|Rammelsberg ore mine|
|General information about the mine|
|Mining technology||Civil engineering|
Goslarite , Romanite (type locality)
azurite, calcite, hemimorphite, hydrozincite, cassiterite, smithsonite, strontianite, tourmaline
|Information about the mining company|
|Operating company||Preussag AG Metall|
|Start of operation||968|
|End of operation||1988|
|Successor use||Visitor mine|
|Funded raw materials|
|Degradation of||Gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc / gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc / gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc|
|Gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc|
|Altes Lager (sometimes also Altes Lager, Lying Trum)|
|Mightiness||5 to 10 m|
|Greatest depth||100 m|
|overall length||400 m|
|Gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc|
|Degradation of||Gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc|
|Old camp, hanging strand|
|Gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc|
|Degradation of||Gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc|
|Greatest depth||-100 m|
|country||State of Lower Saxony|
|Rammelsberg museum and visitor mine|
|UNESCO world heritage|
|Museum and visitor mine Rammelsberg (aerial view)
|Criteria :||(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)|
|Reference No .:||623|
|UNESCO region :||Europe and North America|
|History of enrollment|
|Enrollment:||1992 (session 16)|
The ore mine Rammelsberg was a mine for the extraction of non-ferrous metals on the mountain of the same name Rammelsberg (Harz) . It is located south of the core town of Goslar in the district of Goslar in Lower Saxony .
The mine was closed in 1988 after more than 1000 years of almost uninterrupted mining ; Since 1992 belongs visitor mine Rammelsberg to UNESCO - World Heritage Site , which will be called for an expansion in 2010 Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar and Upper Harz Water carries.
The Rammelsberg mountain
Thehigh Rammelsberg rises above the mine.
There are various explanations for the origin of the name:
- According to legend, the mountain is said to have been named after the knight Ramm , whose horse pawed the ore with his hooves during a hunting excursion in 968.
- Local researchers derive the name from Ramsen , the Harz term for wild garlic . Rammelsberg could then be interpreted as "the mountain overgrown with wild garlic".
- Another explanation says that the term ram can also be found in other areas with mining traditions, such as Ramsau. The Italian word for “copper” is rame .
In contrast to the dike deposits of the Upper Harz , the ore deposits of the Rammelsberg were created by the escape of hot, metal-containing thermal baths on the sea floor in the Devonian . This formation is called synsedimentary-submarine-exhalative (Sedex). At the bottom of the Devon Sea, two large ore lenses formed, which were included in the folding of the rocks during the Carboniferous Period and therefore lie at an angle in the mountain. The deposit has tipped over, with the older ore layers on top. The ore mining began in the old camp , which was exposed on the surface of the earth by erosion . The new camp was only discovered in the 19th century through targeted exploration .
Mined ores and mineral finds
On Rammelsberg which were mainly ore types lead-zinc ore, copper ore, Schwefelerz, Melierterz, limonite, Grauerz, Banderz and Kniest with the main minerals galena ( galena ), chalcopyrite ( chalcopyrite ), sphalerite ( zinc blende ), barite ( barite ), pyrite and Vitriole promoted. Gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc, among other things, were extracted from the ores, on which the wealth of the city of Goslar was based in the Middle Ages.
In addition to the main minerals already mentioned, which were mined in Rammelsberg, many other minerals were found at this site, including azurite , calcite , hemimorphite , hydrozincite , cassiterite ( tin stone ), smithsonite ( zinc spar , calamine ), strontianite and various tourmalines . Rammelsberg is also type locality for the minerals goslarite and romanite . A total of around 100 minerals and their varieties have been identified here.
Slag and unsettled ore chunks, which were found in archaeological excavations between 1981 and 1985 at the manor at Düna in the southern Harz, indicate, according to analyzes, that mining was already taking place on the Rammelsberg in the 3rd century. Agricola reported in 1556 that lead deposits had been exploited for 600 years. The museum reports on mining activities since the Bronze Age , which is confirmed to some extent by the Mining Archeology Unit at the Lower Saxony State Office for Monument Preservation .
The mining at Rammelsberg was first mentioned around 968 by Widukind von Corvey in his Res gestae Saxonicae . According to this, Otto the Great "opened silver veins in the Sachsenland" ("in Saxonia venas argenti aperuit").
Around 1150, the Rathstiefste adit , which was 1600 m long along with the mountain trip , was created to drain the pits . The oldest written proof of Rathstiefsten Stollns dates back to 1271. He brought against draining into the Abzucht (suspected) oldest adit about 25 meters depth one. Twelve light holes were created for the driveway , and a thirteenth was added later. On the Rathstiefsten Stolln a waterworks was built, the water from the deeper Build lifted.
In 1376 there was a mining accident in which at least 100 miners were buried by falling rock and died. Georgius Agricola mentions an accident in which around 400 men were killed. The zinc content of the ores was not used at that time and mostly burned to zinc oxide.
Around 1455 art on the Rathstiefsten Stollen was no longer able to keep the water in the marsh, which is why the council of the city of Goslar hired the Hungarian mining entrepreneur Janosz (also Jan or Johann) Thurzo to drive a new, deeper tunnel. Thurzo founded a trade union under mining law , in which Saxon ("Meißner") trades were also represented, and concluded a corresponding contract with the council. With 1000 guilders of equity he began driving the tunnel in 1468. The mouth hole of the "Meißner Stolln" lies between the Breiten Tor and the Osterfeld, next to the breeding. After a few hundred meters of tunneling, disputes arose between the Stöllners and the council in 1489, which ultimately led to the Stöllners leaving Goslar. Thurzo sold his shares in 1496 and the council tried to advance the tunnel at their own expense. This happened with major interruptions until the work was finally stopped in 1550. At that time, the Meissner tunnel was a little over 1000 m long.
If the mines were originally in imperial ownership (the Palatinate was therefore moved from Werla to Goslar ), the town came under the lease of the Rammelsberg mines between 1360 and 1460. The pits were named partly after the owner families, partly after their own characteristics.
In 1489 there were 17 pits, from west to east:
|Pit name||stroke extension (cubits)||stroking extension|
During an archaeological inspection in 1999, the remains of a leather shoe were found on a mine dump at Rammelsberg, which can be dated to around 1024. After further prospecting , excavations were carried out in the area of the site from 2010 onwards in annual campaigns by the Mining Archeology Unit of the Lower Saxony State Office for Monument Preservation . In 2011, a wooden construction was discovered underground there, which is interpreted as a medieval mine in the old warehouse with a shaft and tunnel. It is said to be the oldest wood-secured tunnel in Central Europe.
Early modern age
The Maltermeisterturm is the oldest surviving daytime facility on the Rammelsberg and - probably - also in Germany. It was built around 1500 on a dump on the slope of the Rammelsberg. Initially the tower was used to monitor the pits, from 1578 to 1804 it was used as a bell tower . The ringing bell was initially kept in the Goslar City Museum, but was probably shown in the exhibition in Haus M am Rammelsberg after 1990.
The master painter lived in the tower from the middle of the 18th century. He managed the wood needed for the mining operation, which was measured in malters . Hence the name of the tower comes from.
In order to have enough impact water for the water wheels in dry times , the Herzberger pond was created in 1561. This has been operated as a forest pool since 1926 . Until the mine was closed, the water was used to cool the system, the warm water was then pumped back into the pond and heated the swimming pool in the forest pool. The facilities of the bathing establishment have been demolished since around 2014.
The problem of drainage for the operation of the mine is clearly mentioned. In 1527, Duke Heinrich the Younger resumed driving the Meissner tunnel. After the tunnel had been driven a further 230 m, however, it was closed again. Heinrich's son Julius had work resumed after the death of his father in 1568 and the tunnel was finally completed on September 25, 1585 after a construction period of over 100 years. Now called "Deep Juliusfortunatusstolln" he brought against the Rathstiefsten Stolln 80 Lachter (approximately 153.5 m) depth, and was in 1400 Lachter long. The deep burrows in the Rammelsberg that had been flooded since 1300 could now be solved.
In the second half of the 18th century, the following mines existed on Rammelsberg:
- Nachtigallzeche (upper and lower). Funding via the Serenissimorum day and driving shaft and / or the Kanekuhler day and driving shaft
- Breitling / Breid (t) ling . Funding via the Kanekuhl day and drive shaft
- Kanekul / Kanekuhle . Funding via the Kanekuhl day and drive shaft
- Vegtsche / Voigtsche / Vogtsche colliery . Funding via the Vogtscher Treibeschacht
- (Water) art course
- Lead mine . Funding via the Kanekuhler Treibeschacht
- Serenissimorum Deepest . Funding via the Serenissimorum day and drive shaft
- Rathstiefste . Funding via the Rathstiefsten day and drive shaft
- Intimate / Inning / Inny . Funding via the Inni (g) er day and driving shaft
- Lüdersill / Lüdersüll . Funding via the Lüdersüller day and drive shaft
- Vinegar stollen .
As ore deposits from that time are known: lead, copper, silver, and gold.
Well-known tunnels of the mine:
- Rathstiefster tunnel
- Deep Juliusfortunatus tunnel (drainage tunnel)
In the period from 1797 to 1805 the mine was modernized by Johann Christoph Röder . He introduced mining with an offset and modernized the extraction. He had what would later become known as the Roederstollen be built as a surcharge.
From 1906 a power station was operated and the mine began to be electrified. In the 1920s the mine became the property of Preussag und Braunschweig GmbH.
In the years 1932 to 1945 the daytime facilities were modernized and most of them rebuilt. Since the National Socialists considered the Rammelsberg with its non-ferrous metal ores to be important to the war effort and the difficult processing of the ores through flotation was technically solved, the mine was greatly expanded as part of the four-year plan . In the course of the Rammelsberg project until 1936/1937, today's daytime facilities with slope preparation and the Rammelsberg shaft were built. Architects were Fritz Schupp and Martin Kremmer , who also designed other important industrial buildings (including the Zeche Zollverein in the Ruhr area; today also a UNESCO World Heritage Site). The further operation and expansion took place in the war years with the use of forced labor .
1945 until closure
The Preussag AG metal operated the mine until it was closed in 1988. Until the closure are around 27 million tonnes of ore have been mined.
Poor treatment on the Bollrich from the 1950s
As a result of the economic miracle and the sharp rise in the price of lead and zinc in 1950 , investigations were carried out in the strip ore deposits in the same year. After successful attempts to process these poor ores (usable metal content approx. 25%), the strip ore processing at Bollrich above Oker was put into operation in 1953 . The colliery architect Fritz Schupp was responsible for the planning of the facility - as was the case with the daytime facilities on Rammelsberg that have been preserved to this day.
The facility was connected to the Rammelsberg ore mine via the mine railway through the Gelenbeeker tunnel, whereas the concentrates were transported to the lead smelter in Oker and to the zinc smelter in Harlingerode via a standard-gauge railway line .
Prospecting 2009–2011 in the Gosetal
In February 2009, Scandinavian Highlands Holding A / S published the results of geophysical surveys carried out by its subsidiary Harz Minerals GmbH. A geophysical anomaly was identified two kilometers west of the Rammelsberg deposit, which was interpreted as a possible previously unknown deposit the size of the Rammelsberg deposits. In autumn 2009, in the area of Hessen head and Gosetales several were exploration wells up in 500 and 600 meters depth drilled to investigate in more detail the anomaly. At the end of January 2010, the company announced that it would soon continue drilling to a depth of around 800 meters. Work began in November 2010 and was completed in January 2011 with the completion of two approximately 700 m deep wells. No mineralization was found.
In 2015, plans were announced to extract metals from the settling basins on the Bollrich. Up to 1.5 tons of gold, 100 tons of indium , 180 tons of gallium , 1000 tons of cobalt and other economically strategic metals are suspected in the mud ponds . First, investigations and test bores were carried out. In January 2018 interim results of the “Research on the Provision of Strategic Economic Raw Materials” were published. Accordingly, processes for the recovery of raw materials were developed within the framework of the "REWITA" project ( recycling of mining processing residues for the extraction of economically strategic metals using the example of tailings at Bollrich in Goslar).
Visitor and show mine
The Rammelsberg museum and visitor mine are the anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Culture (ERIH).
Special sights of historical mining include:
- Röder the lugs (with several sweeping - and art wheels which served the dewatering of the pit and the ore extraction, a replica is in the Deutsche Museum München),
- the fire-resistant vault (the oldest brick-lined mine room in Central Europe),
- the Rathstiefste tunnel (drainage tunnel from the Middle Ages; lined with colored vitriol crusts),
- the approach house (18th century),
- the Maltermeisterturm (oldest preserved industrial building in Germany),
- old heaps (oldest from the 11th and 12th centuries).
UNESCO World Heritage Site
After well over 1000 years, during which around 27 million tons of ore were mined, the production was stopped on June 30, 1988 due to the extensive exhaustion of the deposit . A citizens' association vehemently opposed the planned demolition of the daytime facilities and the backfilling of the historic pit , so that the disused mine became a unique museum. The then district curator Reinhard Roseneck succeeded in submitting an application to UNESCO to recognize the mine together with Goslar's old town as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This application was accepted by the World Heritage Committee in 1992. In 2010 the world heritage site was expanded to include the Upper Harz water shelf , the Walkenried monastery and the Samson mine in St. Andreasberg . The Rammelsberg mine was included in the list of 77 national geotopes awarded in 2006.
- A museum registration for the mining museum failed at the first attempt in 2010.
Well-known coins related to the Rammelsberg mine
The Schmalkaldic Bundestaler were minted from the silver of the Braunschweig silver mines on Rammelsberg. In 2008, the old town of Goslar and the Rammelsberg mine formed the motif of the 100 euro gold coins issued annually from the UNESCO World Heritage series . The Mariengroschen from Goslar is also known . The farmer's groschen from Goslar were minted from 1477 to at least 1490 and were in circulation until the 16th century.
- Road traffic
- The Rammelsberger Straße in Goslar merges into the Bergtal road , which leads to the mining museum. There are three parking spaces for cars and buses.
- City bus route 803
- from Goslar train station to the Bergbaumuseum stop .
- Rammelsberg mine, old town of Goslar and Upper Harz water management
- List of mines in the Harz Mountains
- Harz region
- Wilhelm Bornhardt : History of the Rammelsberg mining industry from its admission to modern times . Ed .: Prussian Geological State Institute (= archive for deposit research . No. 52 ). Berlin 1931.
- Christoph Bartels : The ore mine at Rammelsberg . Ed .: Preussag AG Metall. Preussag, Goslar 1988.
- City of Goslar (ed.): Rammelsberg bibliography . A directory of the writings on mining on the Rammelsberg zu Goslar. Goslar 1968.
- Georg Agricola: Twelve Books on Mining and Metallurgy , 1556, edited as a translation in 1928 and published by the Agricola Society at the Deutsches Museum. ( online PDF 174 MB ).
- Franz Ludwig von Cancrin: Description of the most excellent mines in Hesse, in the Waldekk, on the Haarz, in the Mansfeld, in Chursachsen, and in the Saalfeld . Andreä, 1767.
- Emil Kraume: A thousand years of Rammelsberg . Preussag, Goslar 1968.
- Eberhard Riech, Uwe Steinkamm, Eckhard Walcher: Ore mining in the Harz - Rammelsberg - everything about mining, geology, minerals . Doris Bode, Haltern 1987, ISBN 3-925094-09-1 .
- Wilfried Ließmann : Historical mining in the Harz . 3. Edition. Springer, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-540-31327-4 , 7 World Heritage Rammelsberg - Well over 1000 years of mining, p. 142-157 .
- Hans-Georg Dettmer: The Roeder tunnel in Rammelsberg . Ed .: Weltkulturerbe Rammelsberg (= Rammelsberger Leitfaden . Volume 1 ). Goslar 2005, ISBN 3-929559-00-5 .
- Hans-Georg Dettmer: Mining traces at every turn. 30 reasons to hike the Rammelsberg . Ed .: Weltkulturerbe Rammelsberg (= Rammelsberger Leitfaden . Volume 3 ). Goslar 2006, ISBN 3-929559-03-X .
- Stefan Dützer: On steely paths. Railways on the Rammelsberg . Goslarsche Zeitung, Goslar 2008, ISBN 978-3-9809704-5-7 .
- Christine H. Bauer: The daily facilities of the ore mine Rammelsberg in Goslar (= reports on the preservation of monuments in Lower Saxony ). 1st edition. 2013, ISSN 0720-9835 .
- Hans-Joachim Kraschewski: Operating procedure and work status of the Goslar mining on Rammelsberg from the 16th to the 18th century . German Mining Museum, Bochum 2002, ISBN 978-3-921533-99-4 .
- Rammelsberg in the Topographia Braunschweig Lüneburg - Matthäus Merian ( Wikisource )
- Treasures of the world - heritage of humanity: The Rammelsberg and Goslar - a mountain made of ore and its city . Documentary, Germany 2000 (15 minutes)
- Cultural heritage of mankind: The Rammelsberg . Information about the museum and visitor mine, at rammelsberg.de
- Entry on the UNESCO World Heritage Center website ( English and French ).
- The Rammelsberg (Goslar) , history and pictures, on raymond-faure.com
- Rammelsberg ore mine , history and pictures, on industriedenkmal.de
- Friends of the World Cultural Heritage ore mine Rammelsberg Goslar / Harz e. V. , on foerderverein-rammelsberg.de
- Folk art from the Rammelberg mine in Goslar , on miner-sailor.de
- Legends from Lower Saxony - The origins of the mines on the Rammelsberg ( Gutenberg-DE project )
- UNESCO World Heritage in the Harz Mountains
- Christoph Bartels: Was there a depression in the European coal and steel industry in the 14th and 15th centuries? (PDF; 1.74 MB) In: Ber. Naturf. Ges. Freiburg i. Br. 2012, pp. 1–20 , accessed on September 6, 2018 .
- Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
- Rammelsberg in the Topographia Braunschweig Lüneburg - Matthäus Merian ( Wikisource )
- Industriedenkmal.de: Erzbergwerk Rammelsberg ( Memento from January 6, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 18, 2018.
- Wilfried Ließmann : Historical mining in the Harz . 3. Edition. Springer, Berlin 2010, ISBN 3-540-62930-0 , pp. 7–8, 11–12 ( excerpt (PDF) [accessed March 24, 2018]).
- Förderverein Rammelsberger Bergbaumuseum Goslar / Harz e. V .: Searching and exploring the Rammelsberg and its surroundings ( Memento from January 16, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), annual edition 2011/2012 for the members of the Association, accessed on March 18, 2018.
Description of the type locality Rammelsberg and list of mineral finds in:
- Das Erzbergwerk Rammelsberg , on mineralienatlas.de (German)
- Rammelsberg, Goslar, Harz, Lower Saxony, Germany , on mindat.org (English)
- Christoph Bartels: The ore mine on Rammelsberg . Ed .: Preussag AG Metall. Goslar 1988, p. 12 .
- Agricola, 1st book, p. 3, "Lead works in Goslar for 600 years"
- World Heritage Site Goslar: Historic Mining ( Memento from July 21, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 18, 2018.
- Lower Saxony State Office for the Preservation of Monuments and Mining Archeology: On the trail of early mining on the Rammelsberg near Goslar ( memento from July 2, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 18, 2018.
- Gerhard Laub: 500 years of Meissnerstolln . Ed .: Karl Krause (= Goslarer Bergkalender . 368th year). Goslarsche Zeitung, Goslar 1986, p. 79-82 .
- tunnel of the Rammelsberg. (PDF) In: foerderverein-rammelsberg.de. Friends of the Rammelsberg Mining Museum Goslar / Harz e. V., 2008, accessed March 19, 2018 .
- Agricola, Book 6, p. 186, Rammelsberg mine accident
- Agricola 9th book, pp. 355–356, "a kind of white liquid in the forehearth"
- from today's Slovakia
- Unknown Rammelsberg. Ore mining in the Middle Ages - other mines in comparison. (PDF) In: foerderverein-rammelsberg.de. Friends of the Rammelsberg Mining Museum Goslar / Harz e. V., 2015, accessed on March 20, 2018 .
- Daniela Zeibig: Unique find in the Harz Mountains - 700 year old wooden shaft illuminates medieval mining ( memento from September 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) in Spectrum of Science , September 7, 2012, accessed on July 13, 2013
- Mining: Archaeologists find 700 year old tunnels in the Harz Mountains. (No longer available online.) Spiegel.de, September 6, 2012, archived from the original ; accessed on January 15, 2015 .
- Hans-Günther Griep: The bell of the Rammelsberg mining industry . Ed .: Karl Krause (= Goslarer Bergkalender . 369th year). Goslarsche Zeitung, Goslar 1987, p. 71-73 .
- Rammelsberg - Exhibition in the magazine (House M). In: raymond-faure.com. Retrieved May 20, 2018 .
- 1 Braunschweigisches Lachter = 1.9198 m
- Carl JB Karsten: Archives for mining and metallurgy . tape 4 . Reimer, Berlin 1821, p. 279 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Montani and Silvani in the Harz Mountains . In: Albrecht Jockenhövel (Hrsg.): Mining, smelting and forest use in the Middle Ages: Effects on people and the environment . Results of an international workshop (Dillenburg, May 11-15, 1994, Economic History Museum “Villa Grün”) (= quarterly journal for social and economic history ). No. 121 . Franz Steiner, 1996, ISBN 978-3-515-06644-0 , pp. 121 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Franz Ludwig von Cancrin, p. 86 ff. ( Limited preview in the Google book search)
- Förderverein Rammelsberger Bergbaumuseum Goslar / Harz e. V. (Ed.): Shafts of the Rammelsberg . Annual gift 2006/2007 for the members of the association. Friends of the Rammelsberg Mining Museum Goslar / Harz e. V., Goslar November 2006, ore production shafts in the 16th to 18th centuries, p. 26 (Minutes of the Goslar Mining Authority from 1674).
- The Röder tunnel. (PDF; 2.9 MB) Preservation of monuments and guided tours for visitors in the period before the museum was founded. In: Annual edition 2010/2011 for the friends of the association. Förderverein Rammelsberger Bergbaumuseum Goslar / Harz eV, pp. 4–6 , accessed on October 29, 2013 .
- Bitter times at www.taz.de, accessed on March 11, 2020
- Christine F. Bauer: 1000 years of mining on the Rammelsberg in: Bergwerk Rammelsberg, old town of Goslar, Oberharzer Wasserwirtschaft, published by the city of Goslar on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the World Heritage, Verlag Goslarsche Zeitung, Goslar, 2017, ISBN 978-3- 9816086-5-6
- Ursula Müller: June 3, 1988: The last day of the ore mine Rammelsberg . Ed .: Karl Krause (= Goslarer Bergkalender . 371st year). Goslarsche Zeitung, Goslar 1989, p. 37-38 .
- Ursula Müller: Without mining, Goslar's heart beats slower . Ed .: Karl Krause (= Goslarer Bergkalender . 371st year). Goslarsche Zeitung, Goslar 1989, p. 39-40 .
- Resin SEDEX Project - Base metals, Silver and Gold. (No longer available online.) Harz Minerals GmbH, archived from the original on February 2, 2013 ; accessed on December 9, 2012 .
- Heinz-Georg Breuer: Hope grows: Danes drill deeper in the Gosetal ( memento from July 31, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ), from January 25, 2010, accessed on April 19, 2016, from goslarsche.de
- Exploration for Base Metals in the Harz Mountains, central Germany - The Gosetal anomaly in the Harz Mountains, a Rammelsberg twin? (PDF; 3.61 MB) (No longer available online.) Harz Minerals GmbH, archived from the original on March 11, 2014 ; accessed on December 9, 2012 .
- Heinz-Georg Breuer: Danes find gold in Norway: Gosetal project on hold ( Memento from February 6, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ), February 15, 2012, accessed on April 19, 2016, from goslarsche.de
- TU Clausthal: Test drilling in Goslar mountain ponds started ( Memento from March 18, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Press release from November 24, 2015, accessed on March 18, 2018.
- Federal Ministry of Education and Research: Indium & Co . : Drilling for rare metals in the Harz Mountains ( memento of April 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 18, 2018.
- Focus-Online (Regional Lower Saxony): "Several hundred million euros" 1.5 tons of gold under water: Researchers want to recover treasure from the lake in the Harz ( Memento from November 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). November 24, 2015 issue, accessed on March 18, 2018.
- CUTEC (Clausthaler Umwelttechnik Forschungszentrum der TU Clausthal): Interim results of the "Research on the Provision of Economic Strategic Raw Materials" ( Memento of March 18, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), 1st edition, January 2018, (online PDF 5.94 MB) accessed on 18th March 2018.
- Friedrich Balck : Overcoming and Reconstruction of a Water Wheel in Rammelsberg ( Memento from September 25, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) in Reconstruction of a Water Wheel (2002), accessed on April 19, 2016, from tu-clausthal.de
- Klaus Stedingk: A Thousand Years of the German Emperors Treasure Chest - The Rammelsberg mine in Goslar . In: Ernst-Rüdiger Look, Ludger Feldmann (Ed.): Fascination Geology. The important geotopes of Germany , E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-510-65219-3 , 24f.
- Oliver Stade: The Rammelsberg has to rework ( memento from July 31, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ), from November 19, 2010, accessed on April 19, 2016, from goslarsche.de
- Wolfgang Sobotta: Sketches about the Goslarer Mariengeld . Ed .: Karl Krause (= Goslarer Bergkalender . 368th year). Goslarsche Zeitung, Goslar 1986, p. 49-53 .
- Heinz Fengler, Gerd Gierow, Willy Unger: transpress Lexikon Numismatics . Berlin 1976, p. 35