Friedrich Wilhelm becomes
Elector of Brandenburg .
|John IV becomes king of a Portugal independent of Spain .|
|Reichstag in Regensburg begins.|
|1640 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1088/89 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1632/33 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1045/46 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2183/84 (southern Buddhism); 2182/83 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1002/03 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3973/74 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1018/19 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1049/50 (April 22/23)|
|Jewish calendar||5400/01 (September 16-17)|
|Coptic calendar||1356/57 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1950/51 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1951/52 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1696/97 (April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- February 13 : When the Ernestine Duchy of Saxony-Weimar is divided , the Duchies of Weimar, Eisenach and Gotha are created. Duke Ernst I becomes the progenitor of the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha , Saxe-Weimar goes to Wilhelm IV. , Saxe-Eisenach to Albrecht . With this so-called Ernestine division , the division of the former Ernestine property is cemented and another important step is taken on the way to the emergence of small states in Thuringia .
- November 14th : After the childless death of Count Otto V and the associated extinction of the Schaumburgs , there were years of inheritance disputes over the Grafschaft Schaumburg , which was ultimately divided into three parts: The Holstein-Pinneberg rule fell to the Duchy of Holstein and with it to Christian IV of Denmark . The Lippe part goes to the Grafschaft Lippe , which becomes the Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe , the Hessian part is united under the continued name Grafschaft Schaumburg in personal union with the Landgraviate Hessen-Kassel .
- December 1 : Friedrich Wilhelm becomes Elector of Brandenburg after the death of his father Georg Wilhelm . Due to the consequences of the ongoing Thirty Years War , the population losses of the Mark Brandenburg are up to fifty percent. The electoral income, which used to be 260,000 thalers, still amounts to 35,000.
Portugal / Spain
An uprising breaks out in Catalonia . Philip IV of Spain , in personal union also Philip III. of Portugal, plans to use Portuguese troops to crush the uprising against the Catalans, causing outrage in Portugal . France , the great adversary of the Habsburgs and thus Spain , sees an opportunity to weaken the Spaniards. Cardinal Richelieu therefore supports the Portuguese and encourages the Duke of Braganza to revolt against the Spaniards. Taking advantage of the Spanish weakness, the Spanish governor, the Duchess of Mantua, is overthrown in a coup in Lisbon and the head of the Braganza family , Duke John II, is proclaimed King of Portugal as John IV on December 15th . This ends the 60-year personal union between the two countries. The struggle for independence, however, lasted until 1668 .
- February 8th : Murad IV dies at the age of 29 because of his drunkenness, his brother İbrahim becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire . At first he hesitates to ascend the throne because he believes his brother is feinting to kill him. Only his mother Kösem can persuade him to leave his room to ascend the throne.
England / Scotland
- April 13th to May 5th : Short Parliament
- August 20 : A Scottish army under commanders Leslie and Montrose invades England in the Second Episcopal War after King Charles I and William Laud , Archbishop of Canterbury , wanted to impose a new Catholic liturgy on the Scots .
- August 28 : During the Episcopal Wars , stronger Scottish troops were able to chase away English invaders at the Battle of Newburn . Her King Charles I subsequently decided to make an offer of peace.
- October 26th : The Second Episcopal War ends with the Treaty of Ripon . The English King Charles I has to grant Scotland concessions that cause him conflicts with the convened Long Parliament .
- from November 3rd : Long Parliament
- Up 1,701 permanent Beaver Wars of the Iroquois start against their neighboring peoples.
- The Dutch colony of Nieuw Nederland under Governor Willem Kieft is waging the pig war against the Raritan people for stealing a few pigs .
- April 23rd : Fort St. George in Madras is inaugurated as the first British fort in India. The fort becomes the headquarters of the Madras Presidency (officially Presidency of Fort St. George ), one of three administrative units of the British East India Company alongside Bombay and Bengal . A settlement soon developed around the fort, which became the nucleus of the city of Madras .
- Karrilikio ( Camiliquio ), the Muslim sultan of Tallo ( Tolo ) on Sulawesi , attacks the north and south coast of Timor with a total of 150 ships and 7,000 men. After three months of raids, he withdraws again.
science and technology
- July 15 : The Turku Academy , predecessor of the University of Helsinki , opens as the first university in Finland .
- The anatomist Werner Rolfinck receives government approval in Jena to dissect corpses.
- Galileo Galilei designs the pendulum clock . But this is only built by his son Vincenzo.
- Rembrandt van Rijn : self-portrait
- Two years after his death, the work Augustine, sive doctrina Sti appears. Augustini de humanae naturae sanitate, aegritudine, medicina adversus pelagianos et massilienses by the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen , with whom Jansenism was founded. Most ardent opponents of this doctrine are from the beginning the Jesuits .
- Giulio Mazarini enters the service of Cardinal Richelieu in Paris .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 8 : Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg , Countess of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1709 )
- January 23 : Philip Wilhelm von Hornick , economist and a representative of mercantilism († 1714 )
- February 12 : Theodorus Rijcke , Dutch historian and rhetorician († 1690 )
- February 14 : Anna Magdalena von Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler , German noblewoman († 1693 )
- February 24 : Michiel ten Hove , board member of the states of Holland and West Friesland († 1689 )
- February 29 : Benjamin Keach English Baptist evangelist, pastor, song poet and author († 1704 )
- April 4 : Gaspar Sanz , Spanish composer and guitarist († 1710 )
- April 7th : Ludmilla Elisabeth von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt , German hymn poet († 1672 )
- April 10 : Magnus Friedrich von Horn , Prussian lieutenant general and governor of Geldern († 1712 )
- April 18 : Stechinelli , court banker of the Guelph Dukes († 1694 )
- April 23 : Johann Christoph Freiherr Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden , provost of the prince provost of Ellwangen († 1687 )
Second half of the year
- July 10th : Aphra Behn , English writer († 1689 )
- July 19 : Peter Müller , German legal scholar († 1696 )
- August 2 : Gérard Audran , French engraver († 1703 )
- August 20 : Johann Heinrich Hävecker , German theologian and histographer († 1722 )
- August 24 : Philipp Müller , German Lutheran theologian († 1713 )
- September 7th : Johann Jacob Schütz , German lawyer and Pietist († 1690 )
- September 21 : Philippe I de Bourbon , Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV († 1701 )
- September 29th : Antoine Coysevox , French sculptor († 1720 )
- October 5 : Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart , Marquise de Montespan, mistress of Louis XIV († 1707 )
- October 11 : Ludwig Heinrich , Count Palatine and Duke of Simmern-Kaiserslautern († 1674 )
- October 14 : Henri Simonis , Walloon cloth manufacturer and founder of the Iwan Simonis billiard cloth factory († 1725 )
- October 20 : Gérard Edelinck , French engraver of Flemish origin († 1707 )
- November 15 : Nicolaus Adam Strungk , German composer († 1700 )
- November 18 : Willem de Vlamingh , Dutch navigator and explorer († 1698 )
- November 22nd : Samuel Stryk , German lawyer († 1710 )
- Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland , mistress of Charles II († 1709 ) November:
Exact date of birth unknown
- Filippo Abbiati , Italian painter († 1715 )
- Samuel Andreae , German theologian († 1699 )
- Jean-Antoine de Mesmes, comte d'Avaux , French diplomat († 1709 )
- Matteo Noris , Italian poet and opera librettist († 1714 )
- Benjamin Fletcher , English governor of the province of New York († 1703 )
- Keichū , Japanese Buddhist monk and literary scholar († 1701 )
- Johann Hugo von Lente , German lawyer and diplomat in the Danish service († 1718 )
- Georg Ludwig Stäbenhaber , German civil engineer and cartographer († 1708 )
- Elias Tillandz , Finnish botanist († 1693 )
- Thomas Thynne, 1st Viscount Weymouth , English nobleman and politician († 1714 )
First half of the year
- January 22nd : Erasmus Quellinus I , Flemish sculptor (* around 1584 )
- January 25 : Robert Burton , English writer (* 1577 )
- January 28 : Heinrich Matthias von Thurn , one of the main leaders of the Bohemian uprising (* 1567 )
- February 8 : Murad IV , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1612 )
- February 12 : Michael Altenburg , German composer (* 1584 )
- April 2 : Paul Fleming , German doctor and writer (* 1609 )
- April 10 : Agostino Agazzari , Italian composer and music theorist (* 1578 )
- April 16 : Charlotte Flandrina of Orange-Nassau , Dutch princess, abbess of Sainte-Croix (* 1579 )
- May 7 : Heinrich von Ryssel , Leipzig council member and trader (* 1594 )
- May 9 : Peter Theodoricus , German legal scholar (* 1580 )
- June 3 : Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk , English nobleman and politician (* 1584 )
- June 6 : Ortolph Fomann the Younger , German historian and legal scholar (* 1598 )
- June 29th : John Adson , English composer and Zinkenist (* around 1587 )
Second half of the year
- July 3 : Giuseppe Cesari gen. Cavalier d'Arpino , Italian painter (* 1568 )
- July 13 : Heinrich Casimir I , Count of Nassau-Dietz, governor of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe (* 1612 )
- July 25th : Francisco Laso de la Vega , Spanish officer and governor of Chile (* 1586 )
- August 17th : Wilhelm Kettler , Duke of Courland (* 1574 )
- September 21 : Ludolf von Münchhausen , private scholar (* 1570 )
- September 30th : Charles de Lorraine , Duke of Guise (* 1571 )
- September 30th : Jacopo da Empoli , Italian painter (* 1551 )
- December 1 : Georg Wilhelm , Elector of Brandenburg (* 1595 )
- December 23 : Levin von der Schulenburg , District Administrator in the Principality of Anhalt (* 1581 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Claudio Achillini , Italian philosopher, theologian, lawyer, mathematician, poet and librettist (* 1574 )
- John Atherton , English bishop (* 1598 )
- Francesca Caccini , Italian singer and composer (* 1587 )
- Hendrick Cornelisz. Vroom , Dutch painter and draftsman (* 1563 )