Calendar overview 1637
|Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor .||
Great Tulip Mania
leads to the first major
stock market crash in history.
|Dutch capture the Portuguese Fort of São Jorge da Mina on the Gold Coast of West Africa .|
|1637 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1085/86 (July turn of the year)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1629/30 (10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1042/43 (beginning of the year April 14 or 15)|
|Buddhist calendar||2180/81 (Southern Buddhism); 2179/80 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||999/1000 (New Year's April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3970/71 (2/3 October)|
|Iranian calendar||1015/16 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1046/47 (25/26 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5397/98 (September 18/19)|
|Coptic calendar||1353/54 (September 10/11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1947/48 (April turn of the year)
Syria: 1948/49 (October turn of the year)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese calendar)||1693/94 (April)|
politics and world affairs
The War in Europe
- February 6: The chain alliance against the French presence in Graubünden is closed in Chur .
- February 21st: The Kettenbund led by Jörg Jenatsch moves in front of the Rohanschanze . The French under Henri II de Rohan had to capitulate on February 26th and withdrew from the Three Leagues on May 5th .
- February 15: After the death of Emperor Ferdinand II , his son Ferdinand III succeeds him . on the throne.
- 28 June: The Ehrenbreitstein Fortress near Koblenz , which had been occupied by the French since 1632 , surrenders to the Imperial-Bavarian troops under Johann von Werth after a one-year siege .
- 10 October: The city of Breda surrenders to the troops of the governor of the United Netherlands , Frederick Henry of Orange , after eleven weeks of siege in the Eighty Years' War .
Other events in Europe
- March 10: The Griffin Duke Bogislaw XIV dies, leaving no descendants of his own. With regard to other lines and descendants of the Griffin family , no inheritance regulation was accepted by the alliance partners and estates. This ended the rule of the griffins in Pomerania and also the state independence of Pomerania.
- Under Grand Master Jean de Lascaris-Castellar , the construction of the so-called Lascaris Towers to fortify the island of Malta begins . One of the first towers to be completed is the Għajn Tuffieħa Tower .
The Pequot War in New England
- May 1: The English colony of Connecticut declares offensive war against the indigenous Pequot tribe . The Pequot War begins.
- May 26: Captain John Mason, with 90 English colonists and several hundred Indian allies, surrounds and burns a fortified Pequot village on the Mystic River . Around 700 people die in the Mystic massacre .
- Mid-June: After being defeated by the English colonists, the Pequot- sachem Sassacus flees to the allied Mohawk tribe . Fearing retaliation from the English, however, these kill Sassacus and send his head to Hartford .
- July 28: The killing of the last large group of fleeing Pequot ends the first armed conflict between the New England Indians and the British colonists. The Pequot tribe was almost completely wiped out.
Other events in North America
- In the spring of 1637, the Puritan pastor John Davenport led a group of religious refugees from the Netherlands via England to America . The group arrives in Boston on June 26 aboard the Hector , but decides to establish their own colony, finding the Massachusetts Bay Colony too lax in their religious observances. That same fall , Theophilus Eaton , one of Davenport's retainers, stumbles upon the north shore of Long Island Sound in search of a suitable spot south . He bought land from the local Indians at the mouth of the Quinnipiac River , where the group founded the New Haven Colony the following year .
- August 24: Battle of Elmina begins. The attacking Dutch receive support from the independent state of Elmina against the Portuguese in capturing the city .
- August 29: After several days of cannonade , the Dutch conquer the Portuguese Fort São Jorge da Mina in Elmina on the Gold Coast by surrendering their garrison. The fortress is now a Ghanaian World Heritage Site .
- December 17: The Shimabara uprising of Japanese peasants against the Tokugawa shogunate begins. The rebellion is supported by approximately 23,000 peasants and masterless samurai ( ronin ), including many women, and takes place around the city of Shimabara on the Shimabara Peninsula in Hizen Province and the nearby Amakusa Islands , led by Amakusa Shirō . Both areas were previously proselytized by the Jesuits under the previous Christian Daimyo Konishi Yukinaga . However, the uprising is not based on religion, but is directed against the excessive tax burden.
- December 27: Rebellious Japanese peasants defeat an army of 3,000 samurai in the Shimabara Rebellion . The 200 or so survivors retreat to Nagasaki , and the governor requests reinforcements from the shogunate , which arrive early the following year.
- 3 February: At a tulip auction in Haarlem , the expected prices can no longer be achieved at the time of the tulip mania . A fall in prices then sets in and the speculative bubble bursts.
- February 5: The end of the great tulip mania in Holland leads to the first major stock market crash in economic history . Years after the crash, the consequences can still be felt in the form of an economic recession .
- February 14: The Swedish mining authority Bergsstaten is founded.
- The Japanese rice wine brewery Gekkeikan is founded.
science and technology
- 8 June: René Descartes publishes Discours de la méthode ( Treatise on the Method of Proper Use of Reason ), containing the Treatises on Geometry , Dioptrics and Meteors .
culture and society
- February/March: In Paris there is a literary dispute Querelle du Cid between Jean Mairet and Georges de Scudéry as well as Pierre Corneille , in which the first two raise allegations of plagiarism regarding Corneille's play Le Cid , which was published the previous year .
- The world's first public opera house , the Teatro San Cassiano , opens in Venice .
- Andreas Gryphius composed the sonnet It is all vain .
- Rules for the trick card game Tarock have been handed down for the first time from France .
- The Dratshang Monastery in Tibet is established.
- The construction of the Punakha Dzong in present -day Bhutan begins.
- In the Geistliches Psalterlein in Cologne, the Christmas carol Zu Bethlehem Born , presumably written by Friedrich Spee , is published.
Historical maps and views
date of birth saved
- January 21: Anton sleeve , German architect of the baroque (died 1712)
- February 10: Henriette Catharina of Orange-Nassau , Princess of Anhalt-Dessau († 1708)
- February 12: Jan Swammerdam , Dutch naturalist, founder of preformation theory († 1680)
- February 26: Hieronymus Bauhin , Swiss physician of French origin († 1667)
- Jan van der Heyden , Dutch painter and inventor (died 1712) March 5:
- March 12: Anne Hyde , first wife of James Stuart, Duke of York, later King of England and Scotland († 1671)
- March 15: Johann Andreas Hochstetter , Lutheran theologian, professor at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen († 1720)
- May 13: Eremya Çelebi Kömürciyan , Armenian poet, printer, historian, educator, musician, miniaturist and translator (died 1695)
- Philipp Ludwig Hanneken , German Lutheran theologian (died 1706) June 5:
- June 10: Jacques Marquette , French monk and discoverer of the Mississippi River (d. 1675)
- 22 June: Christian II , Count Palatine and Duke of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld († 1717)
- June 22: Joseph Werner , Swiss painter († 1710)
- June 24: Johann Arnold Friderici , German physician and botanist († 1672)
- Johann Georg Ebeling , German composer († 1676) July 8:
- July 14: Ferdinand Bonaventure I of Harrach , Austrian diplomat and statesman († 1706)
- August 17: Johann Gerhard Arnold , German historian, consistorial councilor and high school rector († 1717)
- August 19: Æmilie Juliane von Barby-Mühlingen , Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, poet of sacred songs († 1706)
- August 27: Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore , Lord Proprietor of the English Colony of Maryland (d. 1715)
- Nicolas de Catinat , French general, Marshal of France (died 1712) September 1:
- September 29: Joachim Ernst von Grumbkow , Brandenburg politician († 1690)
- November 26: Antonio Carneo , Venetian Baroque painter († 1692)
- Edmund Andros , English colonial governor († 1714) December 6:
- December 16: William Neile , English mathematician (died 1670)
- December 24: Wolfgang Gundling , German Protestant preacher, deacon and chapter dean and church writer (died 1689)
Exact date of birth unknown
- before April 19: Mateo Cerezo the Younger , Spanish painter († 1666)
- Anna Maria Martinozzi , one of the Mazarinettes and Princess of Conti († 1672)
Born around 1637
- Dieterich Buxtehude , German organist and composer († 1707)
First half of the year
- February 15: Stefano Bernardi , Italian composer and music theorist (b. 1577)
- 15 February: Ferdinand II , Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1578)
- February 16: Henry Gellibrand , English astronomer (b. 1597)
- February 24: Dominicus Arumaeus , German legal scholar (b. 1579)
- 10 March: Bogislaw XIV , last Duke of Pomerania (b. 1580)
- March 12: Anders Christensen Arrebo , Danish clergyman and writer (b. 1587)
- March 19: Peter Pázmány , Hungarian philosopher and theologian (b. 1570)
- April 10: Jakob Müller , German physician and mathematician (b. 1594)
- 16 April: Johannes V Dressel , abbot of the Cistercian monastery in Ebrach
- May 19: Isaac Beeckman , Dutch polymath, particularly mathematician, physicist, physician and natural philosopher (b. 1588)
- May 28: Anton Matthäus , German legal scholar (b. 1564)
- May 29: Jiří Třanovský , Slovak hymn poet and composer (b. 1592)
- May 31: Jodok Hösli , Swiss Abbot (b. c. 1592)
Second half of the year
- Christoph von Dohna , German politician and scholar at the time of the Thirty Years' War (b. 1583) July 1:
- July 21: Daniel Sennert , German physician (b. 1572)
- Ben Jonson , English playwright and poet (b. 1572) August 6:
- August 11: Albrecht Manuel , Mayor of Bern (b. 1560)
- August 14: Nikolaus Elerdt , German Lutheran theologian and songwriter (b. 1586)
- August 17: Johann Gerhard , German Lutheran theologian (b. 1582)
- August 20: Anton Varus , German logician and physician (b. 1557)
- Robert Fludd , English philosopher and theosophist (b. 1574) September 8:
- 21 September: Wilhelm V , Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (b. 1602)
- 22 September: Carlo I Gonzaga , Duke of Nevers and Rethel (b. 1580)
- Angelo Sala , physician, scientist and member of the Fruiting Society (b. 1576) October 2:
- Daniel Cramer , German Lutheran theologian; Chronicler and author (b. 1568) October 5:
- Victor Amadeus I , Duke of Savoy (b. 1587) 7 October:
- Friedrich von Schilling , German scholar (b. 1584) October 9:
- 17 October: Erasmus Sartorius , German composer, organist, music writer and poet (b. 1577)
- 18 October: Foppe van Aitzema , Braunschweig jurist and politician (b. c. 1580)
- 18 October: Peter Heinrich von Stralendorf , Imperial Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire (b. 1580)
- October 21: Laurens Reael , Dutch admiral and Governor-General of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Southeast Asia (b. 1583)
- October 27: Ludwig Heidenreich von Callenberg , German court official and officer
- Bartholomäus Battus , German Protestant theologian (b. 1571) November 3:
- 26 November Andries de Witt , Acting Council Pensioner of Holland (b. 1573)
- Hartger Henot , Cologne canon, jurist and doctor of both rights (b. 1571) 4 December: