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Kalmar Coat of Arms
Sweden Kalmar location map.svg
Localization of squid in Sweden
State : Sweden
Province  (län): Kalmar Lan
Historical Province (landskap): Småland
Municipality  : Squid
Coordinates : 56 ° 40 ′  N , 16 ° 21 ′  E Coordinates: 56 ° 40 ′  N , 16 ° 21 ′  E
SCB code : 2280
Status: Crime scene
Residents : 38,408 (December 31, 2015)
Area : 19.6 km²
Population density : 1960 inhabitants / km²
Height : m ö.h.
Telephone code : (+46) 480
Postal code : 390 02 - 398 09
List of perpetrators in Kalmar County
Aerial view of Kalmar, on the left is the Öland Bridge
Kalmar City Hall
Alleys in the old town
"Tripp Trapp Trull" houses

Kalmar is a city in the southern Swedish province of Kalmar län and the historic province of Småland . The town lies on the the Baltic Sea belonging Kalmar Strait between the island of Öland and the Kingdom of Crystal . The six kilometer long Ölandsbron , which connects Öland to the mainland, begins in Kalmar.

Kalmar is the capital of the province and the capital of the municipality of the same name .

In old Swedish , kalmar probably referred to a "stone ground". When the tide is low, the stone benches at the bottom of Kalmar Sound can be seen when looking from the Öland Bridge towards the city center. The word kalmar was probably first used by seafarers to refer to this difficult passage.


About ten kilometers west of Kalmar in Smedby, the approximately 8,500 year old Tingby House (Swedish: Tingby Hus), which is considered to be Scandinavia's oldest house, was excavated . A reconstruction is located near the excavation site. Kalmar is one of the oldest cities in Sweden. The place began as a trading post on a port and trade route. Even before that time, the area around the city was the scene of intense settlement. The first mention of squid can be found on a rune stone in Södermanland from the 11th century. Here you can read that a man was slain near Kalmarna sundum (Kalmarsund).

In the middle of the 13th century, Kalmar was a flourishing trading town that was dominated by wealthy merchants of German origin. Among other things, limestone from Öland , tar and boards from the forests of Småland as well as iron, butter, grain and animal hides were exported. The main imports were salt, but also beer, wine, fabrics and spices. Kalmar was closely related to the German Hanseatic League .

In 1397 emissaries from Denmark, Norway and Sweden founded the Kalmar Union in Kalmar - an alliance that welded Scandinavia together for around a century and a half. However, Kalmar was fought over during the Danish-Swedish War 1470-1471 , the Danish-Swedish-Lübischen War 1501-1512 and the Swedish Liberation War 1520-1523 between Danes and Swedes. Since then, Kalmar on the border between Denmark was and Sweden, also found the 1611-1613 Kalmar War , and in 1679 one of the last battles of the Scanian war instead.

Kalmar was originally located directly in front of the castle and roughly encompassed what is now the Gamla Staden district . In the course of the Kalmar War 1611-1613, however, a large part of the medieval city was destroyed after the commander of the castle, Krister Some , had left this and the city almost without a fight to the Danish King Christian IV . The city was initially rebuilt in the same place, but in 1640 the Imperial Council decided to move it to the island of Kvarnholmen . The city fire of 1647 accelerated the implementation of these plans. At the new site, ramparts and bastions were built by order of the king, and within the city walls a right-angled road network was created around the provincial administration and the church. The main street, Storgatan , ran along the longitudinal axis of the town plan and over the two larger squares, Stortorget (Great Market) and Larmtorget . Citizens built new stone houses after receiving tax incentives to trade in salt. The name of the architect who was behind the rebuilding of the city, which lasted from 1647 to 1657, is unknown.

In 1689 the headquarters of the Swedish fleet was moved from Kalmar to Karlskrona . In 1786, King Kalmar revoked the status of a fortress town. In 1797 the city gates were opened and with it the city. The city walls were left to decay and their demolition began in the 1860s.

From that point on, the city also grew outside the city walls. When the railway line was built in 1874, the walls in front of the planned station were broken open. In addition, part of the moat was filled in. At that time Kalmar was one of the few cities in Sweden with stone houses. The elevator facilities on the gables bear witness to the old trading times . Until the 1950s, the building consisted mainly of houses from the 17th century. After that, parts of the old city center were demolished and replaced by banks, department stores and parking lots. This wave of demolitions led to the greatest change in the cityscape since the great fires of the Middle Ages.

From 1603 to 1915 Kalmar was a diocese of the Church of Sweden . Then this was united with the diocese of Växjö .

coat of arms

Description: A red four-pinnacle tower with a golden, open gate and two equally colored windows stands in silver on a blue wave shield base and is accompanied by two six-pointed, red stars .


The historically most important parts of the city are the old town (Gamla staden) near the castle and the center on the island of Kvarnholmen (mill island ), which was newly created in the 17th century . In the center is the cathedral , which was the seat of a bishopric from 1602 to 1915. Another attraction are three wooden houses rising in height, which are still used as living space. They were given the name Tripp Trapp Trull . There is an art museum and a provincial museum (Länsmuseum) . In the latter, the region and the battleship Kronan are described in detail. In addition, Kalmar has the Saga 's oldest cinema of Sweden which is still in operation and is the home port of Sydfart , of which are still in use engine freighter oldest in Sweden, according to sources also Europe or the world.

At the gates of the city there is an amusement park (Salvestaden), which is dedicated to the Middle Ages. A medieval festival takes place here every summer. A modern sight is the over 6 km long Öland Bridge .


Naval officer courses have been held in Kalmar since 1842. In 1977 the university (Högskolan i Kalmar) was founded. In 2010 the University of Växjö and the University of Kalmar merged to form Linnaeus University . In 2011, 13,614 students were enrolled here. Parts of the academic training have been relocated to other cities in the province; Hultsfred (music & event management), Ljungby (information logistics) and Nybro (design).

Economy and Infrastructure

The food and match industry are important branches of the economy . Kalmar has an airport from which mainly Swedish cities, but also holiday resorts are served. It is used by the airlines Kalmarflyg , Blue1 , SAS Scandinavian Airlines and Air Europa .


Since 2012, a long-distance triathlon (3.86 km swimming, 180.2 km cycling and 42.195 km running) has been held here in August with the Ironman Kalmar Sweden .

sons and daughters of the town

Web links

Commons : Kalmar  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Kalmar  Travel Guide


  1. a b Statistiska centralbyrån : Land area per Tatort, folkmängd and invånare per square kilometer. Vart femte år 1960 - 2015 (database query)
  2. Postcode ZIP code Kalmar, Sweden - GeoPostcodes. Retrieved August 29, 2017 .