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Pit construction is a generic term for all cavities created by mining work . Mine workings that lie approximately in a horizontal plane are summarized under the term sole . Mine work is also referred to as mining construction.

Tasks of the mine works

Mine structures are primarily used to extract the minerals . The mine workings are divided up and laid out in such a way that optimal exploitation of the respective deposit is guaranteed. In addition to these mines, there are also mines that are used to set up machines in them. Another task of the respective mine works is to ensure the supply and discharge of the impact water for the machines. Other mines are used to dissolve water or provide ventilation . Each pit must be built according to its tasks and according to certain rules. Mine workings that no longer have any tasks are thrown away ; the miner then calls them an old man .

Types of mine workings

Mine structures are initially classified according to their use. The miner differentiates between the mine workings of the alignment , the mine workings of the device and the mine workings of the mining . Another division of the mine workings is the division of the mine workings into three main classes. Trial and fixture constructions , dismantling and auxiliary constructions. The alignment structures include the pit structures that make the deposit accessible. This includes the shafts , the main tunnels and the main crosscuts and routes . If the deposit is aligned via tunnels, the miner calls it tunnel construction , if the deposit is aligned below the tunnel level through shafts and routes, he calls it civil engineering . The experimental structures, i.e. the structures for the alignment of the deposit, are the mine structures with which the mine operator can generate the least income. The reason for this is that these mine workings are predominantly excavated in the deaf rock or in areas of the mine field in which only little usable minerals such. B. ore are present. By building the fixtures, the deposit is divided into appropriate sections suitable for mining. The fixtures and fittings include the basic sections and mining sections , as well as the departmental crosscuts. Auxiliary structures are not directly involved in the extraction of the minerals. The auxiliary structures include substructures, earth tunnels, water solution tunnels, weather boreholes and shafts and light holes . The pits of the mining include the strut , the chambers and the places.

Classification according to the dimensions and the course

Due to the shape and dimensions, a distinction is made between normal pit structures and underground spaces. In the case of underground rooms, a distinction is made between large and other rooms. The large areas include filling locations and machine chambers . Other rooms are the horse stables, the tack chambers, dressing material chambers and the explosives chambers. After the lapse of the mine, a distinction is horizontal, seigere and inclined workings. All routes , tunnels and crosscuts belong to the horizontal mine workings. The pits can be excavated in the rock or in the deposit. The excavation of the pits can be carried out in the direction of strike or across the direction of strike. The mine workings excavated in the direction of strike include the straightening sections, the mining sections and the invert and partial invert sections. The pits excavated across the strike direction include the cross passages and, in the case of particularly large deposits, the cross sections. All segregated shafts and blind shafts belong to the segregated mine structures . In the case of inclined pit structures, a distinction is made between mine structures that are driven floating on the fall line or in the fall line. The floating mine structures include all types of overcuts and brake mountains . The sloping pit structures include cutting off . Other inclined pit structures are the conveyor peaks and the tonnage shafts.


  • Fritz Heise , Friedrich Herbst , Carl Hellmut Fritzsche : Mining studies . Textbook of, with special consideration of the coal mining industry. 8th edition. tape 1 . Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1942, p. 687 .
  • Gerhard Leithold et al .: Taschenbuch Bergbau . Civil engineering. Ed .: Chamber of Technology, Association of Mining. tape III . German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1962, p. 489 .
  • Horst Roschlau, Wolfram Heinze: Knowledge storage mining technology . Ed .: SDAG Wismut. 1st edition. German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1974, p. 288 .
  • Author collective: The blasting party . in mining and in the stone and earth industry. Ed .: SDAG Wismut. 3. Edition. German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1977, p. 204 .
  • Kurt Hoffmann et al .: Expertise for the hard coal mining . tape 1 . People and Knowledge, Berlin 1952, p. 205 .
  • Erich Lewien, Peter Hartmann: Technology of mining . Ed .: University of the German Trade Unions "Fritz Heckert". Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1958, p. 210 .
  • Collective of authors: Basic geological knowledge . Ed .: Horst Roschlau, Hans-Joachim Haberkorn. 2nd Edition. German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1977, p. 199 .
  • Fritz Heise, Friedrich Herbst, Carl Hellmut Fritzsche: Textbook of mining science, with special consideration of hard coal mining . 8th and 9th completely revised edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Göttingen / Heidelberg 1958.
  • Б. В. Бокий: mining science . Technology, Berlin 1955, p. 647 (Russian: Горное дело . Translated by Dr. R. Staepken).

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Walter Bischoff , Heinz Bramann, Westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse Bochum: The small mining dictionary. 7th edition, Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Essen 1988, ISBN 3-7739-0501-7 .
  2. ^ A b c d e Emil Stöhr, Emil Treptow: Basics of mining science including processing. Spielhagen & Schurich publishing house, Vienna 1892.
  3. a b Carl Hartmann (Ed.): Concise dictionary of the mountain, hut and Saltwork science of mineralogy and geognosy. First division. Bernhard Friedrich Voigt bookstore, Ilmenau 1825.
  4. a b c d e f Fritz Heise, Fritz Herbst: Textbook of mining studies with a special focus on hard coal mining. First volume, published by Julius Springer, Berlin 1908.
  5. ^ Heinrich Veith: German mountain dictionary with evidence . Published by Wilhelm Gottlieb Korn, Breslau 1871.
  6. ^ A b Carl von Scheuchenstuel: IDIOTICON of the Austrian mountain and hut language. kk court bookseller Wilhelm Braumüller, Vienna 1856.
  7. Carl Hartmann: Conversations-Lexicon of mining, metallurgy & salt works and their auxiliary sciences. Second volume, J. Scheible bookstore, Stuttgart 1840.
  8. Fritz Heise, Fritz Herbst: Textbook of mining science with special consideration of hard coal mining. First volume, fifth improved edition, published by Julius Springer, Berlin 1923.