In the south, the municipalities of the Danzig district ( Powiat Gdański ) border the city, from east to west: Groß Zünder (Cedry Wielkie), the rural municipality of Praust (Pruszcz Gdański), the city of Praust , in turn its independent rural municipality and the rural municipality of Kahlbude (Kolbudy). In the west, Danzig borders on the rural community of Zuckau (Żukowo) of the Karthaus district ( Powiat Kartuski ).
Since March 2019 , the city has consisted of 35 administrative districts , the number had increased by four due to the division of districts in 2011 and by one in 2019.
There was no division into administrative districts in Gdansk before 1939 or 1945. Numerous places that today belong to the city and its districts were incorporated into the districts of Danziger Höhe and Danziger Niederung . By 1973 the urban area had expanded considerably through incorporations.
The current and historical district or suburb boundaries are not always congruent.
|District name||German place or part of town name||Area in km²||population||Population density in inhabitants / km²||map|
|VII Dwór||Pelonken (7th courtyard)||3.0115||3,820||1,268|
|Krakowiec-Górki Zachodnie||Krakow and West of Neufähr||8.3796||1.994||238|
|Letnica||Lauenthal / Lauental||4.029||1,333||331|
|Nowy Port||New fairway||2.2786||10,684||4,689|
|Olszynka||Large and small Walddorf||7.9696||3,209||403|
|Orunia-Św. Wojciech-Lipce||Ohra, St. Albrecht and Gutherberge||19.634||15,867||808|
|Orunia Górna-Gdańsk Południe||Borgfeld, Matzkau
(" Hoch-Ohra and Danzig-Süd " )
|Piecki-Migowo||Pietzkendorf and Müggau||4.3165||22,852||5,294|
close to the sea
close to the sea
|Formerly: Rechtstadt , Altstadt , Neugarten, Hagelsberg, Bischofsberg , Vorstadt, Speicherinsel , Bleihof , Langgarten, Niederstadt, Strohdeich||5.6245||30,648||5,449|
|Ujeścisko-Łostowice||Wonneberg and Schönfeld||7.7945||17,797||2,283|
(" Nieder-Langfuhr " )
(" Hoch-Langfuhr " )
|Wyspa Sobieszewska||" Bohnsacker Island "||35.7897||3,443||96|
|Zaspa -Młyniec||Saspe (Mühlenhof)||1.2322||14,295||11.601|
|Zaspa -Rozstaje||Saspe (Eckhof)||2.0322||12,794||6,296|
" Weiher ",
" Millennium "
Gdansk is in the temperate zone in the transition area between oceanic climates (Cfb). and continental climate (Dfb) Here you will find mainly cold winter and mild summer temperatures. The hottest month is August, which has an average high of 21.3 ° C. The wettest days are also found in summer, which is an indicator of continentality. The total amount of precipitation is quite low at 507 mm per year.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Gdansk
Goths and the Viking Age 1st - 10th century
At the mouth of the Vistula people settled since the 1st century BC. B.C. Goths , but there are no known archaeological finds in the urban area of Gdansk from this period. The historian Jordanes mentioned in the 6th century the area Gothiscandza ( Gothic coast ), which probably meant the mouth of the Vistula.
The area has been used by Scandinavian sailors and traders since the 9th century at the latest. There was a fortified settlement on the Long Market and the eastern Langgasse with a port on the Motława River. The residents were artisans and fishermen, and they also farmed and raised livestock. Their ethnic origin is unknown up to now, and most likely they were Prussians, Kashubians and Scandinavians (as in comparable settlements Truso and Wolin). A cemetery has existed since the 10th century at the later Nikolaikirche . It is uncertain whether there was also a settlement or a castle on the Hagelsberg ( Góra Gradowa ), as no archaeological findings from later overbuilding have been found.
Polish and Pomeranian rule 10th - 13th centuries
Around 970/990 the area was conquered by the early Polish ruler Mieszko I. A new castle settlement was built, which was mentioned in 997 as urbs Gyddanyzc . The missionary Adalbert of Prague came here and baptized numerous Prussians .
It is uncertain whether the urbs meant a castle settlement on the Hagelsberg, the settlement on the Long Market or a new Polish castle on an island in the Motława River. By 1050 at the latest, a new castle was built there , which was around 0.4 hectares in size and had an outer bailey settlement of around 2.4 hectares in size. Its inhabitants were mostly fishermen and amber collectors, probably of Prussian and Kashubian origin. In 1148 the castrum Kdancz was mentioned, with a church of the Theotokos Maria ( [ecclesia Sanctae Dei genetricis Mariae] ).
Governors of the Polish dukes sat in the castle. The Samborids have been mentioned since the end of the 12th century . The construction of the Nikolaikirche began around 1180, and the Katharinenkirche around 1200 . A settlement of merchants and craftsmen emerged, mostly of German origin (Lübeck).
Around 1224/1227 (?) Duke Swantepolk II of Danzig granted the merchant settlement city charter according to Luebian law. In 1227 he founded the Dominican monastery as the first mendicant order monastery in Pommerellen.
In 1271/72 Danzig was briefly under Brandenburg control by Margrave Konrad I. From around 1280 Danzig was again under the direct rule of the Polish kings.
German Order 1308-1454
At the beginning of the 14th century, conflicts over inheritance rights escalated between the Pomeranian governors and with the Margrave of Brandenburg . In addition, there was the participation of the Polish king, who from 1306 stationed a small garrison in the port city.
When the Brandenburgers invaded the city in the summer of 1308, the “royal in the castle” and the city representatives asked the Teutonic Order for help, which had inherited Mewe ( Gniew ) decades before and has since been represented on the left of the Vistula. The Teutonic Knights moved into the castle as allies of the royal Polish troops in August and defended it in September against the Brandenburg troops, for whom the city gates had been opened by the German citizens of Danzig. However, there was soon a dispute over the cost of this weapon aid, which led to the takeover of Danzig by the Teutonic Order .
The other events, especially in the context of the German-Polish conflicts of the 20th century, are presented in a contrary manner. From the Polish side it was and is claimed that the knights suddenly turned against the garrison and that on November 13th there was a massacre of the few soldiers and countless civilians. There is talk of up to 10,000 victims who are both ethnically and politically referred to as Poles.
The fact is that the order established itself in the city and the surrounding area ( Pommerellen ) and this was fixed in the contract of Soldin , in which the rights of the Brandenburgers were bought. The Kingdom of Poland fought against it with legal means and exaggerated representations with Pope Clement V , especially at the time when he was fighting the Knights Templar . Because of this, the order moved its seat from Venice to the Marienburg order castle in 1309 .
In the city, which traditionally strives for independence, there was opposition to the rule of the Crusaders, which was suppressed with violence, which in turn was often overlooked by those who want to underline a purely internal German unity. In particular, the German merchants of the Hanseatic League were competing with Elbing , the nearby port city of the order, which at that time lost its direct access through the fresh spit to the Baltic Sea due to siltation, which may explain the sudden interest in Gdansk. As a result of the conflict with the Kingdom of Poland, trade along the Vistula was also impaired, so that the Gdańsk people, in their own interest, always had to maintain a good relationship with the rulers in the hinterland.
At the time of the order, Danzig consisted of five parts:
- Hakelwerk (first city with Magdeburg law, probably until the end of the 14th century)
- Rechtstadt (since 1343) - the strongest of the cities of Danzig, since 1361 - full member of the Hanseatic League ; with two additional parts:
- Old town (since 1370) - largely the city of craftsmen
- Neustadt ( "Junge Stadt Danzig" , 1380–1455) - founded by the order against the legal city, after the uprising of the citizens of the legal city of 1454 completely destroyed.
After the conquest by the order, the immigration of Germans increased sharply, triggered by the economic prosperity of the Hanseatic city. In 1343 the Teutonic Order granted the city of Kulmer law , in 1361 Danzig became a full member of the Hanseatic League .
Danzig developed into an important member of the Hanseatic League and from 1361 took part in the Hanseatic Days. It remained part of the Hanseatic League until the last Hanseatic League in 1669, which became increasingly insignificant from the end of the 15th century. Together with Elbing and Thorn , Danzig was the leading Prussian Hanseatic city .
With special rights under Polish sovereignty 1454–1793
The further course of the city's history is detailed in the article on Pomeranian . Due to dissatisfaction with the Order's policy after the Battle of Tannenberg in 1410, the Prussian Confederation placed itself under the protection of the Polish crown in 1454, which triggered the Thirteen Years' War in which the cities fought against the Order's castles or razed them as in Thorn. The Polish king initially had difficulties getting an army of the Polish aristocracy together for the war, which was defeated in the Battle of Konitz by a mercenary army of the Teutonic Order. However, the progress of the war forced the order economically to its knees.
In the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, the Teutonic Order retained what would later become East Prussia , but without the Marienburg, Elbing and Warmia. The western parts of the "Teutonic Order State in Prussia" with the former Duchy of Pomerania , Danzig, Kulmer and Ermland and Thorn were subordinated to the King of Poland as Royal Prussia , with the city republics of Danzig, Thorn and Elbing enjoying extensive political, economic and cultural autonomy received, some of which had already been guaranteed to them during the war. This included the so-called Great Privilege, which King Casimir IV had granted the city of Danzig in 1457.
Gdansk became the main port of Poland-Lithuania, to which the Hanseatic city belonged politically from 1454 and for which it handled up to 80 percent of foreign trade. Its heyday began in 1453 with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks . It led to the closure of the Bosphorus and reduced the importance of the Black Sea ports . Grain from the southeastern granaries of Europe was now transported down the Vistula even more than before and had to go through the Gdansk granaries before being exported to Scandinavia, England and the Netherlands due to the stacking privilege (ius emporium). With a maximum handling of 116,000 loads (over 230,000 tons) in 1618, the city became the most important European transshipment point for bread grain . It flourished so powerfully that it was able to force the Polish king Stephan Batory (r. 1576–1586), who wanted to restrict their privileges, to adhere to the status quo in a checkered war (April to December 1577) . Between 1626 and 1629 even Northern Europe's most feared ruler, Gustav II Adolf of Sweden (ruled 1611–1632), was repulsed no less successfully .
In November 1520, the city was attacked by an army of the order under Count Wilhelm von Eisenberg and Wolf von Schönberg. After unsuccessful negotiations, the city was besieged and shot at. On November 9th, the King of Poland sent 1,000 horsemen and 500 foot soldiers to reinforce the city, whereupon the siege was broken off.
From 1522 the Reformation began in Danzig with the evangelical preacher Jacob Hegge . It was allowed by the Polish crown on the condition that the family jurisdiction remained with the diocese of Włocławek . From around 1534, the radical Reformation Mennonites who had fled from the Netherlands and Friesland also settled in and around Gdansk, and since 1581 also the radical Reformation anti-Trinitarians (see Unitarians , Polish Brothers , Socinians ), who, however, are not an open community within the city could form. Instead, there were German-speaking Unitarian communities in the surrounding communities of Buskow and Straszin, which were also frequented by Danzigers.
The Union of Lublin of 1569 threatened the autonomy of Gdansk as well. In numerous conflicts, Danzig continued to claim independence. In 1577 , during the Danzig War, homage to the new King Stefan Bathory was refused unless he renewed his privileges. After unsuccessful sieges of Danzig, the king consented.
In 1612 there was a dispute between Lutherans and Reformed people about the building of a high altar in the church of St. John, which the Reformed people, above all Pastor Jakob Adam , rejected.
In 1615, the city secretary Reinhold Kleinfeld led the delegation of Danzig in a dispute between the city of Elbing and the Warmian bishop - the initiator of the Counter Reformation in Poland - together with the mayor and the councilor. The main point of contention was the bishop's demand that the Evangelicals give up a church. At the last moment a war was averted in 1616.
Around 1650, when the Polish catchment area of the city experienced its heyday, Danzig was the most populous city with a German population, ahead of Vienna, Augsburg, Cologne and Hamburg, with around 77,000 people (estimates range up to 100,000 inhabitants for the Danzig agglomeration ).
Kingdom of Prussia 1793–1807
As part of the Second Partition of Poland , Danzig became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1793 . So that the city lost in the absolute monarchy of the Hohenzollern their special autonomy status and urban freedom.
Napoleonic Free City Republic 1807–1813
In the Franco-Prussian War, Danzig surrendered on May 25, 1807 after a three-month siege. As a result of the Peace of Tilsit , the city formally had the status of a “free city”, but was ruled by a French governor and had to raise 20 million francs in war tax. In November 1813, after an eleven-month siege, French and Polish troops surrendered to a Russian-Prussian army, and Danzig returned to the Kingdom of Prussia through the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
Return to Prussia 1815-1919
Danzig became the capital of the province of West Prussia, which existed between 1816 and 1823 and 1878 and 1919 . As part of the district reform in the administrative district of Danzig on July 1, 1818, the urban district of Danzig was set up, which in addition to the city of Danzig initially also included a number of surrounding rural places. In May 1828 the surrounding rural places were reclassified from the urban district to the district of Danzig . Since then, the urban district has only included the actual city of Danzig.
In 1831 the Prussian administration carried out a survey on the mother tongue of the residents of the Danzig administrative district for the first time. According to the survey, in the Gdansk administrative district , which included the city of Gdansk and the surrounding area, 24 percent of the residents were Polish or Kashubian and 76 percent German-speaking. The statistics at that time only differentiated between German and Polish / Kashubian speakers. Bilingual people were counted as Germans across the board. If this group of people were assigned to the Poles, later calculations by historians came to an estimated 64 percent German speakers.
In contrast, almost only German was spoken in the urban district of Danzig. Official statistics recorded no Poles of the 54,660 inhabitants in 1831. The religious statistics for this year showed 71% Protestants, 23.7% Catholics and 4.1% Jews. In the following decades the relative proportion of Catholics increased slowly (figures for 1910: 64.7% Ev., 32.6% K., 1.4% J.)
During the March Revolution in 1848, Danzig took part in the elections for the Frankfurt National Assembly . In 1848 104 merchant ships were based in the port of Danzig.
In 1852, in the course of the railway construction, Danzig was connected to the Prussian East Railway Berlin – Königsberg, which had been under construction since 1842 . The first direct rail connection opened up access to the Central European rail network via Berlin.
In the second half of the 19th century, Danzig experienced an economic boom and, like the nearby Elbing, became a center of modern shipbuilding ( Schichau works ) and industrialization in West Prussia. The industrialization was accompanied by an accelerated population increase.
Danzig remained a fortress . In 1909, the garrison , which was spread over Danzig, Langfuhr and Neufahrwasser with Fort Weichselmünde , included Grenadier Regiment No. 5 , Infantry Regiment No. 128 , and the Leib-Hussar Brigade with the two Regiments No. 1 . and no. 2 , the field artillery regiment no. 36 and the 1st battalion of Foot artillery regiment. 17. Since 1890, Gdansk seat was the General command of the XVII. Army Corps .
Until 1895, only the city walls, which restricted the development of the city, were removed and replaced by streets, while the ring of water surrounded by 20 bastions continued to exist.
Free City of Danzig 1920–1939
Due to the provisions of the Versailles Treaty of 1919, Danzig and its surrounding areas were separated from the German Reich and, with the simultaneous establishment of Polish access to the Baltic Sea ( Polish Corridor ) , declared an independent state on November 15, 1920, the Free City of Danzig . This state was under the control of the League of Nations ; Polish and British troops ensured the city's new status. Since this decision was made without a referendum , the German Reich and many of the city's mostly German residents saw the peoples' right to self-determination developed by US President Wilson in his 14-point program violated.
On December 6, 1920, the first Gdansk People's Day , which had emerged from free elections, was constituted. It consisted of 120 members. Lord Mayor Heinrich Sahm was elected President of the Senate of the Free City of Danzig. The parties made the following MPs:
- German National People's Party : 34
- Free economic association: 12
- German Democratic Party: 10
- Center Party: 17
- Social Democratic Party of the Free City of Gdansk : 19
- Independent Social Democrats: 21
- Polish party: 7.
In the census of November 1, 1923, 95 percent of citizens stated German and three percent Polish or Kashubian as their mother tongue.
- Result of the census of November 1, 1923
|Number of speakers||total||German||German
|City of Gdansk||335.921||327,827||1.108||6,788||99||22nd||77|
|District of Gdansk||30,809||20,666||521||5,239||2,529||580||1,274|
The Free City of Danzig then consisted of the cities of Danzig and Sopot as well as the small towns of Tiegenhof , Praust , Neuteich , Oliva and Ohra, with Neuteich and Tiegenhof in Danzig Werder and in the Großes Werder district. The Polish minority had their own schools and an association, but was often viewed with disapproval and discriminated against by the German population; Furthermore, before 1939 there were Kashubians and Russians in Danzig . There were also numerous Jews among the residents who were expropriated and deported after 1939.
In the interwar period, after an initial economic boom, Danzig had considerable economic problems due to the customs borders with the German Empire, the global economic crisis and a poorly developed industry.
The port and customs as well as the international rail connections - but not the trams and small railways in the Free State area - were placed under Polish administration. The Republic of Poland built an ammunition dump in the Danzig port ( Westerplatte ) and stationed its military there. Furthermore, in order to connect the port area with Poland, the Polish state was allowed to set up a post and telegraph administration, the so-called “ Polish Post Office ”, in the port area.
The problematic circumstances, which gave rise to many - neglected - complaints by the Free City of Danzig to the League of Nations created resentment against Poland among the population. This mood was promoted by immigrants from the formerly German areas that came to Poland after the war, who had emigrated because of the discrimination on the Polish side.
In mid-1933, the National Socialists (NSDAP) also came to power in Danzig, but until 1936/37 they had to come to terms with opposition parties due to the international control of the area, which in the People's Day elections of 1935 (despite massive electoral influence and falsification) had a two- A third majority of the National Socialists could clearly prevent this. While Hermann Rauschning tried to get closer to Poland as President of the Senate in 1933/34, his successor Arthur Greiser kept his distance and led the Free City of Danzig to become increasingly dependent (also financially) on the German Reich. In the summer of 1939 the tension between Poland and Danzig increased again after Poland increased the military occupation on the Westerplatte from 88 soldiers originally permitted by the League of Nations to 240, and increased the number of customs officers from 6 to 110. The Polish customs officers tightened controls in border traffic and now assumed authority over the German customs officers; then the German customs officers no longer worked with them. The customs inspector dispute broke out , in the course of which an ultimatum was issued by the Polish Commissioner General Marian Chodiaki to call for cooperation, “otherwise the Polish government would immediately retaliate against the Free City”. The Polish customs officers have now been armed. In fact, Hitler urged the President of the Senate to relax the situation and “not to poison the matter even more,” especially since France and Great Britain pledged their support to Poland in every war initiated by Germany.
At the end of August 1939, Gauleiter Albert Forster declared himself head of state and on September 1, 1939, after the German armed forces attacked the Polish ammunition depot on the Westerplatte , ordered Danzig to join the German Reich , in violation of international law . The German attack on the Westerplatte is seen today as the beginning of the Second World War in Europe.
Second World War: Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia 1939–1945
During the Second World War, the Jews in particular , who had been systematically persecuted and disenfranchised since 1933, but also the Polish minority in Danzig in concentration camps , including the nearby Stutthof concentration camp , were deported and mostly murdered, a total of around 65,000 people (including 35,000 Jews). The entry as a German in the so-called German People's List was a way for Poles to avoid persecution by changing their nationality.
Since the beginning of the war, various satellite camps of the Stutthof concentration camp have been set up in Danzig. In today's urban area were:
- External labor camp in Gdańsk Shipyard
- External labor camp at Schichau-Werft Gdansk
- External labor camp Marine construction management Danzig-Holm
- Branch office Westerplatte
- Matzkau branch
- External command concrete factory Gdansk
- Zigankenberg brickworks external command
After Gauleiter Albert Forster had declared the Reichsgau Gdansk-West Prussia to be “ free of Jews ” in October 1939 , 575 Jews lived in Gdansk in 1941. Their deportation continued until June 1943, including to Auschwitz and Theresienstadt . 22 old people remained in the city. Of 11,228 Jews in 1930, 10,500 survived through emigration, and at least 700 were murdered by Germans.
In the district of Matzkau (today Maćkowy) there was a prison camp for the SS and police after the start of the war . In 1941, the A / B 6 pilot school was located in Danzig- Langfuhr . The pilot school was housed in the Pestalozzi School until the end of 1941. In 1942, the flying school was renamed the pilot school A / B 52 and was housed in the Bölcke barracks on the Heeresanger.
The party leadership repeatedly invited prominent NSDAP politicians to the city, including Alfred Rosenberg and Joseph Goebbels in 1940 and Adolf Hitler in May 1941. There were large numbers of marches and military parades; the Nazi propaganda claiming monthly spend it "nearly a thousand" party meetings. According to the propaganda, the Gau would flourish through German order without any unemployed people, which did not agree with the facts. In 1942, 900 mother crosses were awarded in the city .
On July 11, 1942, the first and heaviest of the air raids on Danzig took place . The British bombers killed 89 civilians. At the end of March 1945 Danzig was enclosed and conquered by the Red Army and Polish military units in the course of the Battle of East Pomerania . Large parts of the inner city (consisting of the Rechtstadt, Altstadt, Vorstadt and Niederstadt) were destroyed by the fighting. During and after the invasion, the remaining houses in the inner city were looted and set on fire by the Soviet soldiers. In the right city of Gdańsk and the entire historical city center there was a loss of building fabric of around 90 percent, an extent like (among other things) in Warsaw's old town .
Post-war period 1945–1990
Most of the Germans remaining in Danzig were expelled by the Polish authorities in the first few months after the war. On January 1, 1949, 13,424 people were still living in Gdansk who had acquired Polish citizenship as part of a “rehabilitation process”, a minority of around five percent of the original city population, mostly with Polish ancestors.
Due to the Bierut Decree , property was expropriated from people of German nationality and origin. Crimes committed against the German civilian population were only partially prosecuted. Only after the political change in Poland was it started to deal with these events.
The right town of Danzig and numerous monuments in the old town were reconstructed by the Polish government based on early modern models.
At the same time, satellite settlements were built in the suburbs such as Przymorze, especially in the 1960s. Characteristic here are the so-called wave houses ( Falowiec ) - blocks of flats, some hundreds of meters long, made of prefabricated panels, which meander and thus evoke an association with the nearby sea.
Both the December 1970 uprising in Poland and the August 1980 strikes in Poland began with strikes in the Gdańsk shipyards . From a local strike committee of the Gdańsk Shipyard ("Lenin Shipyard", Stocznia Gdańska im. Lenina) under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa , the nationwide trade union movement Solidarność developed , whose activities ultimately led to the collapse of the People's Republic of Poland and the establishment of the Third Polish Republic .
With the fall of the Iron Curtain , the situation of the national minorities in the Republic of Poland changed, including that of the German minority . The Association of the German Minority was founded in Gdansk on March 15, 1990 , and in 2012 had around 5000 members.
Various shipyards have been spun off from the Gdańsk shipyard since 1990. The port of Gdańsk was expanded to include a deep water port for container and bulk cargo handling. The numerous new building measures include shopping malls, for example, the tunneling under the Vistula and the new development of the northern part of the Speicherinsel . Solidarność Center and World War II Museum are listed under Museums below.
In January 2019, the mayor Paweł Adamowicz fell victim to a knife attack.
|1800||41,072||(with military: 46,213)|
|1819||49,392||At the end of the year|
|1827||60.132||at the beginning of the year, including 42,124 Evangelicals, 14,992 Catholics, 641 Mennonites and 2,375 Jews|
|1828||61.902||at the end of the year, including the military, with the suburbs|
|1831||54,660||without the garrison|
|1864||78.131||(with military: 90,334), including 54,203 Evangelicals and 19,411 Catholics|
|1867||89,311||including 64,376 Evangelicals, 22,147 Catholics, 305 Mennonites and 2350 Jews|
|1890||120,338||of which 80,723 Protestants, 35,851 Catholics, 2535 Jews and 1229 others|
|1900||140,563||92,272 Protestants, 44,230 Catholics, 4061 others including Jews|
|1900||140,563||with the garrison, of which 92,272 Protestants, 44,230 Catholics and 2,553 Jews (2,791 speak only Polish , 1573 also speak German)|
|1910||170,337||thereof 110,253 Evangelicals, 55,513 Catholics and 4,571 others including Jews|
|1945||139.087||46,058 Poles, 93,029 Germans (as of November 1, 1945)|
The population of today's city is largely constant. After falling slightly from 2000 with just under 463,000 inhabitants to a good 455,000 in 2008, it has increased again since then; In 2016 it reached almost 464,000 inhabitants.
Development between 1815 and the First World War (city only, for the surrounding area see district of Danzig ):
At the head of the city administration is a city president , who is directly elected by the population. Since 1998 this has been Paweł Adamowicz (formerly Platforma Obywatelska , from 2015 “Everything for Danzig”). The last regular election in 2018 led to the following result:
- Paweł Adamowicz (Everything for Danzig) 37.0 & the votes
- Kacper Płażyński ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 29.7% of the vote
- Jarosław Wałęsa ( Koalicja Obywatelska ) 27.8% of the vote
- Remaining 5.5% of the vote
In the second ballot, the incumbent Adamowicz prevailed with 64.8% of the votes against the PiS candidate Płażyński, who received 35.2% of the votes. Adamowicz was assassinated on January 13, 2019, as a result of which he died the following day. His deputy Aleksandra Dulkiewicz was then appointed by the voivode as acting mayor . In the necessary new election, she ran for Adamowicz 'electoral association “Alles für Danzig” on March 3, 2019 and was also supported by the PO , PSL , Nowoczesna and Wiosna . It was already elected in the first ballot with 82.2% of the vote. Their opponents Grzegorz Braun (Konfederacja Korony Polskiej) and Marek Skiba (non-party) ended up being far behind with 11.9% and 5.9% of the vote, respectively.
The city council consists of 34 members and is directly elected. The 2018 city council election led to the following result:
- Koalicja Obywatelska (KO) 39.3% of the vote, 16 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 26.3% of the vote, 12 seats
- Election Committee Everything for Gdansk 19.1% of the vote, 6 seats
- Electoral committee of Gdańsk residents 6.5% of the vote, no seat
- Electoral Committee of Gdańsk Urban Movement 5.2% of the vote, no seat
- Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (SLD) / Lewica Razem (LR) 3.1% of the votes, no seat
- Remaining 0.6% of the vote, no seat
coat of arms
The main coat of arms of the city of Gdansk consists of a Gothic shield flanked by two golden lions. The red escutcheon contains an open golden crown at the top and two equal-armed, silver (white) crosses below. At the feet of the shield and the shield holder, it shows the motto written in black in a golden bow: nec temere nec timide - neither careless nor fearful.
Partnership and city partnerships exist with the following cities:
- The name of Aarhus is currently still on a partnership sign in front of Gdańsk's New Town Hall. According to information from the city of Gdansk, the partnership has meanwhile "fallen asleep". (As of January 2016)
New Hanseatic League
- Crane gate
- Green gate
- Right town hall
- Great armory
- Artus Court
- Courtyard of the St. George Rifle Brotherhood
- To the salmon
- Big mill
- Old Town Hall
- Langgasser Gate
- High gate
- Stock tower
- Lwi Dwór
- Weichselmünde fortress
- Anchor forge tower
- Niedertor (Danzig)
- Marienkirche - Hall Church (Bazylika Mariacka)
- Oliva Cathedral (Katedra Oliwska) , burial place of Anton Möller , the "painter of Danzig"
- Bartholomew's Church (Kościół św.Bartłomieja)
- Brigittenkirche - Basilica (Bazylika św.Brygidy)
- St. John's Church (Kościół św. Jana)
- Joseph's Church (Kościół św. Józefa)
- Royal Chapel (Kaplica Królewska)
- Mennonite Church (Kościół Menonitów)
- Catherine's Church (Kościół św. Katarzyny)
- Nikolaikirche (Kościół św. Mikołaja)
- Peter and Paul Church (Kościół św. Piotra i Pawła)
- Trinity Church (Kościół św. Trójcy)
Other sacred buildings
- European Solidarność Center (Europejskie Centrum Solidarności)
- Museum of the Second World War (Muzeum II Wojny Światowej) / Westerplatte Museum (Muzeum Westerplatte i Wojny 1939)
- National Museum (Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku)
- Archaeological Museum (Muzeum Archeologiczne w Gdańsku)
- History Museum (Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Gdańska)
- City Hall (Ratusz Głównego Miasta)
- Artus Court (Dwór Artusa)
- Uphagenhaus (Dom Uphagena)
- Tower Clock Museum (Muzeum Nauki Gdańskiej) in St. Catherine's Church
- Amber Museum (Muzeum Bursztynu) in the stock tower and in the tormenting chamber
- Weichselmünde Fortress (Twierdza Wisłoujście)
- Guardhouse No. 1 on Westerplatte (Wartownia nr 1 na Westerplatte)
- Polish Post Museum (Muzeum Poczty Polskiej)
- National Maritime Museum (Narodowe Muzeum Morskie w Gdańsku)
- Baltic Philharmonic (Polska Filharmonia Bałtycka im. Fryderyka Chopina)
- Baltic Opera (Opera Bałtycka)
Monuments and fountains
- Westerplatte memorial , honorary graves and a permanent exhibition on the Westerplatte
- Monument to the Fallen Shipyard Workers of 1970 before the Solidarity -Zentrum
- Fountain of Neptune
two Heweliuszdenkmale and the
- Heweliuszbrunnen in the old town
- Memorial for Günter Grass and the tin drummer Oskar in Langfuhr ( Wrzeszcz , plac generala Jozefa Wybickiego)
- Graveyard of nonexistent cemeteries .
Parks and beaches
- Fortress area on the Motlau, 12 ha
- Eco Hewelianum on the fortress grounds of the Hagelsberg
- Ronald Reagan Park between Brösen and Glettkau, 200 ha
- Park Kuźniczki in Langfuhr (Wrzeszcz)
- Oruński Park (formerly Hoene Park ) in the Ohra District
- Olivaer Park (Park Oliwski), 11 ha; with the
- Oliva Botanical Garden (Ogród Botaniczny w Oliwie)
- Zoological Garden (Miejski Ogród Zoologiczny Wybrzeża) in the Oliwa District, 136 ha, founded in 1954
- Tricity Landscape Park (TPK), 20,000 ha
The city of Gdansk has five beaches of its own, which can be reached by public transport . The first two have guarded bathing establishments.
- Bröse (Brzeźno)
- Pier (Molo), 130 m long
- Heubude (Stogi) (with nudist beach)
- Glettkau (Jelitkowo)
- Bohnsack (Sobieszewo)
- Wordel (Sobieszewo-Orle)
Nature reserves and natural monuments
- 7 nature reserves in the area of the TPK landscape park
- Nature reserves on the Bohnsacker island
- Ptasi Raj Bird Sanctuary
- 144 natural monuments:
- 88 trees and groups of trees
- 2 trees on boulders
- 52 boulders and rock groups
- 2 surface objects
Regular events (selection)
Culinary specialties (selection)
Gdansk was one of four Polish venues for the 2012 European Football Championship . Three group matches and a quarter-final of the tournament took place in the newly built PGE Arena Gdańsk . Lechia Gdańsk has been playing in the Ekstraklasa , the highest Polish football league , since 2008 .
Handball and volleyball
The Ergo Arena is a multifunctional hall on the city limits to Sopot . It was opened in 2010 and hosted the 2013 Men's European Volleyball Championship , the 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship and the 15th IAAF World Indoor Championships in 2014 . In 2016, six preliminary rounds of the 12th Men's Handball European Championship took place here.
The Gdańsk ice hockey team PKH Gdańsk , founded in 2014, has been playing in the first-class Polska Hokej league since 2016 . GKS Stoczniowiec , founded in 1970, has been playing in the second-class I league since 2017 . The home of both clubs is the 1972 “Olivia” ice rink with seating for around 5000 spectators. It was the venue for the Ice Hockey World Championship (Div. I, Gr. B) in 2004 and the European Basketball Championship in 2009 .
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2013, Gdansk was connected to central and southern Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic via the A1 motorway .
The city can be reached by rail directly from the main Polish cities, to and from Warsaw on the Warszawa – Gdańsk railway line, and the Gdańsk – Stargard railway line in the direction of Szczecin . Since June 6, 2012, the EuroCity 55 has again offered a continuous connection to and from Berlin. All long-distance trains also stop at the Wrzeszcz and Oliwa district stations .
There is an S-Bahn (SKM Szybka Kolej Miejska w Trójmieście) that connects Gdansk with Sopot (Sopot) , Gdynia (Gdynia) and Wejherowo (New Town in West Prussia) . From Wrzeszcz, the PKM S-Bahn connects the city with the airport.
In 2015 the Gdańsk Wrzeszcz – Gdańsk Osowa railway was opened.
Since Poland joined the EU grows Gdansk airport strong. It is the third largest airport in Poland (after Warsaw and Krakow; as of 2014). In 2010 over 2.23 million passengers were handled. It is served by over 40 national and international airlines, including Lufthansa (from Frankfurt and Munich) or the low-cost airlines Ryanair and Wizz Air .
From smaller inner-city piers on the Motława, excursion boats operate regularly, mainly on the tourist routes towards Westerplatte, Sopot and Gdynia (lines F1 and F2). Since June 2012, two new tourist or inner-city ferry connections have been connecting the city center from the Poggenpfuhl pier (Żabi Kruk) with the Westerplatte (line F5) and the fish market (Targ Rybny) with the mouth of the Vistula (Narodowe ) on the Motława River since June 2012 Centrum Żeglarstwa) (line F6).
Gdansk is connected to some official international long-distance cycle routes, such as: For example, the Baltic Sea Cycle Route , which once circles the Baltic Sea, and the Iron Curtain Trail , which runs along the former “ Iron Curtain ” from Norway to the Black Sea .
Resident companies (selection)
Gdansk has been known as a trading city since the Hanseatic era, primarily because of its favorable location on the Baltic Sea. The port still plays a major role for the Polish economy with 23.3 million tons of cargo handled (2004). The main industries in the city are shipbuilding (e.g. the Danzig - Stocznia Gdańsk shipyard , the Remontowa SA repair and offshore service yard , the Northern Shipyard SA ), the petrochemical and chemical industry (e.g. the LOTOS SA group ) as well as more recently high technologies such as electronics (e.g. Intel or WS OY (Young Digital Poland)), telecommunications and information technology (e.g. Wirtualna Polska , Lido Technologies). The pharmaceutical industry, the food industry (e.g. PepsiCo (USA), Dr. Oetker (Germany), Fazer OY (Finland) and Baltic Malt / Malteurop (France)) and the cosmetics sector are also gaining in importance.
Gdańsk is the starting point of the EuroVelo 9 cycle route ( Baltic Sea-Adriatic Route or Amber Route , Szlak bursztynowy in Polish ), which leads from Gdańsk through Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria and Slovenia to Pula in Croatia. The EuroVelo 10 ( Baltic Sea Cycle Route or Hanse Route , in Polish Obwód Hanzeatycki ) also runs through Gdansk.
Tourism is an important source of income with around 1.5 million tourists annually.
In Gdansk there are u. a. ten universities with around 60,000 students and around 10,000 graduates annually (as of 2001). These are
- University of Gdańsk (Uniwersytet Gdański) (33,000 students)
- Technical University of Gdańsk (Politechnika Gdańska) (18,000 students)
- Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny Medical University
- Gdansk Sports University (Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Jędrzeja Śniadeckiego)
- Music Academy Gdansk (Akademia Muzyczna im. Stanisława Moniuszki)
- Academy of Fine Arts Gdansk (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych)
- Ateneum - Szkoła Wyższa
- Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna
- Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Administracji
- Wyższa Szkoła Bankowa
- Wyższa Szkoła Społeczno-Ekonomiczna
- Wyższa Szkoła Turystyki i Hotelarstwa w Gdańsku
- Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania as well
- Polish Academy of Sciences , Gdansk Regional Department (Polska Akademia Nauk, Oddział w Gdańsku).
The list of personalities of the city of Gdańsk includes personalities who were born in the city or who worked in the city. The personalities made honorary citizens by the city can be found in the list of honorary citizens of Gdansk .
The most famous personalities in Gdańsk include Abraham van den Blocke , Izaak van den Blocke , Ludwig August Clericus , Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit , Andreas Schlueter , Jakob Friedrich von Rüchel-Kleist , Arthur Schopenhauer , Johannes Hevelius , Daniel Chodowiecki , Holger Czukay , Hugo Conwentz , Richard Faltin , Günter Grass , Klaus Kinski , Anton Möller (the “Painter of Danzig”), Horst Ehmke , Rupert Neudeck , Paweł Huelle , Lech Walesa , Dariusz Michalczewski , Tomasz Wałdoch , Andrzej Grubba and Donald Tusk .
Culture of remembrance and reception
The early stories of the Nobel Prize winner for literature Günter Grass , who was born in Langfuhr in 1927, take place in the city. In the novel Die Blechtrommel he summarized the history of Danzig as follows: “First came the Rugians , then came the Goths and Gepids , then the Kashubians , from whom Oskar is a direct descendant. Soon after, the Poles sent Adalbert from Prague . He came with the cross and was killed by Kashubes or Pruzzen with an ax. […] It happened in a fishing village and the village was called Gyddanyzc. Gydannyzc was made Danczik, Danczik became Dantzig, which later spelled itself Danzig, and today Danzig is called Gdańsk. ” Sabrina Janesch's novel Ambra (2012) about a German Polish woman in Danzig ties in with Grass' literary tradition.
The culture of remembrance is shaped by museums. Their turmoil can be seen, among other things, in the museum concepts of the Muzeum II Wojny Światowej and the Westerplatte Museum for the commemoration of the Second World War that started in Gdansk, supported by different political currents and history teachings.
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- Website of the city of Gdansk (Polish, English, German) with maps of the city (Polish)
- VisitGdansk.com - the city's tourism portal (multilingual, also German)
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