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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Friedrich Wilhelm I. (painting by Matthias Czwiczek)
Friedrich Wilhelm becomes
Elector of Brandenburg .
King John IV of Portugal
John IV becomes king of a Portugal independent of Spain .
Reichstag in Regensburg
The Reichstag in Regensburg begins.
1640 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1088/89 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1632/33 (September 10-11)
Bengali solar calendar 1045/46 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2183/84 (southern Buddhism); 2182/83 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 72nd (73rd) cycle

Year of the Metal Dragon庚辰 ( at the beginning of the year Earth-Rabbit 己卯)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1002/03 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3973/74 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1018/19 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1049/50 (April 22/23)
Jewish calendar 5400/01 (September 16-17)
Coptic calendar 1356/57 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 815/816
Seleucid era Babylon: 1950/51 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1951/52 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1696/97 (April)


Politics and world events

Holy Roman Empire

Portugal / Spain

Coat of arms of the Portuguese kings from John II to Manuel II.

An uprising breaks out in Catalonia . Philip IV of Spain , in personal union also Philip III. of Portugal, plans to use Portuguese troops to crush the uprising against the Catalans, causing outrage in Portugal . France , the great adversary of the Habsburgs and thus Spain , sees an opportunity to weaken the Spaniards. Cardinal Richelieu therefore supports the Portuguese and encourages the Duke of Braganza to revolt against the Spaniards. Taking advantage of the Spanish weakness, the Spanish governor, the Duchess of Mantua, is overthrown in a coup in Lisbon and the head of the Braganza family , Duke John II, is proclaimed King of Portugal as John IV on December 15th . This ends the 60-year personal union between the two countries. The struggle for independence, however, lasted until 1668 .

Ottoman Empire

Sultan Ibrahim
  • February 8th : Murad IV dies at the age of 29 because of his drunkenness, his brother İbrahim becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire . At first he hesitates to ascend the throne because he believes his brother is feinting to kill him. Only his mother Kösem can persuade him to leave his room to ascend the throne.

England / Scotland



Fort St. George, Madras, in the 18th century
  • April 23rd : Fort St. George in Madras is inaugurated as the first British fort in India. The fort becomes the headquarters of the Madras Presidency (officially Presidency of Fort St. George ), one of three administrative units of the British East India Company alongside Bombay and Bengal . A settlement soon developed around the fort, which became the nucleus of the city of Madras .
  • Karrilikio ( Camiliquio ), the Muslim sultan of Tallo ( Tolo ) on Sulawesi , attacks the north and south coast of Timor with a total of 150 ships and 7,000 men. After three months of raids, he withdraws again.

science and technology


Rembrandt: self-portrait


  • Two years after his death, the work Augustine, sive doctrina Sti appears. Augustini de humanae naturae sanitate, aegritudine, medicina adversus pelagianos et massilienses by the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen , with whom Jansenism was founded. Most ardent opponents of this doctrine are from the beginning the Jesuits .
  • Giulio Mazarini enters the service of Cardinal Richelieu in Paris .

Historical maps and views


First half of the year

Emperor Leopold I.
  • 0June 9 : Leopold I , Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Croatia and Slavonia († 1705 )

Second half of the year

Exact date of birth unknown


First half of the year

Peter Paul Rubens with his first wife Isabella

Second half of the year

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

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