The Hanseatic Day (also known as the “all- Hanseatic day trip”) is the meeting of representatives of the Hanseatic cities to deal with all important community matters.
The Hanseatic Congress was the highest instance and the organ of the community on which its interests were negotiated, decided and enforced. This includes in particular the ratification of treaties, the negotiation of trade privileges, negotiations with foreign rulers, decisions about peace, war and economic blockades, the determination of economic regulations and the acceptance or exclusion from the community.
In addition to the Hanseatic Days, third and regional days were held to clarify regional issues.
Besides the Hanseatic League, there were no other organizational structures of the Hanseatic League, it communicated directly with the members of the urban community. The organizational form of the Hanse is therefore also understood as a flat, horizontally structured network.
Each to conclude a Hanse day, a session log (which was Hanserezess ) created with the meeting results and decisions and handed over to the Council emissaries for their cities as a copy. The Hanseatic Trials, which document the political decision-making processes of the Hanseatic League, are of great value for historical research, but they were only published up to and including 1537.
The first meeting of the Hanseatic cities, at which representatives of the cities from all three thirds met, took place in Lübeck in 1356 , it is therefore referred to as the first general Hanseatic day . City alliances, such as the Wendish and Westphalian city associations , existed 100 years earlier, and they coordinated their common interests on day trips. The first entry of a Hanseatic day in Hanserecesse Volume 1 from 1256 reports on a meeting in Wismar at which a dispute between the cities of Lübeck and Rostock was to be settled. A first meeting of two city alliances took place in 1305, to which Lübeck, on behalf of the Wendish cities, invited the Westphalian cities to go on a day trip together. It was the beginning of the general assemblies of the Hanseatic cities and also marks the transition from the merchant's to the Hanseatic league of cities .
The preferred meeting place of the Hanseatic League was Lübeck due to its primacy and geographic location. Between 1356 and 1480, 76 of the 111 Hanseatic Days took place in Lübeck (with three thirds as well as two thirds participating). It was also mainly Lübeck that took the initiative to convene a Hanseatic League.
The participation of the members in the Hanseatic Days was mostly low, as a rule only 10 to 12 cities were represented by their council messengers. The largest number was 39 delegations in 1447, barely half the total. One of the main evils was the no-show because the cities wanted to save the travel expenses for the MPs. Failure to attend was repeatedly punished with fines. In addition to the council messengers, high-ranking guests such as the emperor, archbishop or prince were invited to the Hanseatic Day.
Today there are two meanings: the (historical) Hanseatic Days, on which the resolutions of the medieval and early modern Hanseatic League were made, and the Hanseatic Days of the Modern Age .
Hanseatic days from 1356 to 1669
In the following, the Hanseatic days as well as the city days from the beginning of the first Hanseatic day in 1356 to the last Hanseatic day in 1669 in Lübeck are tabulated. Special resolutions and their chronological order in the history of the Hanseatic League and its member cities are noted.
Hanseatic days from 1356 to 1365
|date||Meeting place||Participant / representative||Resolutions and timing|
|Feb 2, 1356||Lübeck||Council messengers sent to Bruges :
Lübisches third , Lübeck, Hamburg and Stralsund ;
Westphalian-Prussian third , Dortmund , Soest , Thorn and Elbing ;
Gotland Third , Gotland and Livonian cities .
|First general Hanseatic day :
The most important decision at the Hanseatic Day was the decision to send an embassy under the leadership of the Lübeck councilor Jakob Pleskow and representatives of the three Hanseatic thirds to Bruges to negotiate with the Count of Flanders over simmering disputes between Flanders and German merchants. The negotiations that took place in Bruges on June 12, 1356 did not, however, achieve the desired goals. In contrast, the previously independent German office in Bruges was brought under the control of the Hanseatic cities. The Recess zu Bruges of June 12, 1356 contains the list of the elderly people of Bruges along with their places of origin over three pages.
|Aug 4, 1356||Lübeck||Negotiations on disputes between Kampen and the cities of Stralsund, Rostock and Wismar , which could be ended with an arbitration award from Lübeck and Greifswald.
Due to the increasing sea trade on the Baltic Sea, the Schonenfahrer and the Bergenfahrer company were founded in Greifswald in 1356 .
|Jan. 20, 1358||Lübeck||
Lübeck third : Lübeck ( Bertram Vorrade , Johann Wittenborg ), Goslar , Hamburg, Rostock, Stralsund, Wismar and Braunschweig ;
Prussian cities : Thorn and Elbing. The Westphalian and Livonian cities were missing.
|Because of the violation of trade privileges in Flanders, an economic blockade against all of Flanders, including the cities of Antwerp and Mechelen , was decided. Due to the continuing shortage of grain, in particular, Flanders accepted the Hanseatic League's demands in a peace treaty in 1360, which ended the blockade. The victory of the Hanseatic League in the economic war against Flanders was seen as a sign of the assertiveness of the united urban community.|
|Aug 3, 1358||Lübeck||Bremen accepts the conditions for admission to the Hanseatic League in Lübeck before the assembly of the Wendish cities. These include providing a warship with 50 armed men to defend the Öresund and a ship with 100 armed men to defend the Elbe (Hamburg). Should Bremen merchants violate an imposed blockade, they would lose their goods and their lives. In 1275 Bremen was excluded because of refusal to participate in the blockade against Norway.|
|Nov 1, 1358||Rostock||Lübeck, Hamburg, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald , Anklam and Demmin .||The assembled cities decided on an alliance of protection and loyalty for three years against the princes and lords, who would restrict the rights of the cities.
Measures of the cities against attacks by the clerical courts as well as against pirates, muggers and other criminals.
|1st (?) Nov. 1358||Lübeck||Lübeck (no other cities are known).||Negotiations were held about the privileges of the German Hanseatic League in Flanders. The Augustinian monk Brother Peter from Flanders took part in the meeting, and he brought the cities a draft by Count Ludwig von Flanders . This was rejected by the assembly as insufficient.|
|Nov 3, 1358||Greifswald's record of the resolutions made with the cities of Stralsund, Anklam and Demmin. The four cities formed an alliance to protect their citizens from robbery and looting during the ongoing wars in the Wars of the Rügen Succession .|
|1358||Stralsund||Negotiations between the city of Stralsund and King Magnus of Sweden about the rights of Stralsund citizens over Norwegian law and the municipal privileges regarding the salvaged flotsam from a ship stranded near Suderwideholm in Norway. They received a special letter of protection from the Swedish king.|
|Dec 6, 1358||Rostock||Lübeck, Hamburg, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald, Anklam and Demmin.||Decision of a general Hanseatic day to be held in Lübeck on June 24, 1359, for the purpose of energetic action against Flanders.|
|March 31, 1359||Greifswald||Negotiations with Flemish MPs, which had essentially led to agreements.|
|June 24, 1359||Lübeck||The Brandenburg cities and Dortmund were invited to the meeting.||Vigorous action against Flanders was called for. Flanders announced new negotiations to come to a settlement.|
|June 24, 1360||Lübeck||In three documents, the Flemish cities declared themselves ready to compensate for the damage that the German merchants had suffered. Hanseatic privileges are awarded in eight other certificates.|
|June 26th to July 19th 1360||Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund and Greifswald.||Negotiations with Denmark: In connection with ongoing, power-political disputes in the Swedish royal family between King Magnus and his sons Hakon and Erich as well as the enmity with King Waldemar of Denmark, the latter called on Lübeck and the other Baltic Hanseatic cities, that of King Magnus of Sweden unlawfully to leave ruled Skåne . At the same time, he submitted drafts to the Hanseatic cities for a license for Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund and Greifswald as well as for a reconciliation with Lübeck, confirming all previous privileges.|
|Aug 24, 1360||Lübeck||Flemish envoys from the Count of Flanders and the cities of Ghent , Bruges and Ypres take part in the meeting with letters of recommendation, certificates and powers of attorney. They serve to settle the disputed points with the cities and assure the German merchants of the Hanseatic League of the previous freedoms, privileges and the promised compensation for damages (No. 238). Peace with Flanders was restored.|
|May 19, 1361||Rostock||Lübeck, Hamburg, Stralsund, Stettin , Wismar and Rostock.||Negotiations were made about the distribution of the costs over 4000 Marks to the Danish King Waldemar to maintain the freedom of trade in Denmark, which was divided between the participating cities. Greifswald refused to take part in the costs and invoked his special Danish privileges.|
|June 24, 1361||Lübeck||The only message about the meeting is Rostock's letter to Greifswald. It was about the role of Grapen- and Kannengiesser .|
|Aug 1, 1361||Greifswald||Shortly before the Greifswald assembly, the Swedish islands of Öland ( Borgholm ) and Gotland were attacked and subdued by the army of the Danish king Waldemar IV . The battle of Visby on Gotland took place on July 27, 1361. When the city was stormed, 1,800 citizens who defended themselves against the attackers were killed, the large warehouses were plundered and almost the entire city was destroyed. Due to these events, the Hanseatic League decided to stop all traffic with Denmark and Skåne .|
|Sept 7, 1361||Greifswald||Lübeck ( Johann Pleskow ,
Hamburg (Dietrich Wracks),
Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund (Hermann van dem Rade, Gödeke Ghyse, Lüdeke van Külpen, Bernt van Bremen), Greifswald, Anklam, Stettin, Kolberg , Bremen and Kiel as well Envoy of the Teutonic Order and the kings of Sweden and Norway.
|The Hanseatic League decided to cut trade links with Denmark and to prepare and finance a war against Denmark . For this purpose, a duty of four pfennigs per pound should be levied on the ships and the exported goods of the Hanseatic cities. The domination of the Baltic Sea by the Danes associated with the occupation of parts of Sweden, Scania and Gotland was to be broken. Treaties were signed against Denmark between the Wendish cities and the kings Hakon of Norway and Magnus Sweden, as well as the Duke of Schleswig and the Count of Holstein. The kings should provide 2,000 armed men with the necessary ships. The armament of the seaside cities: Lübeck 600 men, 2 cogs, 6 Sniggen (large and small warships) and 2 throwing machines, Hamburg 200 men and 2 cogs, the urban communities of Rostock and Wismar, Stralsund and Greifswald as well as Kolberg, Stettin and Anklam 600 men each, 6 cogs, 6 snigs and 2 throwing machines, Bremen 100 men and 1 cog, Kiel 30 men, 1 ship and 10 barges.|
|The Hanseatic cities had met several times since the Hanseatic Day on September 7, 1361 in Greifswald, but no information was available about this.|
|Oct 8, 1362||Stralsund||
It was the time when the Hanseatic League waged war against Denmark ( First Waldemark War ). The fight was supposed to begin on November 11, 1361, but was postponed to March 27, 1362. In April 1362, the Hanseatic fleet with 52 ships, including 27 cogs, ran into the Öresund under the leadership of Lübeck's mayor Johann Wittenborg. Count Heinrich von Holstein is also named as the leader of the fleet (according to Hanserecesse Volume 1, p. 199, it is unclear what management duties both had). At the beginning of May 1362 the fleet reached Copenhagen, the city and the castle were captured and sacked. The fleet landed in Skåne and besieged Helsingborg . Since there was no support from the Nordic allies, the Hanseatic League, with its approximately 1500 crews, decided to besiege Helsingborg from land. The ships left behind with a weak crew were attacked by Waldemar IV on July 18, 1362 and 12 large cogs were captured.
|Nov 6, 1362||Rostock||Lübeck (Bertram Vorrade,
Stralsund ( Bertram Wulflam ),
Wismar, Rostock and
Viko Molteke and notary Roder
|The contract for a standstill agreement was negotiated between King Waldemar of Denmark, his son Christoph, King Mangnus of Sweden and Norway, his son Haquin and the German Hanseatic League. The standstill agreement was announced on November 10, 1362, which was also notarized by the Danish side and should last until January 6, 1364.
Furthermore, the affiliation of the island of Fehmarn to which county and the pound duty to be levied were discussed.
|Jan. 1, 1363||Stralsund||Lübeck (Johann Pleskow),
Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam),
Hamburg (council notary Johann Wunstrop),
Rostock, Wismar, Stettin, Kiel, Greifswald, Anklam and Stargard .
|The alliance showed itself to be weakened due to the lost campaign and passed only two resolutions: the guarding of the island of Borgholm, which the Nordic kings had given the Hansa as a pledge, and compensation for Kiel. Johann Gletzow, Rathmann zu Wismar was used as a captain on Borgholm for a year.
Further resolutions were postponed to the meeting on February 5, 1363 in Rostock.
The meeting had received news from Count Heinrich von Holstein, according to which the Danes had not yet confirmed the standstill of 9 September 1362. The assembly then passed on to the knight Viko Moltke the request to ratify the standstill and to meet the conditions for the prisoners. The Prussian cities complained about the disadvantage in the standstill negotiations regarding the Prussian prisoners and resisted the continuation of a pound duty levied on October 8, 1362, which was to be paid until June 1363.
Attempts were made at the Hanseatic Day to deal with the charges against Johann Wittenborg, who had led the Hanseatic fleet in the war against Denmark in 1362 and had lost twelve cogs to the Danes during the siege of Helsingborg. But he was sentenced to death by the Lübeck council, which was publicly carried out in September 1363 on the Lübeck market.
|Feb 5, 1363||Rostock||Lübeck, Hamburg, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam), Kolberg, Wismar, Greifswald, Kiel, Rostock and a notary from Stettin.||Negotiations were held about the pound duty, listing of the costs incurred and claims for compensation, penalties against those who had violated joint resolutions and preliminary negotiations about an alliance with the Duke of Mecklenburg and the Count of Holstein.
Heinrich and Nikolaus, Counts of Hostein, report to the cities that the conclusion of the peace by Denmark would be prevented, the cities should therefore warn the king. The King of Sweden declares to the cities that he is ready to join the peace made by the Hanseatic League with the Danish king. If Denmark breaks the peace, Sweden counts on the help of the cities. Wisby asks the cities whether it was included in the peace that was made and whether it is under the general protection of the Hanseatic League.
|March 17, 1363||Wismar||Wismar, Lübeck (Bertram Vorrade, Johann Pleskow),
Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, von Külpen), Anklam, Stettin, Stargard and Kiel.
|The negotiations of the Holstein count with Denmark came to a certain conclusion. An embassy to Nykøbing on Falster was planned. King Magnus had complained about missing grain deliveries from Lübeck. The meeting discussed the extent to which the damage inflicted on the cities was caused by the failure of the Nordic kings to provide assistance in the fight against the Denmark, and whether the kings should be held accountable for it.|
|April 23, 1363||Wismar||Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, von Külpen), Wismar, Kiel, a notary from Hamburg, envoys from Wisby and the Holstein counts.||The main task of the meeting was to instruct the ambassadors.|
|May 7, 1363||Nykøbing on Falster||12 messengers from Lübeck ( Hermann von Osenbrügge ),
Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, von Dörpen), Greifswald, Stettin and Kiel.
|Peace talks took place in Nykøbing on the island of Falster between the warring parties, the Hanseatic League and the Danes. On the Danish side, the following took part: King Waldemar, Duke of Saxony and Klaus von Lembeke as well as the Archbishop of Lund, Viko Moltke, Andreas Vrost and Christian Kule. Hermann Osenbrugge negotiated with the kings Magnus and Hakon. On May 21, 1363 a draft contract was drawn up between the parties.|
|June 24, 1363||Lübeck||Lübeck (Bertram Vorrade),
Hamburg, Rostock, Stralsund, Wismar, Greifswald, Stettin, Stargard, Lüneburg, Kiel,
Lübische third , Wisby, Riga, Dorpat , Reval ,
Gothländische third and Kulm and a city of the Prussian third .
|The meeting attended by numerous cities dealt with the order of Hanseatic affairs. The ban on the trip to Flanders has been lifted. The dispute between the Prussian and Westphalian thirds was settled. Since the Westphalian third did not appear several times, the “suburbs” were withdrawn from them in favor of the Prussian third. Since the negotiations with Denmark were unsuccessful, preparations for a second war against Denmark were under discussion. Negotiations with the Duke of Mecklenburg and the Counts of Holstein, however, continued.|
|July 25, 1363||Wismar||28 messengers from Lübeck, Rostock, Stettin, Kolberg, Wismar, Kiel, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, von Dörpen, Plötze), and notaries from Hamburg and Greifswald.||Settlement of mutual claims (costs) between the cities and expenses for the supremacy of the Hanseatic League on Borgholm.|
|8th and 22nd Sept. 1363||Stralsund||Lübeck, Wismar, Stettin, Neu-Stargard, Kiel, Stralsund, Rostock, Greifswald, a notary from Hamburg and Anklam (only on September 22nd).||Negotiations with Denmark, the Dukes of Stettin and the Bishop of Cammin acted as agents of the Danish King Waldemar, who was also expected at the hearing. In Skåne, the merchants were oppressed by the Danes, and war against Denmark threatened. The Prussian cities wanted to stay out of a war, but provided support by levying a pound tariff.|
|Oct. 22, 1363||Lübeck||Information about the meeting is not documented.|
|Nov 1, 1363||Greifswald||27 emissaries from Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Stettin, Anklam, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, vom Rade, Ghyse, Johannes Rughe), Neu-Stargard, Greifswald, Kolberg and a notary from Kiel.||The meeting dealt with the affairs of Hamburg. The meeting went to Wolgast for a personal negotiation with Waldemar.|
|Nov 6, 1363||Wolgast||Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, vom Rade, von Külpen, von Dörpen).||Negotiations with Danish representatives about the rights of Hanseatic merchants claimed in Denmark and Skåne, which were unsuccessful.|
|Nov 19, 1363||Greifswald||Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Stettin, Anklam, Stralsund, Kolberg, Neu-Stargard, Greifswald and a notary from Kiel.||Orders in the event of a new war with Denmark, as the negotiations on Wolgast had failed and the deadlock with Denmark came to an end on Jan. 6, 1364. There was disagreement between the cities, Stettin, Anklam, Kolberg, Neu-Stargard, Greifswald and the Prussian cities would not take part in a war, while Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar and Stralsund would wage it alone.|
|Jan. 6, 1364||Stralsund||Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Greifswald, Stettin, Stargard, Anklam, Kiel, Stralsund and Kolberg.||The assembly decided to complain to the kings of England and France and the Count of Flanders about the injustice inflicted by Waldemar on the cities, and to stop shipping completely by Easter.
The 11 cities (including Hamburg) agreed to equip 2,440 men, who were distributed among the cities as follows: Lübeck (600), Rostock, Stralsund (400 each), Hamburg, Wismar, Stettin, Greifswald (200 each), Kolberg ( 100), Stargard, Anklam (50 each) and Kiel (40 men), at a total cost of 166,234 marks, Hamburg accounted for 12,000 marks. Directory of Rostock prisoners captured in the war against Denmark in 1362.
|February 1, March 3, March 15 and March 24, 1364||Stralsund||In a series of meetings in Stralsund, negotiations between the cities and Denmark took place under the mediation of the Counts of Holstein, Adolf, Klaus and Nikolaus, but without reaching a conclusion. The cities declared their readiness for further peace negotiations.|
|April 14, 1364||Rostock||13 messengers from Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, von Külpen, Rhuge), Wismar, Rostock, Kiel and notaries from Lübeck, Greifswald and Kiel.||Negotiations on measures against Denmark, such as an export ban to Denmark. Since Denmark did not respect the armistice, a war alliance against Denmark was negotiated, for the time being the negotiations of Duke Barmin should be awaited.
Count Heinrich von Holstein reported on plans in Sweden, Duke Albrecht von Mecklenburg on the coronation of his son, Albrecht III. to the king of Sweden and first successes against the kings Magnus and Hakon, enables the Hanseatic merchants access to Kalmar and Stockholm.
|May 25, 1364||Lübeck||Rostock, Stralsund, Wismar, Greifswald, Stettin, Kolberg, Stargard, Kiel and Lübeck.||In the dispute with Denmark, the cities agreed to stand still.
The payment obligations of the cities among each other were broken down in detail. Since Hamburg had repeatedly apologized for not attending the meetings, advice messengers were sent to Hamburg for negotiations.
|June 18, 1364||Stralsund||23 messengers from Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam), Wismar, Greifswald, Stettin, Kolberg, Anklam, Stralsund, Neu-Stargard and Kiel.||The cities left the leadership of the peace negotiations with Denmark to the people of Stralsund. A peace treaty was agreed with Denmark through the mediation of Duke Barnim von Stettin . The contract document contained stipulations on standstill until February 2, 1368 ( candlelight masses 1367), on occupied Danish castles and on the reduction of disputed Danish customs duties. Viko Moltke signed the contract for King Waldemar, and Bishop Johann I von Cammin advocated keeping the peace. Until the treaty is ratified, the cities should avoid traveling through the Sound. The cities of Riga , Wenden, Wolmar , Reval , Dorpat , Pernau and Fellin declared that they would adhere to the treaty.|
|July 21, 1364||Lübeck||Lübeck took over nine documents ( transsumpte ) of Flemish privileges and files from 1360, which the city had in custody, including freedoms of German merchants in Flanders by Count Ludwig von Flanders.|
|Sept 22, 1364||Stralsund||16 messengers from Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Kolberg, Kiel, Greifswald and Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam).||Detailed accounting of the cities about the costs for the provision of the teams and based on the headcount of the injured by the respective cities.|
|March 27, 1365||Stralsund||19 messengers from Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Kolberg, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam), Kiel, Stettin and Greifswald.||Preparations for negotiations with Denmark on the connection with Sweden and the occupation of Öland. The sealing of the closed standstill by Duke Barnim von Stettin and Waldemar was warned. Powers of attorney to the office in Bergen and Bruges as well as to Borgholm were requested.|
|May 28, 1365||Lübeck||20 emissaries from Lübeck, Rostock and Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, Ghyse), power of attorney from Greifswald to the participating cities, Danish emissaries Viko Moltke and Peter Munk.||Negotiations on the extension of the armistice with Denmark, regarding demands of the cities on Denmark and Denmark on the cities.
End of the dispute between Lübeck and Greifswald because of the Holy Spirit Hospital (Lübeck) (Hanserecesse Volume 1, No. 360–362, pp. 311–314).
|June 12, 1365||Stralsund||Preparations for negotiations with Denmark.|
|July 1, 1365||Negotiations at Akerness||It remains unclear whether the planned negotiation with Denmark took place in Akerness, which may have failed due to the dispute between the cities and Rostock (no city billed any expenses for the trip to Akerness).
Rostock sends a note of thanks to King Waldemar of Denmark for returning civil property to Mön.
|Sept 3, 1365||Negotiations at Vordingborg||Lübeck, Rostock and Stralsund.||Drafts were negotiated for a letter of atonement and charter to King Waldemar and the Archbishop of Lund, in which the cities are to be granted several freedoms in Skåne by Waldemar and a beach privilege by the Archbishop of Lund for six years.|
|Oct 5, 1365||Rostock||Lübeck, Stralsund, Stettin, Neu-Stargard, Kiel, Wismar, Kolberg, Rostock and notaries, Johann von Wunsdorf of Hamburg and Greifswald.||Ratifications of the negotiations on Vordingborg as well as resolutions on Borgholm affairs and on the punishment of those who had disregarded the pre-orders during the war against Denmark.|
|November 22, 1365||Peace of Vordingborg||King Waldemar IV., Wendish quarter of the Hanseatic League under the leadership of Lübeck.||After the First Waldemark War in April 1362, in which the Hanseatic League suffered a severe defeat, the Treaty of Vordingborg was concluded at Vordingborg Castle between King Waldemar IV of Denmark and the cities of the Hanseatic League under the leadership of Lübeck.
(Note: This negotiation is not mentioned in Hanserecesse Volume 1. )
In the 10 years from 1356 to 1365, 40 Hanseatic and City Days took place, which were distributed among the cities as follows: Lübeck × 14, Stralsund × 9, Rostock × 7, Greifswald × 6, Wismar × 3 and Wolgast × 1. Sie give an indication of the importance of cities in the Hanseatic League.
Hanseatic days from 1366 to 1669
|date||Meeting place||Participant / representative||Resolutions and timing|
|June 24, 1366||Lübeck||33 Sendboten, Lübeck ( Bernhard Coesfeld ,
Bruno von Warendorp ), Stralsund (Bertram), Hamburg, Rostock, Wismar, Greifswald, Kolberg, Kiel, Wisby, Riga, Dorpat, Reval, Stockholm, Rathsnotar von Stettin and Mayor of Danzig.
|The cities decided on a series of measures: Strengthening the alliance between the cities and strengthening the authority of the cities over the princes and sovereigns as well as the counters. The management of the offices by the elderly should only be done by the citizens of the cities. The Novgorod and Bruges offices should not take any important decisions without the knowledge of the cities. Nobody should enjoy the privileges of the Germans who are not citizens of a city of the German Hanseatic League.
Disputes between the cities and the sovereigns, Hamburg against Count Adolf von Holstein, Bremen against Archbishop Albert , Rostock against Count Engelbert von der Mark and the city of Hamm were mediated. The settlement of the costs incurred and their distribution to the cities took up a large part of the meeting.
|Dec 16, 1366||Rostock||Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram, Werner Buchow), Wismar, Greifswald and the notaries of Hamburg and Stettin.||There was much complaint against the Danes against trade and shipping, and it was believed that another armistice with Denmark would be useless. Waldemar would only want to gradually weaken the power of the Hanseatic League, but he considered himself too weak for open violence. A war against Denmark seemed inevitable. To strengthen the federal government, the connection of the cities in Prussia was sought. Danish bishops and counts were asked to comply with the contract with Waldemar regarding the wrongly raised money and the beach property that was taken away.
Claims for settlement from the war against Denmark to the cities of Hamburg, Stettin and Kiel. Negotiation on the question of whether Rostock or Captain Friedrich Sundermann were responsible for the loss of the land of Öland and Borgholm Castle , since they had been ordered to keep them by the cities.
|1366-1368||Negotiations over Novgorod||Disputes between Russians and Germans in Novgorod were triggered by the invasion of the army of the German Order in Pskov (burning of the suburb of Pskov on Sept. 24, 1367). The Pskower then invaded the German area of Neuhausen (Frauenburg). Germans and Russians were each captured from the other side. The Hanseatic League reacted by banning the Novgorod journey and the supply of salt and herring to Russia.|
|May 4, 1367||Stralsund||Stralsund (Bertram)||New lawsuits were brought against Denmark, ships and goods were stolen again, and the promised escort by Ritter did not take place. After the original armistice had ended, Scania was no longer to be approached, nor were weapons, iron and salt delivered to Denmark.|
|May 30, 1367||Rostock||Lübeck, Stralsund, Rostock, Wismar, Kiel and the notaries from Greifswald and Stettin.||The seaside towns attempted to settle a war between the master of the German Order ( Winrich von Kniprode ) and the Danes. Waldemar had taken violent action against Prussian and Dutch merchants. He agreed to negotiate in Stralsund.|
|June 24, 1367||Stralsund||Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram), Wismar, Greifswald, Stettin, Kolberg, Danzig, Kulm, Thorn, Elbing as well as a council notary from Hamburg and messengers from Prussia, from Denmark Vicko Moltke and Ringmann von Lanken, later the Bishop of Ripen.||The disputes between Denmark and the Prussian-Dutch city alliance were negotiated. The seaside towns could not make up their minds to break openly with Denmark, this year's Schonenfahrt was still to take place.
The Danish ambassadors asked the cities to come to Denmark for negotiations, Lübeck, Stralsund and Anklam agreed to do so. Complaints came
|July 11, 1367||Elblag||Prussian cities, Kampen , Staveren, Harderwyk , Elbing , Zierixee, Amsterdam and Dordrecht .||Negotiations were held about the alliance against the kings of Denmark and Norway. Decision on the meeting in Cologne by the Prussian-Dutch cities.|
|1367||Negotiations with Prussia||Agreements on participation in the meeting in Cologne. The Prussian cities commissioned the council messengers to negotiate further with the Lords of Meklenburg and Count Heinrich von Hostein.|
|July 29, 1367||Stralsund||Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Greifswald, Kolberg, Kiel and Anklam as well as a notary from Stettin and, as an envoy from Waldemar, Bishop Heinrich von Rothschild.||The Wendish and Prussian-Dutch cities negotiated a peaceful settlement with Waldemar. A Lübeck council notary was supposed to negotiate again with the king in Denmark. Trade trips to Denmark and Norway were banned. Payment claims were made to Hamburg, Bremen and Stade.|
|22 Aug 1367||Negotiations in Falsterbode||7 Sendboten, Lübeck, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam, Johannes Rughe, Notary Rode), Greifswald and Anklam as well as King Waldemar, a Danish councilor, Duke Erich of Saxony and Count Adolf von Hostein.||The important negotiation in Falsterbode Castle with Waldemar was led by Bertram Wulflam. A peaceful agreement with the Danes was not reached. The trial was supposed to continue on Oct. 13th.|
|Sept. 1, 1367||Stralsund||Lübeck, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam), Greifswald and Anklam.||After the messengers returned from the negotiations in Falsterbode, the assembly decided to prepare for the war against Denmark. This mainly concerned the securing of the existing property and equipment in Skåne. 15 counts of the cities against the King of Denmark and his officials were drawn up. Scandinavian herrings were no longer allowed to be carried through the Sound to Flanders. Whether the Sundfahrt should be allowed should be decided on October 6th in Rostock.|
|Oct 6, 1367||Rostock||13 Sendboten, Lübeck, Stralsund (Bertram Wulflam), Stettin, Wismar and Rostock.||Preparations for the day trip to Cologne. It was clear to the Baltic Sea cities that a war against Denmark should only be carried out together with the North Sea cities. The inclusion of the Duke of Mecklenburg and the Count of Holstein in the alliance was to be achieved. There was disagreement with the Prussian-Dutch cities over the course of action against the Danes. It was decided to block the Danes' access to the cities, and disobedience should be punished. The possibility of a connection from the North Sea to the Baltic coast via Hanover and Lüneburg was discussed. The route across the Elbe was ruled out because of a dispute with Hamburg .|
|11-17 Nov. 1367||Cologne||21 messengers and several representatives from Cologne;
the emissaries Bertram Wulflam and Johannes Rughe von Stralsund, they also represented Greifswald, Anklam and Stettin, two emissaries each from Lübeck, Rostock, Wismar, Elbing , Campen , Harderwyk , Elborg , Amsterdam , one emissary each from Kulm , Thorn and Brede . Many of these messengers also had powers of their neighboring cities.
|Allowing the Hanseatic Day to take place in Cologne was of particular importance, especially since it only took place once in Cologne. The Dutch-Zeeland cities, which had not yet participated in a Hanseatic Day, should be able to make day trips easier due to their proximity to Cologne, as they should also be involved in the waging of a war against Denmark . For the war effort, the cities formed a closer alliance, the Cologne Confederation . The Westphalian cities, on the other hand, stayed away from the Hanseatic League. They did not want to share in the financial burdens of the war, this naval war was none of their business.
As a military measure for the war against Denmark, the following was decided. The Wendish and Livonian cities were to have 10 cogs, 100 armed men, 2 barges and 2 snakes; the six Prussian cities provide 6 cogs and the cities of Campen, Zuiderzee and Zeeland 4 cogs. Each cog should be manned by 20 armed men who are good marksmen. The cogs from the Zuidersee should be ready to sail by Easter 1368 and should gather on the Norwegian coast and sail together into the sound. The fleet of the Baltic Sea cities was supposed to gather at Hiddensee and sail towards the fleet from the Zuidersee in the Sund. Cities that do not follow this agreement should be excluded from trade and ports of the Hanseatic League for 10 years. To finance the war expenditure it was decided to raise a pound duty , which should be levied on every merchant. B. Ingestion of 4 Lübeck pfennigs out of 6 Lübeck marks. Damages suffered by the cities in the two realms should also be compensated. This confederation and its provisions were to remain in force for three years until peace was concluded with Denmark.
|Dec 8, 1367||Lübeck||Stralsund (Bertram)||Stralsund - in the main line of warfare - was commissioned to communicate the resolutions passed to the cities of Hamburg, Bremen, Kiel, Stettin, Kolberg and Anklam. The cities that had not joined the Cologne Confederation should declare themselves in Rostock. The Kaiser and other gentlemen, as well as the English and Flemingers, were to be informed of what had happened. Everything should be kept secret in the cities. The merchants in Bergen should be informed as soon as possible to embark, and ships should be sent to them for this purpose.|
|Jan. 1, 1368||Rostock||18 senders, Lübeck, Hamburg, Stralsund (Bertram, Ludwig von Külpen, Ruhge), Stettin, Greifswald, Kolberg, Wismar and Rostock.||The Cologne resolutions were confirmed and the war contingent was divided as follows: Lübeck 3 cogs with 300 men, Rostock 2 cogs with 150 men, Stralsund 2 cogs with 200 men, Wismar 1 cog with 100 men, Greifswald 1 cog with 75 men, Kolberg 1 Cog with 40 men and Stettin 1 cog with 80 men. Hamburg and Bremen were still undecided about participation. A meeting with the Mecklenburg and Holstein princes was agreed. Negotiations should take place again with the Danes.|
|Jan. 23, 1368||Wismar||Lübeck, Stralsund, Rostock and Wismar.||Contracts related to the war against Denmark were concluded with King Albert of Sweden , the dukes Albert, Heinrich and Magnus of Mecklenburg and the counts Heinrich and Klaus von Hostein and dates were set for the notarizations. Braunschweig and Hanover should be moved to join the Cologne Confederation.|
|Feb 2, 1368||Lübeck||Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram), Wismar and Lübeck, emissaries Waldemars Hartwig von Hummersbüttel and Rigmann von Laken and a Rathsendbote from Wisby.||The negotiations with King Waldemar were broken off because the conditions agreed in Cologne were not met by the Danes. War alliances were made with the King of Sweden, the Princes of Mecklenburg, Holstein and the nobility of Jutland. The Duke of Mecklenburg gave the castles of Wittenburg and Ribnitz as a pledge. A neutrality treaty was signed with Duke Erich von Sachsen . The cities of Hamburg, Bremen, Stade, Kiel, Greifswald, Anklam, Stettin and Stargard as well as the cities of Prussia, Zealand, Holland and the Southern Sea also joined the alliance.
Lübeck sent letters of complaint about acts of violence against the common merchant by the Danes to Pope Urban V and Emperor Charles IV . Message to Emperor Karl and the German merchant in Bruges about the decisions on the war alliances entered into. Decision to send empty ships to Bergen.
|9 Feb 1368||Hamburg||Lübeck negotiated with the cities of Hamburg, Bremen and Stade about their disputes with the Hanseatic League.|
|Feb. 27, 1368||Grevismöhlen||Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram), Wismar and Greifswald as well as Duke Albrecht of Mecklenburg and Counts Heinrich and Nikolaus von Holstein.||On behalf of King Albert of Sweden, the dukes of Mecklenburg certified the alliance against the kings of Denmark and Norway for two years, after which the Swedes were to provide 1,000 men. Vote on measures in the event that Duke Erich von Sachsen and Count Adolf von Hostein should break the neutrality treaty. Stralsund and Greifswald had already blocked the Peene so that the Pomeranian dukes could not come to Waldemar's aid.
Kampen and the Prussian cities were asked whether Hamburg should be excluded because of its resistance to the Cologne Alliance.
|March 15, 1368||Rostock||Lübeck, Stralsund, Stettin, Greifswald, Wismar and Rostock.||The cities made peace with Hamburg - with the consent of Count Heinrich von Hostein.
Count Heinrich and Nikolaus von Holstein certified the alliance against the kings of Denmark and Norway. The captains were appointed to lead the ships, for Stralsund the mayor Heinrich Schele and the councilors Borchardt Plötze and Johannes Ruhge, 3 captains from Lübeck, 2 each from Rostock and Wismar and 1 each from Stettin and Greifswald. In order to participate in the war alliance, the Duke of Mecklenburg received 1,000 Luebian marks and 2,000 marks in cash as well as 10 ships. Mecklenburg undertook to provide 300 knights and squires by May 4th. On April 16, everyone should meet at Gellen zu Hiddensee.
|March 23, 1368||Wismar||No records are known of the meeting.|
|1368||Negotiation with Dordrecht||The cities threatened Flanders to move the staging area in Bruges to Dordrecht if the Flemish cities did not break off their trade with Denmark and Norway. On June 9th, Duke Albert von Baiern authorized the Dortmund Rathssendbote to negotiate with the cities regarding the relocation of the storage area. He guaranteed the Hanseatic merchants the rights that his brother had given them at the time. However, it did not move to Dortrecht.|
|June 24, 1368||Lübeck||35 Sendboten, Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund, Wismar, Stettin, Greifswald, Kolberg, Thorn, Elbing , Danzig , Riga , Reval , Kampen , Zierixee, Dortrecht, Staveren, Amsterdam and Briel as well as a Rathmann from Wisby .||On April 16, the Cologne Confederation's war against Denmark began. On May 2nd, Copenhagen was captured, looted and the castle occupied. The Swedes took Skåne and besieged Helsingborg . The Hosteiner and Jutes occupied Aalborg . Only the royal residence in Wordingborg was successfully defended by Captain Vicke Moltke. The Danish resistance against the Hanseatic superiority was low because of the fled king. After the conquest of Skåne, King Albrecht of Sweden gave the cities free travel to Skåne on July 25th, and on August 1st they were allowed to go ashore to “salt herring” ( Vitte ). The Copenhagen Castle was to remain occupied and later destroyed. The atonement to be paid by King Hakon of Norway was to be negotiated with King Albrecht of Sweden.
Salary receipts for a large number of named soldiers, knights and squires in Rostock's service against the King of Denmark and his helpers were issued and documented in files. Loss of weapons and ransom for imprisonment should be compensated. Kiel, Hamburg and Bremen were reminded to join the alliance. The Rathsendbote Revals reported on disputes between Wisby and the Livonian cities.
|July 30, 1368||Rostock||Lübeck, Stralsund (Bertram), Wismar and Rostock||Negotiations on the provisions on the approved Schonenfahrt; the occupation of Wittenberg Castle, which was given to the cities as a pledge; Aid that one wants to give the allied prince (Duke Bogislaus) against King Waldemar.
Reminder letters were sent to Kolberg, Stettin and Anklam.
|Aug 10, 1368||Wismar||Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund (Bertram) and Wismar||An armistice was concluded with King Hakon of Norway , which is said to last until April 1, 1369. Safeguarding the standstill in the Nordsund should be negotiated with the king. The commanders in Skåne were told to stay until Martini.
It was diagnosed that Duke Albert von Mecklenburg was ill , and if he did not receive medical assistance, his son Duke Heinrich should take his place.
King Waldemer was in the German Empire, also with the Kaiser, and tried to form an alliance against the Hanseatic cities. The Brandenburg and Saxon cities of Berlin, Prenzlau, Brandenburg, Frankfurt, Breslau and Guben were asked to warn the princes and lords who would assist King Waldemar.
|1370||Stralsund||Lübeck, Stralsund, Greifswald, Stettin , Kolberg , Stargard , Kulm , Thorn , Elbing , Gdansk , Riga , Reval , Dorpat , Kampen , Zuidersee , Briel , Harderwijk , Zutphen , Elburg , Stavoren , Deventer , Dordrecht , Amsterdam||After the second war against Waldemar IV of Denmark (1368-69), the Hanseatic League met on May 1, 1370 at the Hanseatic League in Stralsund to conclude peace with Denmark, in which representatives from 23 Hanseatic cities (the Cologne Confederation) and the Danish ambassadors took part . The peace treaty, which was sealed on May 24, 1370, included the fact that Denmark had to guarantee the Hanseatic League free trade on the Baltic Sea and the abolition of the increased taxes that had been levied by German merchants on herring trade in Skåne since 1361. The Peace of Stralsund marked the height of the power of the Hanseatic League of Cities in the Baltic Sea region.|
|The industrial city of Braunschweig was one of the large northern German cities that had grown rich through copper mining in Rammelsberg . The craftsmen, who had formed guilds , sought more rights and representation in the council in the cities, which in Braunschweig had repeatedly led to uprisings against the patriciate ( large class ). When in 1374 the taxes were to be increased for the Braunschweig craftsmen to pay off the city's high debt, several council members were slain and the patrician rule was eliminated.
Braunschweig were then expelled from the Hanseatic League at the Lübeck Hanseatic Congress on the grounds that the council members were killed through no guilt. Furthermore every merchant of the Hanseatic League was forbidden to trade with Braunschweig. / 1, 539 /.
|In the struggle for power in the three Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, Mecklenburg waged a caper war against Denmark, which also affected the Hansa ships. The port cities of Rostock and Wismar were the starting points of the pirates, where the ships were equipped and armed. The pirate drivers known as Vitalienbrüder drove at their own risk and account. The pressure of the Hanseatic League on both cities to put a stop to piracy was unsuccessful. The fight against the rampant piracy was decided at the Hanseatic Day. For two years, a pound duty was to be levied on the goods traded in the ports of the Hanseatic League in order to arm the Hanseatic warships.|
Hinrich von Loo ,
|Dortmund took part in the Hanseatic Day for the first time. Due to the dominance of the lakeside cities, none of the leading Westphalian Hanseatic cities had so far participated in the Hanseatic Day.|
Hinrich von Loo,
|After a five-year ban, Braunschweig was accepted back into the Hanseatic League.
From the Dutch cities that had joined the "Cologne Third", Arnhem applied for admission to the Hanseatic League in 1380, but this was not formally implemented until 1441.
|In a letter to the Prussian cities from the council messengers gathered for the Hanseatic Day, it is criticized that no council messengers were sent from these cities. You have been asked to designate a new meeting day to discuss matters and matters.|
Peter von Herike
|Trade bans in England, Flanders and Russia affect trade through three of the Hanseatic offices.
Previous disputes about increased taxes by Bruges, which were accompanied by serious unrest by the weavers against the authorities and the imprisonment of Hanse merchants in 1378, could not be resolved through negotiations. Thereupon the Hanseatic League decided on May 1, 1388, the trade blockade against Flanders, which lasted until the end of 1392.
Henning von Rentelen
|1401||Lübeck||Ban on buying Borg: At the instigation of the Bruges Kontor, it was decided for the first time not to buy goods on credit. This was primarily intended to protect merchants from long-distance trade from harm. This decision goes back to a ban on a Livonian city council, which forbade credit trading with Russians. This rule should apply for three years.|
Henning von Rentelen
Henning von Rentelen
Henning von Rentelen
Henning von Rentelen
Henning von Rentelen
Henning von Rentelen
Henning von Rentelen
Albert von der Bruges ,
Nikolaus von Stiten
Hermann von Alen
|With the increasing trade in bulk goods such as salt, grain and wood, the merchant ships got bigger and bigger. This also resulted in a greater draft of the ships, which increased the risk of the ships running aground in the ports. In contrast to the sea ports, this affected the inland cities with their smaller ports, which resisted this development. As a consequence, ships of different sizes were built.|
Marquard von Dame ,
Tidemann Junge ,
Albert van der Brugge,
Johann von Hameln
Marquard von Dame,
Albert van der Brugge,
|In the wake of the craftsmen uprisings in the cities, the Hanseatic League decided that every craftsman who settled in a city had their proof of ability certified by their hometown as well as by the city in which they settled. The aim was to better control the craftsmen who were suspected of being rebels.|
Johann von Hameln
|1418||Lübeck "Head of the Hanseatic League".|
Berthold Roland ,
Johann von Hameln,
Johann von Hameln
Ludwig Krul ,
|The shipbuilding of the Hanseatic League also served to sell the ships abroad, such as to England, Holland and Italy. When the Dutch ships increasingly appeared in the Baltic Sea, the Hanseatic League decided to prohibit the sale of ships abroad, which was regularly renewed in the following period. As a consequence, the shipyards lost valuable customers and, on the other hand, it promoted shipbuilding in other countries.|
Old town :
Tile van Strobeck, Cord van Ursleve, Albert van Vechelde, Statius Velhauwer, Henning Salge, Hans van Hollege
Cort Horneburg, Hans Horneburg, Tile van dem Broke
Arnt Elers, Fricke van Twedorp
|Wendish-Saxon alliance against the Danish king Erich von Pommern (Aschersleben, Braunschweig, Einbeck, Goslar, Halberstadt, Hamburg, Hameln, Hanover, Helmstedt, Hildesheim, Lübeck, Lüneburg, Magdeburg, Quedlinburg)
Bremen is pestered until 1433
|One of the main evils at the Hanseatic Days was the non-appearance of representatives from several cities. The unjustified absence was fixed with a fine of one gold mark, the confiscation of goods and even the expulsion from the Hanseatic League were threatened.|
Johann Gerwer ,
Jakob Bramstede ,
Johann Segeberg ,
|1457||30 cities were fined for not attending, unless they apologized quickly and with good reason.|
|1470||Uelzen||Lübeck, Hamburg, Lüneburg, Braunschweig, Stendal, Magdeburg, Hildesheim, Goslar as well as representatives from Rostock, Wismar, Halberstadt, Halle, Göttingen||Discussions on the draft of the Saxon-Wendish Tohopesate.|
Hinrich Castorp ,
Ludeke von Thünen ,
|Peace of Utrecht|
Ludeke von Thünen
Hinrich Lipperade the Younger ,
Heinrich Brömse ,
Riga: Johann Schöning
|Johann Schöning's diary of the Hanseatic Days in the Hanseatic Trials|
Hermann von Wickede II ,
Hermann von Wickede,
Hermann von Wickede
Daniel von Büren the Elder
|Result: Treaty of Segeberg (1506); Peace of Nyköping (1507)|
Jasper Lange ,
Johann Kerkring ,
Hartwig von Stiten ,
Tidemann Berck ,
Hermann Meyer , Daniel von Büren the Elder
Heinrich Castorp ,
Thomas von Wickede
|Wendish city day|
Thomas von Wickede
Thomas von Wickede
|1530||Lübeck||Attempt to instrumentalize the Hanseatic League in the Counter Reformation by the patriciate|
Gotthard von Hoeveln ,
|The Hanseatic League disapproves of Lübeck's politics.|
|Peace of Hamburg (1536) between Lübeck and Christian III.|
Heinrich Köhler ,
Ambrosius Meyer ,
Gottschalck von Wickede
Gottschalck von Wickede
|Heinrich Sudermann becomes syndic of the Hanseatic League.|
Gottschalck von Wickede,
Anton Lüdinghusen , 63 cities
|Statute of continuous confederation.|
|1604||The Hanseatic League reprimanded the Lübeckers going it alone with the embassy to Russia (1603).|
|1629 Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg jointly become administrators of the Hanseatic League.|
Christoph Gerdes ,
Bremen, Hamburg, Danzig, Rostock, Braunschweig, Hildesheim, Osnabrück, Cologne
|Last Hanseatic Day on May 29, 1669.|
- Sundic studies. In: Sundine: entertainment sheet for New Western Pomerania and Rügen. Volume 20, Stralsund 1846.
- Gottfried Waitz among others: Hanserecesse: The Recesse and other files of the Hanseatic days from 1256-1430. Volume 1, published by Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1870. ( Hanseatic days from 1256 - 1370 )
- Emil Ferdinand Fehling : Lübeck Council Line. Lübeck 1925.
- Antjekathrin Graßmann (Ed.): Lübeckische Geschichte. Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 1989, ISBN 3-7950-3203-2 .
- Jörgen Bracker (Ed.): The Hanseatic League - Reality and Myth . 2 volumes. Hamburg 1989. In: Catalog of the exhibition of the Museum for Hamburg History in Hamburg 24 August - 24 November 1989. Text part in 4th edition, Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 2006.
- Philippe Dollinger : The Hanseatic League. 6th edition. Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-520-37106-5 .
- Rolf Hammel-Kiesow : Hanseatic League. 5th edition. Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-58352-0 .
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, pp. 116-118.
- ↑ Margrit Schulte Beerbühl: The network of the Hanseatic League. July 21, 2011.
- ^ R. Hammel-Kiesow: The Hanseatic League. 2014, p. 17.
- ↑ Hanserecesse ( Memento of the original from February 28, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Hanseatic History Association.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 78.
- ↑ a b c d The recesses and other files of the Hanseatic days from 1256 - 1430. Volume 1: Hanseatic days from 1256 - 1370. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1870. (Digitized version: Hamburg State and University Library)
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, pp. 117-119.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, No. 199, pp. 125-131.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, pp. 78 and 80.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, No. 202-211, pp. 131-133.
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i Sundic studies § 8 - § 11. In: Sundine: Maintenance sheet for New Western Pomerania and Rügen. Volume 20, Stralsund 1846, pp. 267-276.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, No. 212, pp. 135-139.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, pp. 80-82.
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- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 536.
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- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 84.
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- ↑ a b Ph. Dollinger: The Hanse. 1998, p. 84.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, No. 259/266, pp. 194-204.
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- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 221.
- ^ City federation the Hanse, Johann Wittenborg from Lübeck. Hanseatic office of HANSE.
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Sundic Studies § 12. (pp. 284–286)
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- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, No. 440-449, pp. 397-404.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, p. 404.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, No. 450-451, pp. 404-406.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, No. 452-473, pp. 406-424.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, No. 474, pp. 424-425.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. Volume 1, Nos. 475-476, pp. 425-428.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 88.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. I 2, No. 92
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. I 2, No. 92
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, pp. 177-178, 539.
- ↑ Josef Dolle (Ed.): Document book of the city of Braunschweig. Volume 7: 1375-1387. (= Publications of the Historical Commission for Lower Saxony and Bremen. Volume 215). Hannover 2003, ISBN 3-7752-6015-3 , p. 48.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. I2, No. 181: The pound duty to be paid from Danzig to Lübeck
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, pp. 99, 100, 564.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 157.
- ^ Dolle: Document book of the city of Braunschweig. P. 321.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 158.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. I2, No. 264
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 540.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, pp. 95-97.
- ↑ G. Waitz et al: Hanserecesse. I 5, No. 23
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, pp. 268, 558.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 184.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 177.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 186.
- ^ Matthias Puhle: The politics of the city of Braunschweig within the Saxon city union and the Hanseatic League in the late Middle Ages. In: Braunschweiger workpieces. Volume 63, Braunschweig 1985, p. 216.
- ^ Puhle: The politics of the city of Braunschweig. P. 73.
- ^ Puhle: The politics of the city of Braunschweig. P. 44.
- ↑ Thomas Hill: The city and its market: Bremen's surrounding and external relations in the Middle Ages (12th-15th centuries). Franz Steiner Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-515-08068-6 .
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 119.
- ^ Ph. Dollinger: The Hanseatic League. 1998, p. 120.
- ↑ Thomas Vogtherr: Uelzen. History of a city in the Middle Ages. Becker, Uelzen 1997, p. 152 f.