Calendar overview 1808
Congress of Erfurt
meet Napoleon Bonaparte and Tsar Alexander I on each other.
Joachim Murat becomes
King of Naples .
Friedrich VI. becomes king
of Denmark and Norway .
|1808 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1256/57 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1800/01 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1213/14 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2351/52 (southern Buddhism); 2350/51 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1170/71 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4141/42 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1222/23 (turn of the year February 27-28)|
|Jewish calendar||5568/69 (September 21/22)|
|Coptic calendar||1524/25 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2118/19 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2119/20 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1864/65 (April)|
Politics and world events
Northern and Eastern Europe
- February 21 : Russian troops cross the Swedish border in what is now Finland without prior declaration of war . At the beginning of the war , Tsar Alexander I also fulfilled an agreement made with Napoleon Bonaparte in the Peace of Tilsit . An attack was planned in case the Swedish King Gustav IV Adolf continued to cling to the alliance with Great Britain, which he did.
- March 13th : The deceased Christian VII is followed by Friedrich VI. as King of Denmark and Norway .
- March 14th : With the handover of the declaration of war in Stockholm to King Gustav IV Adolf , the Danish-Swedish war begins , from which Denmark expects to recapture earlier territorial losses. Sweden is already at war with Russia and Napoleonic France .
- March 28 : Russia annexes Finland
- May 3rd : The Russians capture Sveaborg Fortress near Helsinki .
- September 13 : In the battle of Jutas during the Third Russian-Swedish war , the defeat Sweden , the Russian units. The Swedish general Georg Carl von Döbeln and his regiment prevented the attempt to encircle the entire Swedish army.
Central and Western Europe
- March 17th The disgraceful decree of Napoleon Bonaparte restricts the civil rights of Jews .
- March 27 : The Bavarian King Maximilian I concentrated all military matters in the newly created Bavarian War Ministry .
- April 17th Napoleon Bonaparte issues the Bayonne decree: All US ships in European ports are to be confiscated, as they are actually British ships with false papers.
- May 1 : The Bavarian Constitution introduces the first independent parliament in a German state.
- September 6th : Bonaparte's brother-in-law Joachim Murat takes over the power transferred to him in the Kingdom of Naples .
- September 27 : The Erfurt Prince Congress begins, on which Napoleon Bonaparte's encounter with Tsar Alexander I is the focus.
- November 16 : Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte issues the Code d'instruction criminelle , the French code of criminal procedure. The model of this regulation subsequently leads to the end of the inquisition proceedings in the German states .
- November 19 : Prussia allows its cities and municipalities more self-government through a new urban order . It is the result of the reforms of Freiherr Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom Stein .
- November 24th : King Friedrich Wilhelm III. dismisses the Prussian reformer Karl Freiherr vom Stein .
- December 25th : The Prussian War Ministry in Prussia is set up in place of the old military authorities as part of the reorganization of the army.
Napoleonic Wars in the Iberian Peninsula
- March 19, Spain's King Charles IV abdicates. His son Ferdinand VII takes over the reign. Napoleon Bonaparte , whose troops are in the country, objects to the recognition of Ferdinand as king, which leads to the return of rule to his father on May 2nd.
- Dos de Mayo
- June 6th : Joseph Bonaparte , brother of the French emperor, is proclaimed King of Spain in Bayonne .
- June 15 to August 13 : Napoleonic troops besieged Saragossa for the first time .
- July 7th : The Bayona Statute is published.
- July 18th bis 22. July : Battle of Bailen . Spanish troops surround the French corps under Dupont ; this capitulates with almost 18,000 men.
- August 21 : The French army under Marshal Junot , which has invaded Portugal , is defeated in the Battle of Vimeiro by British troops under the Duke of Wellington , reinforced by Portuguese volunteers.
- August 30th : Cintra Convention
- December 4th : Madrid surrenders to Napoleon Bonaparte's troops .
- December 20 : French forces begin the second siege of Saragossa after the first two-month siege in the summer of 1808 was unsuccessful.
- Alemdar Mustafa Pascha marches with an army to Constantinople to defeat Selim III, who was deposed in the previous year . to be liberated and reinstated as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire . Selim was then murdered on July 28 by his nephew and successor Mustafa IV . However, the rebels manage to conquer the sultan's palace on the same day and proclaim Mustafa's brother Mahmud II as the new ruler. Alemdar Mustafa Pascha, who holds the real power in his hands, becomes grand vizier .
- November 14th : In an uprising by the Janissaries against his reign, Grand Vizier Alemdar Mustafa Pasha is killed in his palace, which is set on fire by the insurgents.
- November 16 : Mahmud II has his brother Mustafa IV murdered. This means that there is only one male descendant of the Osman family and Mahmud can remain on the throne.
- November 4th to December 7th : James Madison wins the presidential election in the United States against Charles Cotesworth Pinckney .
- January 26 : The Rum Rebellion takes place in Australia , the only successful armed uprising against a government. William Bligh , the governor of New South Wales , is arrested by the New South Wales Corps in a power struggle .
- March 1st : The Kingdom of Bavaria takes over the postal service from Thurn und Taxis under its own administration. The prince receives a settlement.
- April 5th : The Lübeck Maritime School is founded to train captains and helmsmen in merchant shipping .
- April 6th : Johann Jakob Astor founds the "American Fur Company" for the purpose of the fur trade .
- October 12 : In Brazil , Banco do Brasil is established, the country's first credit institution. The Portuguese King John VI. wants to use it to finance his court's stay in exile.
- Richard Trevithick builds the steam locomotive Catch me who can , the first commercially used locomotive for passenger operations .
science and technology
- October 6th : The whalers James Lindsay and Thomas Hopper enter data on their ship cards about the long-term doubtful existence of Bouvet Island in the Southern Ocean .
- The Faculty of Law of the University of Belgrade is founded.
- The French chemist Eugène Chevreul isolated the dye Braziline from Brazil wood .
- The English naturalist and teacher John Dalton discovered and formulated the law of multiple proportions in chemistry .
- King Maximilian I of Bavaria founds the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich . Its first director is Johann Peter von Langer , formerly head of the Düsseldorf Art Academy . The philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling becomes the first general secretary .
- The museum is founded in Frankfurt am Main .
- April 1 to August 30 : The newspaper for Einsiedler , the mouthpiece of Heidelberg Romanticism , appears twice a week in Heidelberg. It is published anonymously by Achim von Arnim with the editorial assistance of Clemens Brentano and Joseph Görres .
Music and theater
- March 2 : The comedy The Broken Jug by Heinrich von Kleist is premiered by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Weimar with little success.
- Faust - The first part of the tragedy by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe will be published at Easter at the Leipzig Book Fair.
- September 10 : World premiere of the comic opera Linnée ou Les Mines de Suède by Victor Dourlen at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- September 26 : World premiere of the opera Ninon chez Madame de Sévigné by Henri Montan Berton at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- October 29th : World premiere of the comic opera Jadis et aujourd'hui by Rodolphe Kreutzer at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- December 22nd : As part of a four-hour concert at the Theater an der Wien near Vienna, the world premieres of the 5th and 6th symphonies ( pastoral ) as well as the fantasy for piano, choir and orchestra and the 4th piano concerto by Ludwig van Beethoven will take place . The performance, with the composer sitting at the piano, is unpleasant because the musicians in the orchestra have not rehearsed enough and the theater is unheated.
- January 1 : Pierre Chazal , Belgian general († 1892 )
- January 4 : Friedrich Haase , German classical philologist († 1867 )
- January 5 : August Mirbach , German politician († 1891 )
- January 8 : James Madison Wells , American politician († 1899 )
- January 12 : Jean-Félicité-Théodore Ortolan , French expert on maritime law († 1874 )
- January 12th : Wilhelm Philipp Schimper , Alsatian botanist and paleobotanist († 1880 )
- January 13 : Salmon P. Chase , American politician and lawyer († 1873 )
- January 16 : Charles Wellesley , British general and politician († 1858 )
- January 17 : Joseph Menter , German cellist and music teacher († 1856 )
- January 18 : Franz Theodor Kugler , German art historian and writer († 1858 )
- January 23 : Franziska Cornet , German opera singer († 1870 )
- January 27 : David Friedrich Strauss , German writer, philosopher and theologian († 1874 )
- February 5 : Carl Spitzweg , German Biedermeier painter († 1885 )
- February 10 : Georg Weber , German philologist and historian († 1888 )
- February 13 : Edouard Millault , French composer, violinist and music teacher († 1887 )
- February 15 : Carl Friedrich Lessing , romantic painter († 1880 )
- February 16 : Franz Kaspar Drobe , Bishop of Paderborn († 1891 )
- February 21 : Wilhelm Löhe , German Protestant theologian († 1872 )
- February 26 : Honoré Daumier , French painter, draftsman and sculptor († 1879 )
- February 27 : August Giacomo Jochmus , Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal and German Reich Minister († 1881 )
- February 27 : John William Clark Watson , Confederate States politician († 1890 )
- February 28 : Elias Parish Alvars , English harpist and composer († 1849 )
- February: George Budd , English medic († 1882 )
- March 4 : Frederik Stang Norwegian politician and President of the Interior Department († 1884 )
- March 6 : Sophie Adlersparre , Swedish painter († 1862 )
- March 7th : Johann Caspar Bluntschli , Swiss legal scholar and politician († 1881 )
- March 7 : Gustav Zimmermann , German politician and publicist († 1874 )
- March 8 : Charles Merivale , English historian and dean of Ely Cathedral († 1893 )
- March 14th : Franz Seraphin Hölzl , Austrian composer, choir director and church musician († 1884 )
- March 14 : Alexander Schweizer , Reformed Swiss theologian († 1888 )
- March 18 : Johann Jakob Kraft , German auxiliary bishop († 1884 )
- March 19 : Johann Andreas Schubert , German civil engineer († 1870 )
- March 20 : Antoine Étex , French sculptor, painter, architect and writer († 1888 )
- March 22nd : August Reichensperger , German lawyer and politician († 1895 )
- March 24 : Maria Malibran , French opera singer (mezzo-soprano) († 1836 )
- March 24 : Heinrich Otte , German Protestant clergyman, medieval archaeologist and art and church historian († 1890 )
- March 25 : Vincent Delacour , French composer († 1840 )
- March 28 : Knut Baade , Norwegian painter († 1879 )
- March 31 : James Pinckney Henderson , American lawyer, US Senator and 1st Governor of Texas († 1858 )
- April 3 : Franz Ferdinand Greiner , developed the first industrially manufactured German thermometer († 1855 )
- April 7 : Udo von Tresckow , Prussian general († 1885 )
- April 11 : Anton Martin Schweigaard , Norwegian lawyer and politician († 1870 )
- April 13 : Antonio Meucci , American inventor († 1889 )
- April 14 : William Marvin , American politician († 1902 )
- April 16 : Eugène Emmanuel Amaury Pineux , French painter († 1885 )
- April 16 : Caleb Blood Smith , American politician († 1864 )
- April 20 : Carl Mez , industrialist, Protestant social theologian and politician († 1877 )
- April 20 : Napoleon III. , Emperor of the French († 1873 )
- April 21 : Gustav König , German painter († 1869 )
- April 21 : Johann Hinrich Wichern , German theologian († 1881 )
- April 22nd : Joseph Alexandre Martigny , French archaeologist († 1880 )
- April 24th : Louis Edouard Bouet-Willaumez , French admiral († 1871 )
- April 26 : August Müller , German double bass player († 1867 )
- April 28 : Johann Georg Kohl , German travel writer, geographer and historian († 1878 )
- May 4th : Agustín Fernando Muñoz y Sánchez , morganatic husband of Maria Christina of Naples and Sicily, Queen Mother and Regent of Spain († 1873 )
- May 5 : Ludwig Harms , German Protestant theologian († 1865 )
- May 9 : Carlo Sacconi , Italian cardinal to the Curia († 1889 )
- May 9 : John Scott Russell , British shipbuilder († 1882 )
- May 14 : Eduart Schott , German metallurgist and art caster († 1895 )
- May 15 : Michael Balfe , Irish composer († 1870 )
- May 18 : Venancio Flores , Uruguayan President († 1868 )
- May 20 : Thomas D. Rice , American comedian († 1860 )
- May 22 : Gérard de Nerval , French writer († 1855 )
- May 24 : Ferdinand Nägele , only craftsman in the Frankfurt National Assembly († 1879 )
- May 27 : Joseph Ignaz Düntzer , German surgeon and obstetrician († 1848 )
- May 30 : Wilhelm Vischer-Bilfinger , Swiss classical philologist and politician († 1874 )
- June 3 : Jefferson Davis , American South American politician († 1889 )
- June 5 : Karl Adolph von Vangerow , German lawyer († 1870 )
- June 10 : Frederik Kaiser , Dutch astronomer († 1872 )
- June 13 : Patrice de Mac-Mahon , French military man and President of the Third Republic († 1893 )
- June 17 : Henrik Wergeland , Norwegian poet († 1845 )
- June 19 : Franz Xaver Chwatal , Czech composer and music teacher († 1879 )
- June 29 : Wilhelm Georg Dettmer , German opera singer (bass) († 1876 )
- June 21 : John W. Dana , American politician, governor of Maine († 1867 )
- June 29 : Friedrich Rudolf Hasse , German theologian († 1862 )
- July 3 : Konráð Gíslason , Icelandic-Danish linguist († 1891 )
- July 6 : Johann Gustav Droysen , German historian († 1884 )
- July 7th : Philipp Wirth , painter in the 19th century († 1878 )
- July 8 : George Robert Gray , British zoologist († 1872 )
- July 9 : Alexander William Doniphan , American officer, lawyer and politician († 1887 )
- July 13 : Antonio Arenas Merino , President of Peru († 1891 )
- July 14 : Heinrich Ahrens , German legal philosopher († 1874 )
- July 16 : Theodor Engelmann , German-American lawyer, journalist, author and newspaper publisher († 1889 )
- July 22nd : François Schubert , German concertmaster and composer († 1878 )
- July 23 : Giovanni Cavalli , Italian lieutenant general († 1879 )
- July 27 : Moriz Haupt , classical philologist and Germanist († 1874 )
- July 29 : Max von Neumayr , Bavarian politician († 1881 )
- July 31 : Ferdinand Wüstenfeld , German orientalist († 1899 )
- August 2 : Augustus French , American politician († 1864 )
- August 3 : Hamilton Fish , American politician († 1893 )
- August 9 : Richard von Friesen , Saxon politician († 1884 )
- August 12 : Karl Gustav Geib , secretary and teacher of King Otto of Greece († 1864 )
- August 15 : Alfred von Reumont , German statesman and historian († 1887 )
- August 16 : Ernst von Leutsch , German classical philologist († 1887 )
- August 19 : James Nasmyth , Scottish engineer and astronomer († 1890 )
- August 26 : Benjamin G. Humphreys , American politician († 1882 )
- August 29 : Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch , German politician († 1883 )
- August 30 : Ludovika Wilhelmine of Bavaria , Princess of Bavaria († 1892 )
- August 31 : Alfred Osborn Pope Nicholson , American politician († 1876 )
- September 3 : Michael Sachs , German rabbi and pulpit speaker († 1864 )
- September 6 : Abd el-Kader , Algerian emir and freedom fighter († 1883 )
- September 7 : Peter G. Van Winkle , American politician († 1872 )
- September 12 : August von Werder , Prussian general († 1887 )
- September 13 : Heinrich Wilhelm Storck , German caricaturist from Vormärz († 1850 )
- September 14 : Georg Friedrich Kolb , German politician († 1884 )
- September 15 : Louis Clapisson , French composer († 1866 )
- September 17 : Juan Pedro Esnaola , Argentine composer († 1878 )
- September 19 : Friedrich Karl Moes , German-Polish entrepreneur in Congress Poland († 1863 )
- September 19 : Claude Paris , French composer († 1866 )
- September 21 : George Rex Andrews , American lawyer and politician († 1873 )
- October 1 : Maximilian Heinrich Rüder , German lawyer and politician († 1880 )
- October 1 : Fryderyk Edward Sobolewski , American composer († 1872 )
- October 2 : Franz Limmer , Austrian composer († 1857 )
- October 4 : Giovanni Battista Pioda , Swiss politician († 1882 )
- October 5 : Wilhelm Weitling , early socialist († 1871 )
- October 6 : Frederick VII , King of Denmark from 1848 to 1863 († 1863 )
- October 15 : James Broome , American politician († 1883 )
- October 15 : Ernst Kapp , German educator, geographer and philosopher († 1896 )
- October 15 : Moritz Schreber , German doctor, reform pedagogue and university teacher († 1861 )
- October 20 : Karl Andree , German geographer and publicist († 1875 )
- October 21 : Eberhard Emminger , German painter and lithographer († 1885 )
- October 21 : Doris Esselbach , German restaurateur († 1869 )
- October 24 : Bernhard von Cotta , German geologist († 1879 )
- October 24 : Ernst Friedrich Richter , Music Director at the University of Leipzig († 1879 )
- November 1 : John Taylor , President of Latter-day Saints Church of Jesus Christ († 1887 )
- November 2 : Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly , French writer († 1889 )
- November 8 : Arend Berkholz , Mayor of Riga († 1888 )
- November 8 : Julius Minding , German doctor and writer († 1850 )
- November 8 : Christian Friedrich Schubert , German teacher and politician († 1874 )
- November 17 : Alberich Zwyssig , Cistercian and composer († 1854 )
- November 19 : Antoine Elwart , French composer, music teacher and musicologist († 1877 )
- November 22 : Thomas Cook , British tourism pioneer and founder of the travel company of the same name († 1892 )
- November 24th : Alphonse Karr , French journalist, writer and satirist († 1890 )
- November 28 : Heinrich von Rosenthal , German politician († 1865 )
- November 29 : William Freame Johnston , American politician († 1872 )
- November 30th : Bernhard Donner , Hamburg merchant and banker († 1865 )
- December 1 : Atto Vannucci , Italian historian and professor († 1883 )
- December 4 : Duke Max in Bavaria , Bavarian Duke († 1888 )
- December 5 : Hippolyte Colet , French composer, music teacher and theorist († 1853 )
- December 6th : Aloys Nikolaus Ambros von Arco-Stepperg , German landowner, officer and politician († 1891 )
- December 6th : Johan Christian Gebauer , Danish composer, music theorist and organist († 1884 )
- December 7 : Hugh McCulloch , American politician († 1895 )
- December 8 : Thomas Lilbourne Anderson , American politician († 1885 )
- December 8 : Elias Sehlstedt , Swedish lyric poet († 1874 )
- December 12 : Peter Czakert , Roman Catholic clergyman († 1848 )
- December 27 : Gerhard August von Witzleben , Prussian lieutenant general and military writer († 1880 )
- December 29 : Georg Apponyi von Nagy-Apponyi , Hungarian nobleman and politician († 1899 )
- December 29 : James J. Faran , American politician († 1892 )
Exact date of birth unknown
First half of the year
- January 3 : Johann August Reichardt , German legal scholar (* 1741 )
- January 5 : Alexei Orlov , Russian admiral, brother of Grigory Orlow (* 1737 )
- January 5 : Christian Gottlieb Seydlitz , German physicist and logician (* 1730 )
- February 14 : John Dickinson , American politician (* 1732 )
- February 19 : David Emanuel , American politician (* 1744 )
- February 27 : Namiki Gohei I. , Japanese Kabuki actor and author (* 1747 )
- March 3 : Johann Christian Fabricius , German zoologist and economist (* 1745 )
- March 3 : Anton von Maron , Austrian painter (* 1731 )
- March 13 : Christian VII , King of Denmark and Norway (* 1749 )
- March 17 : Carl Friedrich Hindenburg , German mathematician, professor of philosophy and physics (* 1741 )
- March 21 : Johann Michael Afsprung , Baden teacher and publicist (* 1748 )
- April 5 : Johann Georg Wille , copperplate engraver (* 1715 )
- April 9 : Georg Karl von Fechenbach , German bishop (* 1749 )
- April 10 : Karl Heinrich von Nassau-Siegen , French adventurer and naval officer (* 1743 )
- April 12 : Johann Samuel Petri , German composer, pedagogue, cantor and author (* 1738 )
- April 13 : Joseph Maria Schneidt , German lawyer, university professor and historian (* 1727 )
- April 17 : Ivan Yegorowitsch Starow , Russian architect (* 1745 )
- June 15 : Samuel Gottfried Geyser , German educator and Protestant theologian (* 1740 )
- June 19 : Alexander Dalrymple , Scottish geographer (* 1737 )
- June 20 : Franciszek Ksawery Dmochowski , Polish writer and translator (* 1762 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Fisher Ames , American politician (* 1758 )
- July 6 : William Bradford , American politician (* 1729 )
- July 28th : Selim III. , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1762 )
- August 1 : Johann Matthias Schröckh , Austrian historian and literary scholar (* 1733 )
- September 3 : John Montgomery , American politician (* 1722 )
- September 6th : Louis-Pierre Anquetil , French historian (* 1723 )
- September 13 : Catharina Elisabeth Goethe , mother of Johann Wolfgang Goethe (* 1731 )
- September 13 : Friedrich Ludwig von Rochow , Prussian chamberlain and landowner (* 1745 )
- September 22 : Marie Elisabeth of Austria , abbess in Innsbruck (* 1743 )
- October 1 : Carl Gotthard Langhans , Prussian builder and architect (* 1732 )
- October 1 : Regina Mingotti , Austrian-Italian soprano (* 1722 )
- October 6th : Johann Gottlieb Lessing , German educator (* 1732 )
- October 8 : Wilhelmine von Hessen-Kassel , Hessian princess (* 1726 )
- October 8 : Dionysius van de Wijnpersse , Dutch Reformed theologian and philosopher (* 1724 )
- October 15 : James Anderson of Hermiston , Scottish writer (* 1739 )
- October 21 : Katō Chikage , Japanese poet and scientist (* 1735 )
- November 10 : Guy Carleton , British governor of the province of Québec (* 1724 )
- November 13 : Philipp Jakob Scheffauer , German sculptor (* 1756 )
- November 14 : Alemdar Mustafa Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* around 1755 )
- November 16 : Envold de Falsen , Danish-Norwegian poet lawyer (* 1755 )
- November 17th : Mustafa IV. , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1779 )
- November 27th : Johann Friedrich Münch , Swiss politician (* 1729 )
- December 22nd : Johann Heinrich Tischbein the Younger , German painter and engraver (* 1742 )