Civil engineering (mining)
As a civil engineering refers to the shape of the underground mine , in which the development of the deposit and the degradation of the raw materials in greater depth carried out. In civil engineering, the mine building is wholly or partially below the deepest possible tunnel floor at the site . Pit water flowing into civil engineering can no longer be drained away naturally (as in tunnel construction ), but has to be lifted to the surface. Pits, which are disrupted by means of civil engineering, the called miner underground mines .
In the case of deposits that are completely or partially below the valley floor, the extraction of mineral resources by means of tunnel construction reaches its limits. This is primarily due to way the excavation of the tunnel . Even the position of the starting point for the tunnel, namely above the high water level of the valley floor, can no longer be realized in the case of deposits located below the valley floor. Another access to the deposit must be created here. Although it is possible to work using substations to a limited extent, this type of construction always involves a risk for ventilation and drainage . In the case of overburden with great thickness , access to the deposit is considerably more difficult. Access to the deposit becomes problematic if the access has to penetrate a marl layer in which fissured rocks alternate with tough clay layers . In the case of deposits with thick overburden, access to the underlying deposit can only be through a shaft .
In order to initially expand the operation as a substation construction to lower-lying parts of the deposit, various solutions were used. Small projects were handled by the pump workers with human strength (hand pumps, buckets) . Greater depths were only possible with water arts such as Heinzenkunst or Pumpkunst . Only the use of the steam engine , primarily to drive a water drainage system , but also as a hoisting machine and to drive the fans for ventilation , made it possible to advance into greater depths and thus today's civil engineering. Franz Haniel was one of the pioneers of civil engineering . With his help, a Seigerer shaft (Victoria) with a depth of 46 meters was sunk in 1808 on the Vollmond colliery in Werne (today Bochum ) through the groundwater-bearing overburden . The amount of water to be lifted was initially still comparatively small, as the water flowing in above the underground construction could still be discharged via tunnels. Another step in the technical development of civil engineering mines took place in the second half of the 19th century with the construction of mines on flat terrain. All pit water had to be drained off mechanically, which was only possible through the use of more powerful pumps. Numerous accidents caused by water ingress during this period testify to the difficulties associated with civil engineering. In the Ruhr area it was only with the technical mastery of civil engineering that the possibility of expanding Ruhr mining from the Ruhr valley to the north was given.
Civil engineering is used where the creation of tunnels no longer makes sense, namely as soon as the bottom of the valley is undershot. A system of underground pits is required to open up a deposit in civil engineering . In order to exploit the deposit below the valley floor in civil engineering, the deposit must be made accessible through other mine works. In the case of thin overburden, this can be done via a downward sloping route. At greater depths , access must be through a shaft. For this purpose, single or barrel shafts can be used. For the development of deep deposits with mostly thick overburden, mostly seigere shafts are used. In the case of deposits with a lower depth, as often occurs in ore mining , shafts with a length of tonnes are increasingly used. In civil engineering systems, special attention must be paid to dewatering using water lifting machines. In particular, where there are thick layers of marl in the overburden, there is usually salty mine water that has to be pumped above ground.
The profitability of civil engineering depends on several factors. An important factor is the value of the mineral to be mined. It already plays a major role whether the mineral to be mined is hard coal or lignite . Furthermore, the size of the deposit and its content play a decisive role in the profitability of civil engineering. Since you a great effort in terms of the operation in civil engineering before training and device operate, in order to mineable get minerals must also be previously ensured that the mine has a sufficiently large deposit to such a long-term operation to guarantee. Ultimately, the thickness of the overburden is also a decisive factor for the profitability of civil engineering. However, due to new mining technology , the limits of the economic viability of civil engineering are shifting to greater depths compared to open-cast mining . The strength of the overburden plays a particularly important role here. It is crucial here whether the overburden consists of soft, easily clearable materials such as sand , clay or gravel, or is composed of solid rock.
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