Calendar overview 1737
|Georg-August University of Göttingen opens.|
illustrated botanical book
A Curious Herbal .
Francesco III. d'Este
becomes Duke of Modena and Reggio after the death of
his father Rinaldo d'Este .
|1737 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1185/86 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1729/30 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1142/43 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2280/81 (southern Buddhism); 2279/80 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1099/1100 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4070/71 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1149/50 (turn of the year 1st / 2nd May)|
|Jewish calendar||5497/98 (September 25-26)|
|Coptic calendar||1453/54 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2047/48 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2048/49 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1793/94 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Russo-Austrian Turkish War
- April: The Russian army under the command of Field Marshal Burkhard Christoph von Münnich crosses the Dnepr in the Russo-Austrian Turkish War .
- July 10 : The Russian army conquers the fortress of Ochakov from the Ottomans .
- July 12th : Imperial troops under the command of Franz Stephan von Lothringen cross the border of the Ottoman Empire .
- August 4th : Troops under Joseph Friedrich von Sachsen-Hildburghausen have to retreat across the Save after being defeated by an overpowering Ottoman relief army during the siege of Banja Luka .
- August: Imperial troops under the leadership of Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff occupy the city of Nisch , Georg Olivier von Wallis occupies part of Wallachia .
- August: Ludwig Andreas von Khevenhüller fails when trying to take Vidin .
- August / September: The imperial army must gradually withdraw further and further.
- September 28 : Ludwig Andreas von Khevenhüller's troops are defeated by an Ottoman army in the battle of Radojevatz .
- Despite minor successes, the imperial troops are withdrawing from Serbia by the end of the year because the supply lines are no longer intact after the withdrawals of individual units.
War of the Polish Succession
- May 1 : In Vienna is definitely peace to end the Polish Succession War closed. Because of the complicated succession he can only after the death of Gian Gastone de 'Medici , the last Grand Duke of Tuscany from the house of Medici , on July 9 apply. Duke Franz III. Stephan of Lorraine follows him as Grand Duke. In return, he ceded his home lands of Lorraine and Bar to Stanislaus I. Leszczyński , who renounced the rule in Poland-Lithuania . After his death, the countries will fall to France . Elector August of Saxony is confirmed as King of Poland . Spain received Naples , Sicily and the island of Elba , but ceded Parma and Piacenza to Emperor Charles . The Peace of Vienna will not be published until the following year.
Other events in Europe
- After the death of Ferdinand Kettler from the Kettler dynasty on May 4th, the Knights of Courland elect Ernst Johann von Biron as the new Duke of Courland . Although he remains at the Russian imperial court in Saint Petersburg , the election by the Polish King August III. recognized as feudal lord.
- October 26 : Francesco III. d'Este becomes Duke of Modena and Reggio after the death of his father Rinaldo d'Este . After the Gonzaga family died out in the Duchy of Novellara , he was awarded their territories.
- The Carolingian transmigration , the deportation of Protestant “countrymen” from the Austrian heartlands to Transylvania , ends for the time being.
- January 13th : The Portuguese end the siege of Montevideo and withdraw to Brazil, not without first setting up a base at Punta del Este , north of Montevideo. The city of Maldonado later developed from this .
- February 17th : The Portuguese general José da Silva Pais founds the Fort Jesus Maria e José , from which the city of Rio Grande will develop. Spain reacts to the increased military presence of the Portuguese with its own reinforcements.
- March 16 : The Paris Treaty to end the never-declared Spanish-Portuguese War is signed. The fighting in the colonies did not end until August 15th .
- May 15 : Spanish units reappear outside the Portuguese city of Colonia del Sacramento .
- May 27th : The Spaniards are defeated in a naval battle on Isla Martín García .
- The foundation of the town Richmond , Virginia , on the James River is carried out by Colonel William Byrd II.
- The salmon fishing dispute between France and the Swiss Confederation is settled.
- The faience factory Wrisbergholzen is founded.
science and technology
- September 17th : The Georg-August-Universität Göttingen , founded years earlier, is officially opened by curator Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen .
- The first volume of A Curious Herbal Containing Five Hundred Cuts, of the most useful Plants which are now used in the Practice of Physick with illustrations by Elizabeth Blackwell is published and is a great success because of the high quality of the drawings and the inclusion of foreign and exotic plants .
- On her death , the Frankfurt patrician Anna Sybilla Schad von Mittelbieberach, the last member of the wealthy Schad family, bequeathed her fortune to a foundation that is supposed to promote the training and study of young members of the Alten Limpurg Society .
- January 12th : The world premiere of the opera Arminio by Georg Friedrich Handel based on a presentation by Antonio Salvi takes place at the Covent Garden Theater in London. The leading roles are performed by Domenico Annibali , Anna Maria Strada , Gizziello and Francesca Bertolli . The work is not a success.
- February 6 : The world premiere of the tragic comedy Alessandro in Sidone by Giovanni Bononcini takes place at the Kleiner Hoftheater in Vienna.
- February 16 : Georg Friedrich Handel's opera Giustino is premiered at the Covent Garden Theater with the same cast as Arminio . The literary model comes from Nicolò Beregan and Pietro Pariati .
- April 13 : The pasticcio Didone abbandonata by Georg Friedrich Händel is premiered at the Covent Garden Theater. It is an arrangement of the first opera libretto of the same name by Pietro Metastasio based on Leonardo Vinci's opera . Handel cannot direct the performance himself because he had recently suffered a stroke.
- May 18 : Berenice is the third opera by Georg Friedrich Handel within six months to be premiered at the Covent Garden Theater. He cannot direct this world premiere either and, like all works of this season, it remains unsuccessful.
- May: At the Teatro Filarmonico di Verona is Antonio Vivaldi's opera Catone in Utica on the libretto by Pietro Metastasio premiered.
- August 28 : Giovanni Bononcini's setting of Pietro Metastasio's libretto Zenobia has its world premiere to celebrate the birthday of Empress Elisabeth at the Favorita in Vienna.
- October 12th : The musical drama Lucio Papirio by Ignaz Holzbauer is premiered.
- October 24 : Jean-Philippe Rameau's third opera Castor et Pollux based on a libretto by Pierre-Joseph-Justin Bernard is premiered at the Académie Royale de Musique in Paris. The work is a complete success and heats up the dispute between the supporters of Rameau and the conservative advocates of Jean-Baptiste Lully's music .
- November 4 : The Teatro San Carlo , at the time the largest opera house in Europe, opens in Naples with the performance of Domenico Sarro's setting of Pietro Metastasio's Achille in Sciro . The composer conducts the work himself on this occasion.
- Elector Friedrich August II of Saxony proclaims by decree that the Lutheran court services in Dresden will henceforth take place in the Sophienkirche . In order to continue to guarantee the musical organization of these services, a new evangelical group is formed from the existing boys' choir , which initially consists of six singers. The Protestant choir boys are run by the Protestant court choir .
- The Dominican nunnery in Fremdingen is founded.
- The Mariae Vitae religious community in Vilnius is founded.
Historical maps and views
January to May
- January 1 : Herbert Mackworth, 1st Baronet , British politician, industrialist and nobleman († 1791 )
- January 11 : Joseph Anton Felix von Balthasar , Swiss politician († 1810 )
- January 19 : Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre , French writer († 1814 )
- January 19 : Ferdinand Woldrzich von Ehrenfreund , Bohemian lawyer and university professor († 1800 )
- January 24th : Anna Christina Ehrenfried von Balthasar , German academic († 1808 )
- February 5 : Bak Ji-won , Korean politician and economist († 1805 )
- February 5 : Maria Elisabeth of Austria , Austrian princess († 1740 )
- February 9 : Thomas Paine , American publicist and politician († 1809 )
- March 2 : Henry Wynkoop , American politician († 1816 )
- March 3 : Christoph Wilhelm Lüdeke , German Lutheran theologian († 1805 )
- March 6 : David von Wyss the Elder , Mayor of Zurich († 1815 )
- March 7 : William Heath , American farmer, soldier and politician († 1814 )
- March 9 : Josef Mysliveček , Bohemian composer († 1781 )
- March 15 : Amarindra , Queen of Siam († 1826 )
- March 18 : Adalbert von Harstall , last Prince-Bishop of Fulda († 1814 )
- March 20 : Thong Duang or Rama I. (Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok), King of Siam and founder of the Chakri dynasty († 1809 )
- March 27 : Francesco Zannetti , Italian composer († 1788 )
- March 28 : Henri de Franquetot, duc de Coigny , French courtier and general († 1821 )
- April 4 : Franz Joseph von Wurmbrand-Stuppach , Austrian diplomat († 1806 )
- May 1 : Elias Dayton , American general and politician († 1807 )
- May 2 : William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne , British Prime Minister († 1805 )
- May 8 : Edward Gibbon , British historian († 1794 )
- May 10 : Franz Egon von Fürstenberg , Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim and Paderborn († 1825 )
- May 14 : George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney , British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat of Irish descent († 1806 )
- May 18 : Francesco Arcangeli , Italian murderer († 1768 )
- May 28 : Ludwig Benjamin Martin Schmid , German Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1793 )
June to September
- June 2 : Suzanne Curchod , Parisian Salonière Swiss descent († 1794 )
- June 2 : Ernst August II , Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach († 1758 )
- June 20 : Tokugawa Ieharu , Shogun of the Edo period in Japan († 1786 )
- June 22nd : Johann Josef Anton Huber , Augsburg fresco painter and Catholic director of the Imperial City Art Academy († 1815 )
- June 25 : Johann Ludwig Ferdinand Arnoldi , German educator and Protestant theologian († 1783 )
- June 25 : Francesco La Vega , Spanish archaeologist († 1804 )
- June 27 : Christian Heinrich von Quitzow , Prussian officer († 1806 )
- July 15 : Louise-Marie de Bourbon , French princess and Carmelite with the religious name Mère Thérèse de Saint-Augustin († 1787 )
- July 24 : Alexander Dalrymple , Scottish geographer († 1808 )
- August 5 : Johann Friedrich Struensee , German doctor and minister at the Danish court († 1772 )
- August 9 : John Wentworth , British colonial governor of New Hampshire and Nova Scotia († 1820 )
- August 11 : Augusta von Hannover , Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and ruling Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel († 1813 )
- August 14 : Charles Hutton , English mathematician and author († 1823 )
- August 29 : John Hunter , Scottish captain, Australian pioneer and Governor of New South Wales († 1821 )
- September 2nd (baptized): Jacques-François de Corday d'Armont , French nobleman, veteran of Charlotte Corday († 1798 )
- September 2 : Maria Anna von Oeyen , abbess in the Cistercian monastery St. Ludwig, Dalheim († 1813 )
- September 9 : Luigi Galvani , Italian doctor and naturalist († 1798 )
- September 12 : Richard Bache , American politician († 1811 )
- September 14 : Michael Haydn , Austrian composer († 1806 )
- September 15 : Jakob Philipp Hackert , German painter († 1807 )
- September 15 : Miklós Küzmics , Slovenian priest and translator († 1804 )
- September 15 : Gottlob Friedrich Ernst Schönborn , German diplomat in the Danish service († 1817 )
- September 18 : Pierre Eugène du Simitière , Swiss-American artist and philosopher († 1784 )
- September 19 : Charles Carroll , American politician and signatory of the US Declaration of Independence († 1832 )
- September 26th (baptized): Johann Michael Stock , German painter and engraver († 1773 )
October to December
- October 2 : Francis Hopkinson , American politician, signatory of the Declaration of Independence († 1791 )
- October 5 : Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov , Russian officer and palace revolutionary († 1808 )
- October 7 : Marie Catherine Brignole , reigning Princess of Monaco and Princess Condé († 1813 )
- October 8th : Sophie Caroline Marie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth († 1817 )
- October 17 (baptized): Jakob Bürgi , Swiss painter and art publisher († 1795 )
- October 21 : Marie-Louise O'Murphy , French courtesan and mistress of Louis XV. († 1814 )
- October 30 : Johann Christian von Quistorp , Mecklenburg jurist († 1795 )
- October 31 : James Lovell , American politician, tax collector and naval officer († 1814 )
- November 8 : Joseph Bruny d'Entrecasteaux , French navigator and explorer († 1793 )
- November 10 : Metta von Oberg , German baroness, canoness and companion of Augusta Louise zu Stolberg-Stolberg († 1794 )
- November 20 : Johann Jacob Ebert , German mathematician, poet, astronomer, journalist and author († 1805 )
- November 20 : Georg David Matthieu , German portrait painter and copper engraver († 1778 )
- December 1 : Johann Ludewig Hogrewe , German engineer and cartographer († 1814 )
- December 1 : William Shepard , American officer and politician († 1817 )
- December 4th : Christian Jacob von Zwierlein , German lawyer and procurator at the Reich Chamber of Commerce in Wetzlar († 1793 )
- December 9 : Johann Ludwig von Eckardt , German legal scholar († 1800 )
- December 11 : Georg Andreas Weise , German Lutheran theologian († 1792 )
- December 19 : Johann Nicolaus Anton , German Lutheran theologian († 1813 )
- December 26th : Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld , German field marshal general († 1815 )
- December 27 : Joseph Pignatelli , Spanish Jesuit and priest, saint of the Catholic Church († 1811 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johannes Äbersold , Swiss cabinet maker († 1812 )
- Frances Abington , English actress († 1815 )
- Ahmad at-Tijānī , Algerian Sunni Sufi order founder († 1815 )
- Carl Nicolaus Adler , German lawyer and mayor of Stade († 1816 )
- Anurut , King of the Laotian Empire of Luang Phrabang († 1819 )
- Anne Couppier de Romans, comtesse de Meilly-Coulonge , French court lady and mistress of Louis XV. († 1808 )
- William Forsyth , British gardener and botanist († 1804 )
- Gelelemend , chief of the Munsee († 1811 )
- Marie-Geneviève Navarre , French painter († 1795 )
- Leven Powell , American politician († 1810 )
- Barry St. Leger , British officer († 1789 )
- Thuken Lobsang Chökyi Nyima , Tibetan historian and clergyman of the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism († 1802 )
First half of the year
- January 1st : Johann Bergmüller , German Kistler, carpenter, carpenter, menuisier and artisan (* 1657 )
- January 1 : Johann Georg Klemm , German publisher (* around 1666 )
- January 1st : Pier Antonio Micheli , Florentine botanist (* 1679 )
- January 9 : Johann Heinrich Dreyer , German businessman and mayor of Lübeck (* 1670 )
- January 21 : Ignjat Đurđević , Croatian nobleman, poet and translator, Benedictine monk and astronomer (* 1675 )
- January 24th : Alexander Sigismund von der Pfalz , Prince-Bishop of Augsburg (* 1663 )
- January 24th : William Wake , Archbishop of Canterbury (* 1657 )
- February 12 : Benjamin Schmolck , Silesian hymn poet (* 1672 )
- February 14 : Gotthard Gottschalk von Wickede , lawyer and councilor of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck (* 1684 )
- February 14 : Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot of Hensol , British lawyer and politician, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (* 1685 )
- March 7th : Francesco Antonio Tullio , Italian librettist (* 1660 )
- March 12 : Karl Alexander , Duke of Württemberg, Imperial and Reich Field Marshal General (* 1684 )
- March 14 : Pietro Morettini , Swiss builder (* 1660 )
- March 15 : Edmunda Maria von Dietrichstein-Nikolsburg , Princess of Liechtenstein (* 1652 )
- March 18 : Ferdinand von Plettenberg , Prime Minister of the Electorate of Cologne, Chamberlain and Hereditary Marshal of Elector Clemens August of Bavaria (* 1690 )
- March 19 : Johann Konrad von Reinach-Hirtzbach , Prince-Bishop of Basel (* 1657 )
- March 26th : Johann Hagenbusch , German librarian (* 1688 )
- March 27 : Watchtang VI. , Georgian king as well as scientist and poet (* 1675 )
- March 29 : Adam Winterhalder , German sculptor (* around 1652 )
- April 2 : Antonio Montanari , Italian composer and violinist (* 1676 )
- April 18 : Abraham of Crete , Catholicos of Echmiadzin of the Armenian Apostolic Church and chronicler
- May 1 : Jean-Alphonse Turrettini , Swiss Reformed theologian (* 1671 )
- May 3 : Abraham Patras , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies (* 1671 )
- May 4th : Maria Sophia Bawyr von Frankenberg , abbess in St. Cäcilien in Cologne (* 1667 )
- May 4th : Ferdinand Kettler , Duke of Courland (* 1655 )
- May 10 : Nakamikado , Tennō of Japan (* 1702 )
- June 4th : François Lemoyne , French painter (* 1688 )
- June 6th : Pierre-Joseph Garidel , French doctor and botanist (* 1658 )
- June 22nd : Johann Georg Achbauer the Younger , Bohemian builder (* 1680 )
- June 30 : Johann Ortwin Westenberg , German legal scholar (* 1667 )
Second half of the year
- July 6th : Pietro Torri , Italian composer (* around 1650 )
- July 9 : Gian Gastone de 'Medici , last Tuscan Grand Duke from the Medici family (* 1671 )
- July 15 : Christoph Heinrich von Berger , German lawyer (* 1687 )
- July 16 : François-Louis de Pesmes de Saint-Saphorin , Swiss diplomat and military officer (* 1668 )
- August 4th : Rudolf Anton von Alvensleben , Hanoverian Minister (* 1688 )
- August 10 : Antonio Cristofori , Italian painter and musician (* 1701 )
- August 11th : Joan Raye , Herr von Breukelerwaard, sea captain at the Admiralty of Amsterdam and governor general in Suriname (* 1698 )
- August 23 : Sophie Christiane von Wolfstein , Margravine of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (* 1667 )
- September 2 : Fabian von Wrangel , Imperial Habsburg Field Marshal (* 1651 )
- September 22nd : Francesco Mancini , Neapolitan conductor and composer (* 1672 )
- October 3 : Adolf von Dalberg , Prince Abbot of Fulda (* 1678 )
- October 13 : Johann Daniel Preissler , Nuremberg painter of Bohemian descent (* 1666 )
- October 15 : Matteo Sassano, called Matteuccio , Italian castrato and opera singer (* 1667 )
- October 20 : Caspar Neumann , German chemist and pharmacist (* 1683 )
- October 22 : Rinaldo d'Este , Duke of Modena and Reggio and Mirandola (* 1655 )
- November 5 : Juan Guillermo Riperdá , Spanish adventurer and minister (* 1680 )
- November 7th Johann Rudolf Victor von Pretlack , German cavalry general and Lieutenant General Field Marshal (* 1668 )
- December 1 : Caroline von Brandenburg-Ansbach , Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and Electress of Hanover (* 1683 )
- December 1 : Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon , Count of Toulouse, illegitimate son of Louis XIV (* 1678 )
- December 7th : Johann Caspar Brenzinger , German painter and councilor of the city of Freiburg (* around 1651 )
- December 11th : Nicolas Vleughels , French painter (* 1668 )
- December 13 : Tobias Eckhard , German pedagogue, Protestant theologian and philologist (* 1662 )
- December 18 : Antonio Stradivari , Italian master violin maker (* around 1644 )
- December 19 : Jakob Louis Heinrich Sobieski , Crown Prince of Poland-Lithuania (* 1667 )
- December 21 : Alessandro Galilei , Italian architect (* 1691 )
- December 22nd : Luca Antonio Colomba , Swiss painter (* 1674 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Jacob Gole , Dutch draftsman, engraver and publisher (* 1660 )
- Elizabeth Hanson , New England Quaker who was captured by an Indian tribe (* 1684 )
- Philipp Karl von Hundheim , Imperial Colonel and Senior Magistrate, Privy Councilor and Treasurer of the Electoral Palatinate (* before 1675)
- Ivan Kirillowitsch Kirilow , Russian geographer and cartographer (* 1689 )
- Lobsang Yeshe , 5th Penchen Lama of the Gelug tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1663 )
- David Petersen , German violinist and composer (* around 1650 )
- Bernhard Vogel , German engraver (* 1683 )