Calendar overview 1637
|Ferdinand III. becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire .||
great tulip mania
leads to the first major
stock market crash in history.
|Dutch conquer the Portuguese Fort São Jorge da Mina on the Gold Coast in West Africa .|
|1637 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1085/86 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1629/30 (10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1042/43 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2180/81 (southern Buddhism); 2179/80 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||999/1000 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3970/71 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1015/16 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1046/47 (May 25/26)|
|Jewish calendar||5397/98 (September 18-19)|
|Coptic calendar||1353/54 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1947/48 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1948/49 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1693/94 (April)|
Politics and world events
- February 6 : In Chur is directed against the French presence in Grisons directional chain collar closed.
- February 21 : The Kettenbund led by Jörg Jenatsch moves in front of the Rohanschanze . The French under Henri II. De Rohan have to capitulate on February 26th and withdraw from the Three Leagues on May 5th .
- February 15 : After the death of Emperor Ferdinand II , his son Ferdinand III follows him . on the throne.
- March 10th : The Griffin Duke Bogislaw XIV dies and leaves no descendants of his own. Regarding other lines and descendants of the Griffin family , no succession regulation was accepted by the allies and estates. This ended the rule of the Griffins in Pomerania and also the state independence of Pomerania.
- October 10th : The city of Breda surrenders to the troops of the governor of the United Netherlands Friedrich Heinrich von Orange after eleven weeks of siege in the Thirty Years' War .
- Under Grand Master Jean de Lascaris-Castellar the construction of the so-called Lascaris Towers to fortify the island of Malta begins . One of the first towers to be completed is the Għajn Tuffieħa Tower .
The Pequot War in New England
- May 1st : The English colony of Connecticut declares an offensive war against the indigenous Pequot tribe . The Pequot War begins.
- May 26th : Captain John Mason surrounded a fortified Pequot village on the Mystic River with 90 English colonists and several hundred Indian allies and set it on fire. Around 700 people are killed in the Mystic Massacre .
- Mid-June: After a defeat by the English colonists, the Pequot- Sachem Sassacus flees to the allied tribe of the Mohawk . However, they fear the retaliation of the English, kill Sassacus and send his head to Hartford .
- July 28th : With the killing of the last large group of fleeing Pequot , the first armed confrontation between the Native Americans of New England and the British colonists ends . The tribe of the Pequot is almost completely wiped out.
Other events in North America
- The Puritan pastor John Davenport led a crowd of religious refugees from the Netherlands via England to America in the spring of 1637. The group arrives aboard the Hector in Boston on June 26, but decides to set up their own colony because the Massachusetts Bay Colony seems to be too sloppy in its religious customs. That same fall, Theophilus Eaton , one of Davenport's followers, found himself on the north bank of Long Island Sound in search of a suitable location in the south . At the mouth of the Quinnipiac River , he bought land from the local Indians, where the group founded the New Haven Colony the following year .
- August 24th : The battle for Elmina begins. The attacking Dutch receive support from the independent state of Elmina against the Portuguese in conquering the city .
- August 29th : After several days of cannonade, the Dutch reach the Portuguese fort São Jorge da Mina in Elmina on the Gold Coast by surrendering their crew. The fortress is now a Ghanaian World Heritage Site .
- December 17 : The Shimabara uprising of Japanese farmers against the Tokugawa shogunate begins. The rebellion is carried by around 23,000 farmers and abandoned samurai ( Rōnin ), including many women, and takes place in the vicinity of the city of Shimabara on the Shimabara Peninsula in the province of Hizen and the nearby Amakusa Islands under the leadership of Amakusa Shirō . Both areas had previously been proselytized by the Jesuits under the previous Christian daimyo Konishi Yukinaga . However, the uprising is not based on religion, but is directed against the excessive tax burden.
- December 27 : In the Shimabara uprising , rebellious Japanese peasants defeat an army of 3,000 samurai . The 200 or so survivors withdraw to Nagasaki , and the governor asks the shogunate for reinforcements, who arrive early the following year.
- February 3rd : At a tulip auction in Haarlem , at the time of the tulip mania, the expected prices can no longer be achieved. As a result, prices fall and the speculative bubble bursts.
- February 5th : The end of the great tulip mania in Holland leads to the first major stock market crash in economic history . Years after the crash, the consequences can be felt in the form of an economic recession .
- February 14 : The Swedish mining authority Bergsstaten is established.
science and technology
- June 8th : René Descartes publishes Discours de la méthode ( Treatise on the method of the correct use of reason ) with the treatises on geometry , dioptrics and meteors .
- February / March: In Paris, there is a literary dispute Querelle du Cid between Jean Mairet and Georges de Scudéry as well as Pierre Corneille , in which the first two raise plagiarism allegations regarding Corneille's play Le Cid , which was published the previous year .
- The world's first public opera house , the Teatro San Cassiano , opens in Venice .
- Andreas Gryphius writes the sonnet It's all vain .
- For the first time, rules for the tarot trick card game have been handed down from France .
- The Dratshang Monastery in Tibet is established.
- The construction of the Punakha Dzong in what is now Bhutan begins.
- In cleric Psälterlein in Cologne, probably of is Friedrich Spee wrote Christmas song Born In Bethlehem published.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- February 10 : Henriette Catharina von Oranien-Nassau , Princess of Anhalt-Dessau († 1708 )
- February 12th : Jan Swammerdam , Dutch naturalist, founder of the theory of preformations († 1680 )
- February 26 : Hieronymus Bauhin , Swiss physician of French origin († 1667 )
- March 5 : Jan van der Heyden , Dutch painter and inventor († 1712 )
- March 12 : Anne Hyde , the first wife of James Stuart, the Duke of York, who after her death as James II became King of England and Scotland ( James VII ). († 1671 )
- March 15 : Johann Andreas Hochstetter , Lutheran theologian, professor at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen († 1720 )
- May 13 : Eremya Çelebi Kömürciyan , Armenian poet, printer, historian, educator, musician, miniaturist and translator († 1695 )
- June 5 : Philipp Ludwig Hanneken , German Lutheran theologian († 1706 )
- June 10 : Jacques Marquette , French monk and discoverer of the Mississippi River († 1675 )
- June 22nd : Christian II. , Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld († 1717 )
- June 22nd : Joseph Werner , Swiss painter († 1710 )
- June 24th : Johann Arnold Friderici , German medic and botanist († 1672 )
Second half of the year
- July 8 : Johann Georg Ebeling , German composer († 1676 )
- July 14 : Ferdinand Bonaventura I von Harrach , Austrian diplomat, and statesman († 1706)
- August 17 : Johann Gerhard Arnold , German historian, consistorial councilor and high school rector († 1717 )
- September 1 : Nicolas de Catinat , French general, Marshal of France († 1712 )
- September 29 : Joachim Ernst von Grumbkow , Kurbrandenburg politician († 1690 )
- November 26th : Antonio Carneo , Venetian Baroque painter († 1692 )
- December 6th : Edmund Andros , British colonial governor († 1714 )
- December 16 : William Neile , English mathematician († 1670 )
- December 24 : Wolfgang Gundling , German, Protestant preacher, deacon and chapter dean and church writer († 1689 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- before April 19 : Mateo Cerezo the Younger , Spanish painter († 1666 )
- Anna Maria Martinozzi , one of the Mazarinettes and Princess of Conti († 1672 )
Born around 1637
First half of the year
- February 15 : Stefano Bernardi , Italian composer and music theorist (* 1577 )
- February 15 : Ferdinand II , Holy Roman Emperor (* 1578 )
- February 16 : Henry Gellibrand , English astronomer (* 1597 )
- February 24 : Dominicus Arumaeus , German legal scholar (* 1579 )
- March 10 : Bogislaw XIV , last Duke of Pomerania (* 1580 )
- March 12 : Anders Christensen Arrebo , Danish clergyman and writer (* 1587 )
- March 19 : Peter Pázmány , Hungarian philosopher and theologian (* 1570 )
- May 19 : Isaac Beeckman , Dutch polymath, especially mathematician, physicist, doctor and natural philosopher (* 1588 )
- May 28 : Anton Matthäus , German legal scholar (* 1564 )
- May 29 : Jiří Třanovský , Slovak hymn poet and composer (* 1592 )
- May 31 : Jodok Hösli , Swiss abbot (* around 1592)
Second half of the year
- July 1st : Christoph von Dohna , German politician and scholar at the time of the Thirty Years War (* 1583 )
- July 21 : Daniel Sennert , German doctor (* 1572 )
- August 6 : Ben Jonson , English playwright and poet (* 1572 )
- August 14 : Nikolaus Elerdt , German Lutheran theologian and song writer (* 1586 )
- August 20 : Anton Varus , German logician and medic (* 1557 )
- September 8 : Robert Fludd , English philosopher and theosophist (* 1574 )
- September 21 : Wilhelm V , Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (* 1602 )
- September 22nd : Carlo I. Gonzaga , Duke of Nevers and Rethel (* 1580 )
- October 2 : Angelo Sala , doctor, scientist and member of the Fruit-Bringing Society (* 1576 )
- October 5 : Daniel Cramer , German Lutheran theologian; Chronicler and author (* 1568 )
- October 7 : Viktor Amadeus I , Duke of Savoy (* 1587 )
- October 9 : Friedrich von Schilling , German scholar (* 1584 )
- October 17 : Erasmus Sartorius , German composer, organist, music writer and poet (* 1577 )
- October 18 : Foppe van Aitzema , Braunschweig lawyer and politician (* around 1580 )
- October 21 : Laurens Reael , Dutch admiral and governor general of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Southeast Asia (* 1583 )
- October 27 : Ludwig Heidenreich von Callenberg , German court official and officer
- November 3rd : Bartholomäus Battus , German Protestant theologian (* 1571 )
- December 4 : Hartger Henot , Cologne canon, lawyer and doctor of both rights (* 1571 )