The bay is mining a mine opening with which the deposit from the surface ( above ground ) ago is tapped. Shafts are used to transport people ( cable car ) and material, to convey the decomposition products and to supply fresh air ( ventilation ).
The first shafts existed over 7,500 years ago. From about 8 meters deep shafts, flint stones were extracted using the mining method in small pits, which were designed into real pit fields ( Grimes Graves ). To get into the pit, the miners probably already drove through the shaft on ropes. However, these shafts only remained in operation for a short time and were backfilled when the flint was mined. This happened with the overburden of a shaft that was dug a few meters further. A similar principle was also used in Duckelbau .
With the introduction of steam power, civil engineering shaft technology was possible on a large scale. The steam power was also necessary in order to pump out the large amounts of groundwater from the sump . For the extensive technical systems such as boilers, steam engines, pulleys, etc., stronger shaft buildings were required. The headframe developed from these. In the middle of the 15th century the shafts in the Mansfeld ore mining already reached a depth of over 200 meters. In the 16th century, underground pits were built near Kitzbühel, where the shafts had a depth of over 880 meters.
Shafts are always required when a deposit is located below the tunnel floor, so that tunnel construction is no longer possible, or to support the tunnel construction. The deepest point of a shaft is the shaft sump , the top point is the suspended bench . The function of the hanging bench is comparable to that of the tunnel mouth hole . Between pit bank and shaft sump, depending on the deposit, the individual soles . The miner calls the transition from the shaft tube to the track the shaft bell. In the area of the shaft bell there is a special construction called the shaft chair . The immediately adjacent to the shaft bottom section filling location , called here the horizontal will track promotion in the well production transferred. The shaft cross-section of a shaft with a shaft lining is called a shaft disc . A shaft is usually divided into several departments. Each of these departments is referred to as a strand (also strand ), so there are the driving, the art (also pipe or pipeline strand) and the conveying strands.
Subdivision according to location
Shafts are laid out either in tonnage , seiger (vertical) or broken. Shafts with a length of tonnage are mainly created when the mountain conditions are favorable. In the earlier ore mining, shafts were almost exclusively built with tons. These shafts follow the steeply inclined deposits (e.g. ore veins ) and therefore deviate from the vertical. One advantage of shafts with a length of tonnes was the low investment costs, as the duct filling is usually softer than the adjacent rock. By approaching the deposit at an angle, alignment sections from the shaft to the deposit can be dispensed with. In ore mining, you could also extract ores while sinking , while in ore mining you also got to know the ore flow of the Ganges. A disadvantage of barrel-length shafts is that the basket is lowered on rollers along guide rails, which leads to greater wear and tear on the rope.
Seigere shafts are mainly created in the case of mighty overburden or difficult mountain conditions. Although these shafts are more expensive to build than shafts that take several tons, they have greater advantages over a longer period of operation. First of all, the shaft impacts suffer a lower pressure than with shafts of several tons . As a result, the shaft extension can be dimensioned weaker and the repair effort is not as great as with shafts with a length of tons. In addition, the sunk shaft length is shorter in the case of sloping shafts at the same depth. As a rule, only deep shafts are built today.
Broken shafts are shafts with different (seiger, ton-length) sunk sections. These shafts are rarely created. In order to be able to penetrate a mighty overburden quickly, these shafts are first sunk deeper. When the deposit is reached, they are further sunk in the deposit area for tons. If the part that is sunk in Seiger is only shallow, then such a shaft is called a proposed shaft in the Saxon mountain district . The disadvantage of broken manholes is that the conveyance is more difficult to carry out. These shafts require specially designed delivery vessels. Special devices are also required at the break point.
Depending on the use, the shafts were divided into weather shafts, driving shafts, driving shafts, conveying shafts, artificial shafts, straightening shafts, pulling shafts or main shafts.
Weather shafts are shafts whose main task is ventilation . Smaller weather shafts, which are mainly used in tunnel construction , are called light holes . These shafts are also referred to as tunnel shafts or tunnel shafts and are required to support the tunnel operation.
Shafts that are used to drive through the deeper pits were previously called lift shafts , today the driving shaft , which is separated from the conveying run by built-in components, is sometimes called the driving shaft. Shafts that are primarily used to transport people are now called cable car shafts . Shafts that are used to convey the materials, the minerals, used to be called driving shafts or conveying shafts , today they are only called conveying shafts. Wells in which a synthetic linkage to raise the mine water was installed, were Kunstschacht called.
Straightening shafts were used to align the deposit. They are usually placed on the medullary sheath between two pit fields . In early gang ore mining, it was not customary to sink vertical (seigere) shafts. I. d. As a rule, they were created in the collapse of the passage. When around the 17th / 18th In the 19th century, the deposits began to be dismantled more systematically, and deeper shafts became fashionable. Since they were used to align the deposit, they were called straightening shafts in order to separate them from the others. The term straightening shaft tells the miner that it is a main shaft outside the deposit that is continuous - in contrast to the old shafts with a length of tons with reel conveying , which were separated because manual reels create a conveying height of less than 100 m. Nowadays there are actually only straightening shafts. Richtschacht is a location and function designation of a shaft.
When a shaft combines all of these tasks, it is called the main shaft . If the promotion of the ore by a at manholes reel was made, he was Prefer shaft or drawing shaft called. A shaft that is connected to the surface of the earth is called a day shaft or day shaft . A blind manhole, on the other hand, is a manhole that only connects several floors “underground” . It does not lead to daylight.
Shapes and dimensions
Shafts can be square, oval or circular. Round manholes have the advantage that the lateral rock pressure can be controlled much better by the manhole construction than with angular manholes. The shaft diameter has increased over the years from initially 1 to a maximum of 2 meters. Later the day shafts had a diameter of 2.5 to 4 meters. Today's shafts usually have a diameter of 8 meters. Since the shaft diameter has a great influence on the conveying capacity of the shaft, several factors are taken into account when planning a shaft. First of all, it is crucial what material requirements the mine has and whether it wants to extract via the corresponding shaft. The size and weight of the material to be conveyed also play an important role. Another decisive factor is how many miners come to the rope ride . The depth of a shaft depends on the depth of the deposit to be exploited. Depending on the deposit, shaft depths of less than 100 meters are often sufficient. Most of today's shafts have a depth of several hundred, sometimes more than a thousand meters. In one of the deepest mines in the world, the Western Deep Levels mine , a weather shaft is over 3000 meters deep.
Depending on the shaft type and shaft diameter, various components that are used to start up the shaft are installed in the shaft. Special constructions made of U-iron , which the miner calls single lines, are installed in seigeren shafts . The guide battens are attached to these lines . In addition, consoles for holding pipelines and manhole cables are installed as required.
In the case of long shafts, shaft rods, also called shaft battens or barrel battens, are installed to guide the shaft barrel . These are iron-shod rods that are attached to the patient lying down. Special strong nails made of iron are used to fix the manhole poles to the base. To change from one shaft lath strand to the other, special changes are built in, which are attached to the shaft rods with shaft rails, i.e. strong iron sheets.
In artificial shafts, a rod was built into the swing arm, which was called shaft rods or local rods. The shaft rods reached down to the shaft depth, and the smaller tie rods were attached to it.
Sinking a shaft is generally referred to as sinking , which today mainly means manual and mechanical digging into the depths. Today, shafts are sunk by means of drilling and blasting. Before a shaft is sunk, the exact position of the shaft starting point is planned. In loose, water-bearing rock, shafts are created using the freeze shaft method ; in the 19th century, when there were loose surface layers, the cesspool method was sometimes used.
Manholes can also be drilled in full profile using large holes . The drills in this process are full-face machines, as they are also used in tunnel construction . Due to the size of the drilling heads and the necessary drilling frames, the shaft drilling method is only used occasionally. One example of this is the raise-boring process . In mine buildings that have already been opened, shafts have increasingly been broken open by machines, especially since the 20th century. There is no need for the laborious extraction of rock masses above ground, which makes this shaft construction method very quick and inexpensive.
In the past, the main method of shaft storage was cover. Either the shaft opening was paneled with wood or sheet metal, or a wooden stage or vault was drawn in a few meters below the hanging lawn bench and the shaft tube was filled with gravel and soil up to the top of the site. In the case of such shafts, which, according to current knowledge, are not properly filled or stored, the shaft often breaks after years because the wood rots over time, the vault collapses or the metal sheets rust through. For this reason, this storage method has not been used recently.
Shafts in stable rock can be sealed. If the long-term stability of the shaft tube is given, it is sufficient to close the upper part of the shaft tube with a seal made of reinforced concrete. The seal is inserted at the level of the solid rock and then filled with gravel or mineral mixture for several days. Shafts in unstable mountains are filled. Gravel or concrete is used as backfill material. The filling sites are separated from the mine building by dams prior to filling. If ballast is used, the backfill column will settle. Therefore, a control and filling opening is built into the traffic load plate. The fill level is regularly checked by the mine surveyor , and in the case of closed mines by the responsible mining authority.
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