Calendar overview 1644
|Shunzhi becomes the first Qing Dynasty emperor in China .||Christina takes over governance in Sweden when she is of legal age .|
Battle of Marston Moor, the Roundheads win
a decisive victory in the English Civil War .
|1644 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1092/93 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1636/37 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1049/50 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2187/88 (southern Buddhism); 2186/87 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1006/07 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3977/78 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1022/23 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1053/54 (March 9-10)|
|Jewish calendar||5404/05 (September 30th / October 1st)|
|Coptic calendar||1360/61 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1954/55 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1955/56 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1700/01 (April)|
Politics and world events
English Civil War
- March 29 : Parliamentary troops win an important victory in the English Civil War in the Battle of Cheriton . It means that the royalists under King Charles I are on the defensive for the rest of the year.
- June 29 : In the Battle of Cropredy Bridge in the English Civil War, the royal army under King Charles I prevails over the parliamentary troops .
- July 2 : At the Battle of Marston Moor , the parliamentary army under Oliver Cromwell triumphs over the troops of the royalists .
- Oliver Cromwell begins setting up his New Model Army at the end of the year .
- According to a parliamentary resolution, Christmas is not allowed to be celebrated in England .
Thirty Years' War
- May 11th : Franz von Mercy conquers Überlingen in the Thirty Years War .
- 3rd , 5th and 10th August : In the battle near Freiburg im Breisgau between the French under Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne and Louis II. De Bourbon, prince de Condé and the Bavarians under Franz von Mercy and Johann von Werth fall 70 percent of the French. In this "most murderous battle of the whole war" , the Bavarians prevent the French from advancing further into southern Germany.
- November 23 : in the battle of Jüterbog the Swedes under Torstensson defeat the imperial under Gallas, who wanted to come to the aid of the Danes. The imperial army is effectively dissolved. With that Saxony falls and the way to Bohemia and Moravia is free.
- December 4th : The peace congress in Münster opens.
- June 5 : In a meeting of the Privy Council , the establishment of a standing army, the Electoral Brandenburg Army , is decided.
Sweden / Denmark
- In January, Swedish troops under the command of Lennart Torstensson , who at the end of the previous year started the Torstensson War against Denmark without a declaration of war , conquer the entire Jutland peninsula .
- In February Swedish troops under Gustaf Horn advance into Danish Skåne and conquer Helsingborg and Landskrona , among others , while the fortresses in Malmö and Kristianstad withstand the attackers.
- May 16 : During the sea battle in Lister Tief , a Danish-Norwegian fleet of nine ships under King Christian IV blocked the Lister Tief , the passage between Sylt and Rømø , for a Dutch fleet of 33 smaller ships rented by Sweden and set up below this a bloodbath with more than 500 dead and wounded. Only on May 25th the Dutch can break through the blockade and flee to Holland.
- July 1st : The sea battle on the Kolberger Heide ends without either side having lost a ship. Christian IV of Denmark loses an eye in the battle. The event is later processed in the Danish royal anthem Kong Christian stod ved højen mast .
- On October 13th, the Danish-Norwegian fleet was defeated in the sea battle near Fehmarn against a united Swedish-Dutch fleet under Carl Gustaf Wrangel .
- December 18 : At the age of 18, Queen Christina takes over government from Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna in Sweden . She is supported in this by Johann Kasimir von Pfalz-Zweibrücken and his two sons Karl Gustav and Adolf Johann , with whom she grew up. The coronation is postponed because of the Torstensson War.
Portugal / Spain
- May 26th : The Battle of Montijo leads to the only significant clash until 1659 in the Restoration War between Spain and Portugal, which has been smoldering since Portuguese independence in 1640 . The Portuguese win with Dutch support, but suffer heavy losses.
- August: The Wappinger War ends with a peace treaty in Fort Orange.
- The struggling for survival Saybrook Colony is merged with the more dynamic Colony of Connecticut .
- The Second English Powhatan War begins as the Powhatan's last attempt to drive the English settlers out of their Jamestown , Virginia colony .
- April 25 : Beijing is conquered and sacked in a Chinese rebellion led by Li Zicheng . The Emperor Chongzhen commits suicide.
- June 3 : Li Zicheng proclaims himself Emperor of China .
- June 6th : A Manchu army is let through the gates of the Great Wall with the help of Ming Dynasty General Wu Sangui and conquers Beijing . This marks the beginning of the Qing Dynasty in China. Shunzhi is proclaimed emperor on October 30th .
science and technology
- René Descartes publishes the principles of philosophy (Principia philosophiae), a work that already introduces the principle of inertia , as Isaac Newton will later use for his 1st axiom.
- Rembrandt van Rijn : Christ and the adulteress
- Claude Lorrain : Odysseus gives Chryseis to her father
- The bees fountain is being built in Rome by the Italian sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini on behalf of Pope Urban VIII in Piazza Barberini .
- John Milton first published his prose work Areopagitica in London , a criticism against censorship .
- The Pegnesian Flower Order , a language and literary society, is founded in Nuremberg .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 10 : Louis-François de Boufflers , French general and Marshal of France († 1711 )
- January 14th : Thomas Britton , British coal merchant and amateur musician († 1714 )
- February 26 : Elisabeth Lemmerhirt , mother of Johann Sebastian Bach († 1694 )
- May 14th : Marquard Sebastian Schenk von Stauffenberg , Prince-Bishop and Canon († 1693 )
- May 14 : David Clodius , German orientalist and Protestant theologian († 1684 )
- May 14 : George Konrad Crusius , Dutch jurist († 1676 )
- May 23 : Gabriel Grupello , Flemish sculptor († 1730 )
- June 4 : Godert de Ginkell, 1st Earl of Athlone , Dutch general († 1703 )
- June 16 : Henrietta Anne Stuart , French Duchess († 1670 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Abraham a Sancta Clara , German-speaking publicist , pulpit speaker and writer († 1709 )
- July 27 : Christian Ernst , Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth († 1712 )
- August 6 : Louise de La Vallière , mistress of Louis XIV († 1710 )
- August 12 : Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber , Bohemian violinist and composer († 1704 )
- August 13 : Christian Wildvogel , German legal scholar († 1728 )
- September 6th (baptism): Juan Bautista José Cabanilles , Spanish organist and baroque composer († 1712 )
- September 29 : Wilhelm von Brandt , lieutenant general in Brandenburg-Prussia († 1701 )
- October 5 : Ole Rømer , Danish astronomer († 1710 )
- October 6 : Johann Zacharias Kneller , German painter († 1702 )
- October 9 : Jan van Brouchoven , statesman of the Spanish Netherlands († 1725 )
- October 14 : William Penn , Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania († 1718 )
- October 28 : Franz Ferdinand Freiherr von Rummel , Prince-Bishop of the Diocese of Vienna († 1716 )
- December 17 : Nikolaus Alard , German theologian († 1699 )
- December 23 : Tomás de Torrejón y Velasco , Spanish composer and conductor who worked in Peru († 1728 )
- December 29 : Philipp van Almonde , Dutch Vice Admiral († 1711 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Matsuo Bashō , Japanese poet († 1694 )
- Antonius Pery , Swiss sculptor († 1683 )
- Václav Karel Holan Rovenský , Czech composer († 1718 )
- Antonio Stradivari , Italian violin maker († 1737 )
- James Thynne , English politician († 1709 )
Born around 1644
First half of the year
- January 24th : James Hamilton, 1st Viscount Claneboye , Scottish nobleman (* 1559 )
- January 25 : Hermann Georg von Neuhof , Prince Abbot of Fulda (* 1596 )
- January 31 : Kemankeş Kara Mustafa Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* around 1592 )
- April 10 : William Brewster , church elder of the separatist congregationalists on board the Mayflower (* around 1566 )
- April 25 : Chongzhen , last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China (* 1611 )
Second half of the year
- July 16 : Giovanni Biliverti , Italian painter (* 1585 )
- July 29th : Maffeo Barberini, under the name Urban VIII Pope (* 1599 )
- October 6 : Elisabeth de Bourbon , Queen of Spain and Portugal (* 1602 )
- October 31 : Amador de La Porte , Johanniter, Grand Prior of France (* 1566 )
- November 22nd : Aodh Óg Mac Mathúna , Irish rebel leader (* around 1606 )
- November 24th : Deodaat Delmonte , Flemish architect, engineer, astronomer and painter (* 1582 )
- December 14 : Maria Clara von Spaur, Pflaum and Valör , abbess of the Essen monastery (* 1590 )
- December 20 : Albrecht , Duke of Saxony-Eisenach (* 1599 )
- December 23 : Alexander Carew , English nobleman, politician and military (* 1608 / 09 )
- December 30th : Johan Baptista van Helmont , Flemish universal scientist, doctor, naturalist and chemist (* 1580 )