- Galileo Galilei is 1,633 condemned by the Inquisition and revoke his teaching of the Copernican system.
- Thirty Years War (1618-1648).
- Louis XIII , King of France and Navarre
- Armand-Jean du Plessis, duc de Richelieu , cardinal
- Ferdinand II , Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Ferdinand III. , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Philip IV , King of Spain, Naples, Sicily and Portugal
- Georg Wilhelm , Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg
- Friedrich Wilhelm , Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia
- Urban VIII. , Pope
- Michael I , Tsar in Russia
- Charles I , King of England, Scotland and Ireland
- Meishō , Empress of Japan
- Chongzhen , Emperor of China
- Shunzhi , Emperor of China