Hanging bench

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Original hanging bench from the 19th century in the Upper Harz Mining Museum

As Hängebank in are mining the devices and installations referred to in the conveyor building for days that emptying the buckets and the hanging of material into the shaft serve.

Word origin

Reel shaft to Agricola

Suspended bank is an old mining term . In pre-industrial mining , after the transition to civil engineering , the ore was brought to the surface from simple reel shafts. Baskets, barrels or buckets made of wood were used as conveying vessels . These were "attached" underground to the hauling rope and set down above ground in order to "knock off" them again from the rope.

A hanging bench is called ...

“The two long pieces of wood of the top quarter of a drive shaft, over which the buckets are hung and removed. ...; hence the general mouth of a shaft. "

- German dictionary by Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm.


The miners in the Middle Ages toppled the mountains around the shaft opening. When the heap created in this way had reached a certain height, the hanging bench was saddled up , i.e. H. elevated. In this way the typical medieval round heaps, crowned by a chew , were created. The further developments in shaft extraction up to the beginning of the industrial age did not fundamentally change this situation. Only the heaps and chews became larger, over the horse and water gaps to brick hothouses .

Only the industrial age brought a change, when the production rates in hard coal and salt mining continued to rise and the steam engine made it possible to lift the material to be conveyed together with the Hunten . It was now necessary to lay tracks above ground for the Hunte , and the development of the raised hanging bench led to the introduction of the term lawn hanging bench for the hitherto common hanging bench . In the following, the term hanging bench is used for better differentiation . In practice, this designation is unusual and a distinction is made between hanging bench and lawn hanging bench .


Hanging lawn bench

Suspended lawn bench of the "Reichen Zeche" in Freiberg with turntables

As the name suggests, the hanging lawn bench is on the ground floor. Advantages of this design are less required headframe height , lower construction costs and the decoupling of the downstream surface installations such as screening plant , washing and loading. The disadvantage is that you have to create a basement under the unloading devices for the required conveyor systems .

Height hanging bench

Striking suspended bank as a conveyor bridge for the Georg II shaft in Willroth

This is the classic design for a mine of the industrial age. Usually erected at a height of 10 to 12 m above ground, this version offers a number of advantages for both rack and vessel conveyance . The main advantage is that the height is used to further convey the material to be conveyed by means of gravity . So can bunker in vascular promotion will run above ground and at a stand promoting the Hunte can be emptied directly into the Siebbunker. The disadvantages are also the advantages of the suspended lawn bench: greater headframe height and higher construction costs; In their system, sieving and laundry are tied to the height of the hanging bench.

Carriage circulation

The first industrial hanging benches were hardly mechanized; the trolleys were pushed on and off by hand, as was the transport between the shaft opening and the luffing device. Therefore this type of hanging bench was equipped with a slab floor, i.e. H. the floor was covered with steel plates, which meant that the wagons could easily be directed manually in any desired direction.

Chain tracks and mechanical pushing devices were later used, which led to the installation of tracks on the hanging benches. There was also a change from the one-sided filling locations and hanging benches to those with push-through conveyance, which resulted in a considerable increase in productivity, since the push-on and pull-off process now took place simultaneously, i.e. H. above days the empty ones were used to push the full hunt out of the rack (and below ground the empty ones with the full ones). The hanging benches have now been divided into full and empty sides. On the full side, the tracks had a slight gradient so that the wagons ran to the luffing machine independently. After the rocker, now empty, they continued downhill by a 180 ° curve to the lift-over chain track, and were lifted past the shaft to the higher level of the empty side and pushed back towards the shaft by another 180 ° curve, from where they then ran again with a slight downward gradient to the shaft.

The further technical development of the carriage circulation again led to suspended benches without a gradient, the carriage circulation is realized here by means of transfer platforms and the drive of the trolleys by means of friction wheels. This type of construction takes up less space and is gentle on the material, as the wagons are less mechanically stressed; it is suitable for both lawn and height hanging benches.

Vascular promotion

The trolleys are not required for container conveyance. The conveying vessels ( skips ) empty directly into suitable bunker pockets, from where the conveyed goods are transported on by conveyor systems. An actual hanging bench is not required here.

Attaching material

Material that does not fit into the bucket is hung in special material containers under the bucket and so hung underground . There are containers that are moved horizontally to the shaft, are attached to the underside of the goods carrier with a kind of joint and are then brought into the vertical position by catching up the goods carrier. This process is relatively complex and time-consuming.

Another possibility is to move the container vertically by means of an overhead monorail up to under the conveyed goods carrier , which has a suitable receptacle. This method works well with a high volume of material, but requires a large free height between the lawn and the hanging bench.

Rope ride

The rope ride is usually carried out on the suspended bench; in the case of smaller pits, the machine operator moves the conveyor frame several times in order to be able to use all the supporting floors. If a lot of miners are to drive in in a short time, as is the case with most large mines, aerial platforms are installed above the suspended bench in order to reach all floors of the hoist cage at the same time.

See also


  • G. Leithold et al .: Taschenbuch Bergbau . Civil engineering. Ed .: Chamber of Technology, Association of Mining. tape III . German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1962, p. 489 .
  • Horst Roschlau, Wolfram Heinze: Knowledge storage mining technology . Ed .: SDAG Wismut. 1st edition. German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1974, p. 288 .
  • Erich Lewien, Peter Hartmann: Technology of mining . Ed .: University of the German Trade Unions "Fritz Heckert". Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1958, p. 210 .
  • Fritz Heise, Fr. Herbst, Carl Hellmut Fritzsche: Mining studies . Textbook of, with special consideration of the coal mining industry. 8th and 9th completely revised edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Göttingen / Heidelberg 1958.
  • Collective of authors: From the Brückenbergschächten to the VEB Steinkohlenwerk Karl Marx Zwickau 1859-1959 . (Operating history). Progress printer, Erfurt 1960.
  • Author collective: The coal mining in the Zwickau area . Ed .: Steinkohlenbergbauverein Zwickau eV Förster & Borries, Zwickau 2000, ISBN 3-00-006207-6 .
  • Rolf Vogel : The Lugau – Oelsnitzer coal field . Ed .: Förderverein Bergbaumuseum Oelsnitz / Erzgeb. eV Hohenstein – Ernstthal 1992.
  • Otfried Wagenbreth : The Freiberg mining . Technical monuments and history. Ed .: Eberhard Wächtler . 2nd Edition. German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1988, ISBN 3-342-00117-8 .
  • Georg Agricola : De Re Metallica Libri XII . Twelve books on mining and metallurgy. Unchanged reprint of the first edition by VDI-Verlag, 1928 edition. Marixverlag, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-86539-097-8 (Latin).

Web links

Commons : Pit banks  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. GRIMM, hanging bench. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . 16 volumes in 32 sub-volumes, 1854–1960. S. Hirzel, Leipzig ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).