Fruitful society

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The Fruit Bringing Society (1617–1680, Latin societas fructifera ), also known as the Order of the Palm , was the first, with 890 members also the largest German language academy. In her imprese she shows the often usable coconut palm with the motto "everything to use".

Society sign of the fruitful society: palm grove with a portrait of Prince Ludwig von Anhalt-Köthen
Society penny of August Prince of Anhalt 1621

Due to its high number of members from the aristocratic and imperial princes, it was politically, politically, militarily and diplomatically networked. The model was the Italian Renaissance academies , but it was also linked to orders of knights, aristocratic societies and brotherhoods, but only partially functioned as a learned society and literary association.

"The name fruitful / therefore / so that everyone / so goes in / or willing to go / nothing else / than what is fruit-like / belonging to fruits / trees / flowers / herbs or the like / grows from the earth / and arises from it choose / and be extremely diligent about creating fruit everywhere next to it. "

- Georg Neumark : The new sprouting Teutsche palm tree , Nuremberg 1668


According to the report in the Academy's society book, the Fruit Bringing Society was founded in Weimar on August 24, 1617 by five Anhalt and Saxon-Weimar Reformed and Lutheran princes and three of their courtiers, including the society elder ( Caspar von Teutleben . FG 1. Der Flour-rich. 1617), Prince Ludwig von Anhalt-Köthen (FG 2. The Nourishing. 1617) and Duke Wilhelm IV. Of Saxony-Weimar (FG 5. The Tasty. 1617), the actually first and second head of society. The founding report of this court academy was questioned because August 24 was the calendar day of the French Bartholomew's Night (Huguenot murder) and thus a reformed memorial day, but the co-founder Prince Ludwig von Anhalt-Köthen (1579-1650) only had the burial of his Weimar residents Sister Dorothea Maria von Anhalt , who had already taken place on August 5, 1617, was missed due to the long duration of his notification and journey, so that his testimony of mourning coincided with the founding meeting on August 24. The founders of this association were close to the Protestant Action Party on the eve of the Thirty Years' War, but they did not found the society as “a politically motivated collection movement” with a secondary linguistic purpose and noble-patriotic canon of virtues, but only to achieve ethical and linguistic-literary goals.

Goals and early years

The goals have been defined in the society books since 1622 by describing the courtly, but already socially generalized ideal of behavior of the Conversazione civile ( Stefano Guazzo ) with the task areas of language work:

“First of all, that everyone in this society should show himself / her / his / her useful / beneficial / merry / and therefore act everywhere / at the gatherings kind / joyful / funny and tolerable in words and work / like darbey no one to the other a beneficial word for evil to take up / so one should avoid all crude annoying talk / and refrain from joking about it.

For the other / that the standard German language is in its right being and stands / without the interference of foreigners / the foreign word / to the best possible and most beneficial way / and the best pronunciation in speaking / as the purest way of writing and Rhyming-poetry diligent [n]. "

- DA Köthen II vol. 1, p. [10] u. [60] f.

These goals of the Fruitful Society initially grew out of the ideas of the pedagogue Wolfgang Ratke (1571–1635), who had already promised at the Frankfurt Reichstag in 1612 a declaration on how “In the whole Reich, a harmonious language, a harmonious government, and finally also a harmonious religion, easy to introduce and peaceful to maintain. "

Duchess Dorothea Maria, then Prince Ludwig and his nephew, Duke Joachim Ernst I of Saxe-Weimar (FG 3. 1617), had negotiated about Ratichian school trials , which also came about in Köthen and Weimar from 1618 onwards, including the early member Everwin von Droste zu Möllenbeck 1618/19 probably participated. In Köthen, after Ratke's departure (1619), they continued to run in spite of the inflation until 1624, accompanied by numerous textbooks for many languages ​​and disciplines, mostly printed in Prince Ludwig's office. Since 1619, extensive, fruitful, annotated translations of Prince Ludwig and post-poems by the Anhalt-Dessau court master Tobias Hübner (FG 25. Der Nutzbare. 1619) have been printed anonymously in Köthen , as have a number of early poems and verse transcriptions.

In a published sample correspondence on January 25, 1620, one comes across the letter from the now expressly named "Fruchtbringenden Gesellschaft". The first company register from 1622 then contains the founding report and the chronological list of the 52 members admitted up to that point. From 1617 to 1623, in addition to Prince Ludwig and Hübner, Heinrich von Krage (FG 16. 1618), Burggraf and Mr. Christoph zu Dohna (FG 20. 1619), Jost Andreas von Randow (FG 22. 1619), Tobias Hübner, wrote and published Curt Dietrich from the Winckel (FG 35.1621) and Hans Ernst von Börstel (FG 41.1621) single or multiple works. The number is probably even greater, because there are also quite a few other poetic works of various sizes from this period, published anonymously and printed in Köthen.

We also know about the linguistic talent of speakers and ambassadors like Caspar von Teutleben or the polyglot first secretary of the society, Friedrich von Schilling (FG 21. 1619). In general, however, it was a matter of obliging the ruling classes to have a civilian discourse ability and to win them over to the promotion of the little suspect, but nevertheless political and Christian language work, so that the majority of the princes, courtiers, officers and councilors accepted without their own scholarly or literary work Works could use the goals of society. The inner social duty of peace and the non-partisan, fruitful virtue ethos proved to be more and more radiant to the outside world as a model for the patriotic attitudes towards peace in the Old Reich, which grew in the course of the war.

The Imprese Teutleben, the flour-rich one, points to the most important role model of the fruit-bearing society: The Florentine Accademia della Crusca , which in its Imprese showed a bag box for separating the flour from the bran as a symbol of language criticism, took Prince Ludwig von Anhalt-Köthen ( FG 2. The Nourishing One. 1617) in 1600 under the name L'Acceso (The Inflamed One). He worked on the first dictionary of the Crusca, had his own translations of the philosophical dialogues printed in Koethen by Giovan Battista Gelli , head of the Accademia Fiorentina, and other Italian books that had been freed from interference by Catholic censorship, including those by Tobias Adami (FG 181 . 1629) published poems by Tommaso Campanellas (1623). The prince relied on Gelli's ideas represented in the Italian language debate, particularly on the fact that no thought was tied to a language (e.g. Greek or Latin) and that everything could be expressed in any vernacular language if it was cultivated (see the previous mentioned two goals in the society books since 1622).

Social structure, symbolism and constitution

Emblem of Duke Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar with motto and member name, including a meeting of the fruitful society. Engraving by Peter Isselburg . From right clockwise: the nourishing , the end Enjoy your meal , the Proper , the unsightly , the useful , the Vielgekörnte , the helper , the Austrucknende , the slow , the straight , the Penetrating , the Tasty .

The Fruitful Society was founded as a court academy, so that even at the time of Prince Ludwig (1617–1650) the society essentially consisted of nobles and ennobled people who came from the ruling classes of the time and who were best able to patronize the language work: Von of the 527 members admitted during this period, 73 princes (13.9%), 42 counts (8%), 19 lords and barons (3.6%) and 330 ancient or old nobles (62.6%), 30 members younger nobility or even the nobility (5.7%), 31 citizens (including patriciate etc.) or peasants (5.9%). 2 people (0.4%) are indeterminate as to their origin. The membership of some great gentlemen, e.g. B. Greve Axel Oxenstierna (FG 232. The Desired. 1634) and Prince Octavio Piccolomini d'Aragona, Duca d'Amalfi (FG 356. Der Zwingende. 1641), must have been politically justified and testify to Prince Ludwig's diplomatic skill and from the pressure of the war situation.

Each member should regulate his behavior according to his own imprese, which interpreted a "virtue" by means of a plant or a plant product, the corresponding "word" (motto), the company name and a "law of rhyme" (stanza) underneath it. Matthaeus Merian d. Ä. After the colored pen drawings by Christoph Rieck (e) († 1640 in Anhalt) and Christoph Steger († 1682 in Halle ad S.) had 401 imprints engraved in copper in his workshop and published in the company register of 1646. In it he added the engravings of his first 200 imprints of the company register from 1629/30. The symbol of society and that of the person who wore it were also emblazoned on the front and back of the 'society pennies' (oval gold medals) that the members wore on a parakeet-green ribbon around their necks.

In order to avoid the rank disputes that were frequent at the time, to hide social differences in academy work and only to serve the benefit, the 'journeymen' should only use their company names in conversations, letters and publications.

The founding members positioned themselves according to their age, so that Prince Ludwig placed himself between the Weimar court master Teutleben and the younger Weimar dukes. Until his death on February 11, 1629, the flour rich therefore took first place and rank in the academy. At social meetings, such as Peter Isselburg jabbed to take in the helper Friedrich von Kospoth (FG 55. 1622, see illustration), the oldest present (here Prince Ludwig, the nourishing) chaired the meeting. To his right, according to the rule of ancestry in society, his nephew, Duke Wilhelm IV of Saxe-Weimar (FG 5), took the second seat at the table and Kospoth, the last recipient, took the lowest place and rank.

The rituals of the recording included the drink from a tazza-shaped goblet (so-called Ölberger), the teasing of the new on a swivel chair and his speech in exemplary German. As the oldest survivor, the Tasty one duly succeeded him in 1651, a good year after the nourishing person's death (Weimar epoch). The third and last head could no longer be appointed in time and according to the order of precedence, mainly because several older men rejected the dignity. Since 1667, Duke August von Sachsen-Weißenfels (FG 402. Der Wohlgeratene. 1643), who resides in Halle ad S., has celebrated the recordings in the academy that has become a princely Palm Order . Women were not admitted as independent members, but named after the feminine form of their husband's company name, e.g. B. "the liberating" for the composing and writing Duchess Sophia Elisabeth von Mecklenburg- Güstrow as the wife of Duke August the elder. J. von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (FG 227. The Liberator. 1634).

As befits life at court, the Academy encouraged and honored women as practical helpers or as learned and artistic contributors to the fruitful project. Prince Ludwig's sister, Countess Anna Sophia von Anhalt , a wife of Count Carl Günther von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (FG 23. 1619) and unswerving patron of Ratke, founded the Virtuous Society in 1619 , which is an order and, unlike the FG, has a maximum of 73 female members of the higher Protestant nobility. Although Anna Sophia wrote a society book and endorsed musical and religious activities, the order was not specifically aimed at scholarly or poetic work, but only generally aimed at a cult of virtues.

Society penny

At the aforementioned social meetings, the members present should visibly wear their social pennies. It is a small, mostly gold medal on which a palm tree could be seen; on the upper half a banner with the inscription Alles zu Nutz and on the lower half a banner with the inscription Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaff . The back showed the symbol of the respective member, his company name and his motto ( word ). According to the current state of research, however, not every member had such a medal.

Historical periods and achievements

Köthen era (1617–1650)

After its beginnings, the number of members of the Fruitful Society rose rapidly from 52 to 200 people from 1622 to 1629. The association overcame the narrowness of the Anhalt-Ernestine dynastic association by 1623 by accepting members from Kurbrandenburg, Hessen-Kassel, Schwarzburg, Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, Silesia and from the Magdeburg and Halberstadt monasteries . Their social structure and their political and denominational affiliations hardly changed until 1629 when, in addition to war partners of the Union and members of the Schleswig-Holstein, Lippe, Waldeck, Mecklenburg and Holstein-Schaumburg courts, people from far away also entered society, e.g. B. Bohemian exiles and the reformed private secretary in the service of Karl Hannibal von Dohna , the Catholic ruler in imperial Silesia, poet Martin Opitz von Boberfeld (FG 200. The Crowned. 1629). For individual reasons, individual Catholics and partisans of the emperor and the league were also admitted.

In addition to the courtly poetry of the three Anhalt "Reimmeister" (Prince Ludwig, Tobias Huebner and Diederich von dem Werder [FG 31. Der Vielgekörnte. 1623]) came with the revolutionary perceived poetry of the butcher's son and broken student Opitz, who at the intercession of Dohnas in 1628 had been ennobled by the emperor, the bourgeois-learned literature. In addition to German poetry and poetry and the translation of works of various literary genres and specialist disciplines, the focus of the fruitful work is also on developing a culture of the corporate letter without any title pomp. At meetings of the FG, however, questions about translation and foreign words have already been discussed. There were no radical purists at work here, because naturalized items such as 'Matery' were drawn for example. B. at the meeting on January 9, 1624, the words Urheb and stuff before (DA Köthen vol. 1, p. 237).

A new chapter in language work was announced in 1638 when General Wilhelm von Kalcheim called Lohausen (FG 172. Der Feste. 1629), who had already appeared in 1629 with a German treatise on decimal numbers, with war discourses and a Sallust translation , In 1638 submitted a computing art and a translation from the Italian Virgilio Malvezzis (The Persecuted David). In this book he invented new German political and philosophical terms such as the Dutch-based neologism "Reden von Staat" for Ragione di stato (reason of state). In 1638, Prince Ludwig turned to the Halle high school rector Christian Gueintz (FG 361. Der Ordnende. 1641), a former employee of the Ratichian Koethen Reform, with the task of developing a German grammar from an unpublished Koethen text from around 1620. From Opitz's friend, the Wittenberg professor Augustus Buchner (FG 362. Der Comrades. 1641), Ludwig received handwritten poetics that inspired him to write his own short manual on German poetry (1640). This marked the beginning of the period of linguistic and poetological discussion, in which, in addition to Ludwig, Gueintz and Buchner, other scholars soon took part through books, reports, drafts and letters, namely the versatile Nuremberg patrician and writer Georg Philipp Harsdörffer (FG 368. Der Spielende . 1642), the Wolfenbütteler Prince Preceptor, poet, playwright and linguist Justus Georg Schottelius (FG 397. The Seeker. 1642) and the pastor's son and "professional writer" from Anhalt, Philipp (v.) Zesen (FG 521. The Welfare One. 1648) .

As with earlier works, e.g. B. Opitz's Psalms Davids (1637) and Annolied (1639), the Nourishing Work of the members meticulously and called on other members to criticize. From 1639 to 1643, Prince Ludwig revised, tirelessly from the great poet and Tasso and Ariost translator Diederich von dem Werder, also from Ludwig's nephew Christian II von Anhalt-Bernburg (FG 51. Der Unchänderliche. 1622) and from the Anhalt one General councilor and spiritual poet Martinus Milagius (FG 316. Der Miternd. 1637) supported numerous previously published works by the members and published them together with new writings on his Koethener press by means of subscriptions and donations.

The discussion of linguistic and poetological questions sparked a debate that, following the ancient model, revolved around the priority of consuetudo (Usus) or Ratio (Natura), i.e. a normative-rational decision on grammatical or orthographic questions according to the standard of habit (Prince Ludwig, Gueintz) or a rational derivation (Etymologia) from the partly mystically rooted nature of language (Schottelius, Harsdörffer, Zesen). However, it was agreed that the goal of rhetorical puritas (purity), the achievement of which presupposed grammatical correctness, required the stylistic development of a written and spoken national standard language. However, the Fruchtbringer were not able to achieve this task sufficiently, so that authors of the Enlightenment, Classical and Romantic periods such as Gottsched, Adelung, the great Weimarers and the Brothers Grimm still had a lot of work to do. In this cultivation of German, the Fruitful Society aimed at overcoming the dialectic variegation and "purifying" the common German of printer languages, offices, diets, the commercial language and Luther's translation of the Bible. That is why the German-language explanation of the Luther Bible of Duke Ernst of Saxe-Gotha (FG 19. Der Bittersweet. 1619), the so-called Weimar or Gotha Bible (1640/41 and Austria), is not as fruitful as the biblical doctrinal poems Prince Ludwigs on books of the Old Testament, the sermons written by his court preacher Daniel Sachse in the form of a biblical harmony or postil (unanimity of the four evangelists. 3 parts. 1641–1644) and the tirelessly revised Passion and church harmonies (1640–1656) of the Liberator . This was mainly theologically advised by Johann Valentin Andreae (FG 464. Der Mürbe. 1646), but worked linguistically without guidance from Schottelius. In Wolfenbüttel , a second center of the fruitful society was established that clearly surpassed the productivity of Weimar. B. Carl Gustav von Hille (FG 302. Der Unverdrossene. 1636) wrote and illustrated the first book about the fruitful society, called Der Teutsche Palmbaum (1647). Of Duke August's three sons who joined the society in the following epochs, those raised by Schottelius, also by Sigmund von Birken (FG 681. The Adult. 1658) and Andreae, Dukes Anton Ulrich (FG 716. Der Siegprangende) stood out. 1659) and Ferdinand Albrecht (FG 842. Der Wunderliche. 1673) as a novelist, playwright and lyric poet and as an autobiographer and author.

Zesen and Harsdörffer founded their own academies as “nurseries” for future members of the Fruit-Bringing Society ( German-minded Cooperative 1642/43 and Pegnesian Flower Order [Pegnitzschäfer] 1644). In the south-west of Germany the influence of the Fruit-Bringing Society soon extended to Alsace, where the satirist Johann Michael Moscherosch (FG 435. Der Träumende. 1645) lived and where Strasbourg poets such as Johann Matthias Schneuber (FG 498. Der Riechende. 1648) and Isaiah lived Rompler von Löwenhalt also belonged to the Sincere Fir Society , which has existed since 1633 and which endeavored to speak the language . The Wedel pastor, poet, playwright and satirist Johann Rist (FG 467. Der Rüstige. 1647), whose Order of the Elbe Swans (1658) was also to serve as a 'nursery', belonged to the Catholic dean Nicolaus (von) Troilo (FG 142. 1627) and the general superintendent of Württemberg and participant in the 'Rosicrucian' movement, Johann Valentin Andreae, among the scholars of God who were exceptionally admitted because of the Irish sentiments. The admission of new members of low class seduced one of the Austrian lords in 1647, the proud colonel, poet and translator Rudolph von Dietrichstein (FG 481. Der Ätzende. 1647), to propose that the fruitful society be converted into a noble order with symbols of animals and to split up into a bourgeois-learned society with plant imprints , which Prince Ludwig rejected just as indignantly as the request at the time to admit a candidate because of his godly Calvinist convictions.

Weimar era (1651–1662 / 67)

The fruitful society in Nuremberg reached a high point of attention and recognition around the 'Peace Supper' of the Peace of Westphalia (1650), which the great artist and art historian Joachim von Sandrart (FG 863. Der Gemeinnützige. 1676) painted. After 1650 the society, although it was in the tradition of the early modern, especially Italian academies, was increasingly referred to as a princely or knightly order as the "Order of the Palm". It was not until the 19th century that the term “language society”, which was never used before, became established for the fruitful society and the other language academies.

A good year after Prince Ludwig's death (January 7, 1650) on May 8, 1651, his successor, Duke Wilhelm IV of Saxony-Weimar, was unable to slip into the role of nourishing as the spiritus rector of the linguistic debate and critical work increasingly left the correspondence and the resulting influence to an arch shrine keeper (secretary and archivist). The first Weimar ore shrine holder of the Fruitful Society, Lieutenant Colonel and Chamberlain Heinrich von Schwechhausen (FG 532. The real. 1651), was replaced in 1655 by the song writer, musician and poet Georg Neumark (FG 605. The Scion End. 1653). The society, which grew from 527 to 789 members by 1662, celebrated a memorial service with many poems for Duke Wilhelm's young deceased son Friedrich (FG 432. Der Friedenreich. 1645; * 1640, † 1656) and organized the admission of larger groups of people, including mediation 'Networkers' such as Harsdörffer and the poet, novelist, translator and hippologist Mr. Johann Wilhelm von Stubenberg (FG 500. Der Unglückliche. 1648) of the Fruit-Bringing Society are still important authors, besides the aforementioned Neumark, Birken and Duke Anton Ulrich, for example, the Schleswig-Holstein one Mathematician, translator and travel writer Adam Olearius (FG 543.1651), the Austrian poet and author of house fathers literature Freiherr Wolf Helmhard von Hohberg (FG 580.1652), the Saxon state theorist, church historian and Lukan translator Veit Ludwig von Seckendorff (FG 615. 1654) or Count Gottlieb von Windischgrätz (FG 669. 1656), Reichshofrat, Reichsvizekanzler, K onvertit, sponsor and student of Birkens as a poet. The great Silesian poet, playwright, orator and syndicus Andreas Gryphius (FG 778.1662) and his relative, the novelist and apophythegmatist Paul Winckler (FG 789.1662), are also among the lights of the Weimar period.

Halle Era (1667–1680)

After the death of Ernestine Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, the selection of the successor, delayed by the rejection of other princely candidates (see above), finally fell to the Albertine Duke August von Sachsen-Weißenfels, who resided in Halle ad S. (July 15, 1667). After August's death, his Magdeburg archbishopric fell to the Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg (FG 401. Der Untadeliche. 1643), who was concerned about the German in diplomatic relations and administration, in 1680 according to the Treaty of Westphalia . In the end of the Fruit-Bringing Society, in addition to many fruit-makers from the Weimar era, there were also some members of the Köthen period who were committed to the goals of the Fruit-Bringing Society: Duke Ernst (the Pious) of Saxe-Gotha, Prince Ludwig's old helper Hans von Dieskau (FG 212. 1632), the translator and peace speaker Paris von dem Werder (FG 339.1639), Schottelius, the translator, inventor and Anhalt Secret Councilor Wilhelm Heinrich von Freyberg (FG 439.1645), the Irish-minded Weimar privy councilor, legal author and historian Zacharias Prüschenk von Lindenhofen (418.1644), Hall's privy councilor, poet and historian Gebhard von Alvensleben (FG 479.1647), the Kurbrandenburg minister, speaker and song poet Freiherr Otto von Schwerin (FG 493.1648) and still with the language experimental writer Philipp von Zesen . The third head entertained the courtly society with operas and fruitful reception celebrations, had a court diary kept and corresponded regularly with his electoral brother Johann Georg II of Saxony (FG 682.1658) about the Halle and Dresden 'events'.

In addition to Halle servants such as the court poet, librettist, translator and listless arch shrine keeper David Elias Heidenreich (FG. 837. Der Willige. 1672), notable and even great authors continued to strive for the "Order of the Palm", some of whom were made of birch trees had been introduced. In addition to Sandrart and Duke Ferdinand Albrecht von Braunschweig-Bevern , who was also accepted into the Royal Society , there were: the Prussian Gottfried Zamehl (FG 805. Der Ronde. 1668) - historian, councilor, center of an Elbingian poets' circle and author of a lost language treatise Germania Celtica rediviva lingua literis, metro etc. -; the noble Prussian poet, poet, translator and scholar Martin von Kempe (FG 806. Der Erkorne. 1668) - who was the only member of all three other language academies mentioned, who wrote a German poetry dictionary and reported on the Royal Society -; Georg Wende (1634-1705) (FG 818. 1670) from Breslau , school principal and author of several hundred printed school speeches, exercises, programs and dramas (Oels, Breslau, Lauban and Thorn), who was also his Görlitzer Colleague and friend Christian Funcke (FG 873, 1677) brought into the fruitful society; Christian Franz Paullini (FG 819.1672) - the busy and well-traveled Thuringian doctor, poet and author of the first German lexicon about learned women and author of many historical and medical works (Heilsame Dreck-Apotheke. 1696), compiling many curiosities and trivialities, Member of the Pegnitzschäfer and Leopoldina, also planner of various historical law firms -; the Nuremberg evangelical pastor, poet and edification writer Johann Christoph Arnschwanger (FG 853. 1675); the Augsburg Catholic canon, natural scientist (member of the Leopoldina ) and edification writer Hieronymus Ambrosius Langenmantel (FG 854, 1675); the lawyer and legal historian Michael Praun (FG 849. Der Vorstellende. 1674), who last worked in Baden-Durlach and was concerned with German Jus publicum ; the patron of the young Quirinus Kuhlmann , the Breslau councilor Georg Schöbel von Rosenfeld (FG 817. The Heavenly Minded. 1669) or the Graz Catholic historian and Habsburg panegyricist Michael Frankenberger (FG 851. The Apparent. 1675).

The “language work” of the Fruchtbringer was by no means limited to attempts to Germanize foreign words. The program included work on grammar, lexicography and poetry as well as language and literary criticism, historiography, elaborate prose and translations. See in detail under Language Society .

Aftermath up to the 18th century

In the works of Martin von Kempes , Christian Franz Paullini and Michael Prauns as well as in the books of the most important member of the late fruitful society, Caspar (v.) Stieler from Erfurt , imperial patriotic sentiments, historical-antiquarian interest and linguistic, also on law and administration directed zeal of the great German academy beyond its official end (1680) into the 18th century. Stieler, a love lyricist in his youth (Die Geharnscht Venus. 1660) and playwright (Rudolstädter Festspiele 1665–67 / 68), later a poet, created great works on administrative language (especially Teutsche Secretariat-Kunst. 1673), wrote about newspapers and gave gifts In its time, finally, the first large dictionary of the Teutsche Sprache Genealogy and Fortwachs / or Teutscher Sprachschatz (1691), hoped for by the Fruchtbringenden Gesellschaft . Paullini designed in the late 1680s and in the 1690s together with Hiob Ludolf and based on Johann Ludwig Prasch u. a. Plans for an imperial college for research into German history (and language), Collegium imperiale historicum, which was also unfortunately unsuccessfully advertised by baron and imperial count Gottlieb von Windischgrätz and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz . Linking up with the Fruit-Bringing Society with his academy projects, Leibniz planned three German dictionaries differentiated according to their tasks, which in their collection of technical terms and historical vocabulary also went beyond Stieler's knowledge. Organizational support of this kind of society was not so much in the new, philosophically or scientifically oriented scientific academies of the Enlightenment epoch, but in patriotic and useful-learned circles and societies such as Johann Christoph Gottsched's German Societies.

New Fruitful Society

In 2007 the company was re-established as the New Fruit Bringing Society in Köthen .


On the occasion of the foundation of the company 400 years ago, the special stamp 400 years of fruit-bearing society with a face value of 145 euro cents was issued in 2017 . The brand was unveiled to the public on August 3, 2017 and officially released on August 10. The design comes from the Berlin graphic designers Annette von le Fort and André Heers.

List of members of the Fruitful Society


  • The German Academy of the 17th Century Fruitful Society. Critical edition of the letters, supplements and academy papers (series I), documents and representations (series II). Edited on behalf of the Herzog August Library. v. M. Bircher et al. K. Conermann. (Since 2003 :) On behalf of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig, in cooperation with the Herzog August Library Wolfenbüttel. Among employees v. D. Merzbacher, A. Herz et al. G. Ball ed. v. K. Conermann. Vol. 1ff. Tübingen 1992- (previously 7 volumes. Dept. Köthen) and 3 Vols. Dept. Halle ed. v. Martin Bircher u. Andrea's heart. Quote from DA Köthen I and II or DA Hall I u. II. DA Koethen II vol. 1 contains z. B. the first society books (1622, 1624 and 1628) with the "Kurtzen report" on the society and with the imprints of the first members.
  • Gottlieb Krause (Ed.): The fruitful society oldest ore shrine. Letters, foreign exchange and other documents. Leipzig 1855 ( digitized , digitized ). Reprint Olms, Hildesheim 1973, ISBN 3-487-04547-8 . - Slightly shortened in: Ludwig Fürst zu Anhalt-Cöthen, and his country before and during the Thirty Years' War. Edited by Gottlieb Krause. 3 vol. Cöthen et al. 1877–1879.
  • From Georg Philipp Harsdörffer's correspondence on the history of the Fruit-Bringing Society 1647–1658 by CAH Burckhard (ed.). In: Old and new from the Pegnesisches Blumenorden 3 (1897), pp. 23–140.
  • From the correspondence between Sigmund von Birkens and Georg Neumarks 1656–1669. Communicated by CAH Burckhardt. In: Euphorion. Result hft. 3 (1897), pp. 12-55.
  • Klaus Conermann: Fruitful Society. Ore shrine open to the fruitful society. 3 Vols. Leipzig and Weinheim 1985. - Vol. 1 Illustrated Society Book (1629/30; facsimile); Vol. 2 Conermann: Introduction; Günther Hoppe: Prince Ludwig I. v. Anhalt-Koethen; Coat of arms; Impresen; Bd. 3 Conermann: The members of the fruiting society 1617–1650.
  • Christoph Stoll: Linguistic Societies in Germany of the 17th Century. Fruit-bearing society, sincere society from the fir trees, German-minded cooperative, shepherd and flower orders on the Pegnitz, Elbe swan order. List, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-471-61463-X ( List pocket books of science 1463 Literature as history, documents and research ).
  • I. Prince Ludwig von Anhalt-Köthen: The fruitful society names / projects / paintings and words. With Georg Philipp Harsdörffer's Propagation of the Highly Praised Fruit Bringing Society. Franckfurt am Mayn 1646 - II. Carl Gustav von Hille: The German palm tree. Nuremberg 1647 - III. Georg Neumark: The new sprouting Teutsche palm tree. Nuremberg [1668] (Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft. Sources and documents in four [recte 3] vols. Edited by Martin Bircher. Munich 1970f.)
  • The fruitful society's names / projects / paintings and words. Franckfurt am Mayn 1646 ( digitized , digitized ).
  • Carl Gustav von Hille : The German palm tree. That is, praise of the highly praiseworthy / fruitful society beginning / statutes / projects / names / sayings / husbands, writings and imperishable virtue / for all lovers of the German language for useful information, written by the indefatigable servant of the same. Endter, Nuremberg 1647 ( digitized versionhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/ 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  • Georg Philipp Harsdörffer : Propagation of the highly praiseworthy fruit-bearing society: That is / Kurtze's narration of all that / What happened in the case of the recommendation and rescue of the highly-mentioned society of the head / The ... tasty / ... Including a number of congratulations / and an eulogy of the taste. Endter, Nuremberg 1651 ( digitized versionhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D ).
  • Georg Neumark : The new-sprouting German palm tree. Hoffmann, Nuremberg 1668 ( digitized version , digitized version ) (Reprint: Kösel, Munich 1970).
  • Martin Bircher (Ed.): In the garden of the palm . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1998, ISBN 3-447-04017-3 . (685 prints, 335 manuscripts, 300 copperplate engravings, 21 maps; the whole collection on microfilm: IDC, Netherlands)


Older literature

Newer literature

  • Bruno Zilch: The contribution of the fruitful society to the development of German national literature. University of Education Potsdam, Faculty of History and Philology, dissertation, Potsdam 1973.
  • Gabriele Ball: Everything to Benefit - The Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft (1617–1680) as a German Renaissance Academy. In: The Reach of the Republic of Letters. Literary and Learned Societies in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Ed. by A. van Dixhoorn and S. Speakman Sutch. Leiden 2008, Vol. II, pp. 389-422.
  • Gabriele Ball: The virtuous society. Programmatic of an aristocratic women's network in the early modern period. In: collecting, reading, translating. The Bohemian library of the princes Eggenberg in the context of the prince and princess libraries of their time. Edited by Jill Bepler et al. Helga Meise. Wiesbaden 2010 (Wolfenbütteler Arbeit zur Barockforschung, 126), pp. 337–361.
  • Martin Bircher: In the garden of the palm tree. Jewels from the unknown baroque: the fruitful society and its time. Wolfenbüttel 1992. pp. 129ff. Directory of all member and company names.
  • Frank Boblenz : Legends or Reality? The fruitful society was initiated in Weimar 385 years ago. In: Palmbaum 10 (2002), pp. 162-170.
  • Klaus Bulling: Bibliography on the fruitful society. In: Marginalia. Sheets of the Pirckheimer Society. Issue 20 (1965).
  • Klaus Conermann: The virtuous society and its relationship to the fruitful society. Morals, the idea of ​​society and the idea of ​​academia between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. In: Daphnis 17 (1988), pp. 513-626.
  • Klaus Conermann: The collections of Prince Ludwig von Anhalt in the Köthener Castle. An inventory of bequests as a source for studying the Fruitful Society. In: Wolfenbütteler Barock-Nachrichten 16 (1989), pp. 73-91.
  • Klaus Conermann: Editionsdesiderate: The works of Prince Ludwig and Christian II of Anhalt in the context of the academy work of the Fruitful Society. In: Edition desiderata for the early modern period. Edited by H.-G. Roloff. Tl. 1. Amsterdam 1997 (Chloe, 24), pp. 391-490.
  • Klaus Conermann: The princely store in Koethen. Printing, publishing and book trade in the service of Ratichianism and the Fruiting Society (1618–1644 / 50). In: Wolfenbütteler Barock-Nachrichten, p. 24 (1997), 122-178.
  • Klaus Conermann, Andreas Herz, Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer : The fruitful society. Social thought and academy movement. In: Treatises of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig. Philol.-histor. Kl. 76 (2000), H. 2, pp. 19-38.
  • Klaus Conermann: The fruitful society. Two essays Köthen 2002 (publications of the Historical Museum for Mittelanhalt, 25).
  • Klaus Conermann: Academy, Criticism and Taste. On the language work of the fruitful society of the 17th century. In: Our language. Contributions to the past and present of the German language. Series of publications by the Neue Fruchtbringenden Gesellschaft zu Köthen / Anhalt 1 (2008), pp. 17–52.
  • Klaus Conermann: Koethen. In: Handbook of cultural centers of the early modern period. Edited by Wolfgang Adam u. Siegrid Westphal in connection with Claudius Sittig. 3 vols. Berlin: de Gruyter 2012, II, pp. 1211-1252.
  • Klaus Conermann: Purism in the language work of the fruitful society. On the importance of correctness and purity in the Puritas and Decorum rhetoric of the German language reform in the 17th century. In: Muttersprach 3 (2013), pp. 181–205.
  • Boris Djubo: Tradition and Processes of Change in Grammarography in the First Half of the 17th Century. On Christian Gueintz's grammar. In: Wolfenbütteler Barock-Nachrichten 35 (2008), pp. 93–114.
  • Gerhard Dünnhaupt : The Princely Printing House in Koethen. In: Archiv f. Story d. Buchwesens 20 (1979), Sp. 895-950.
  • Gottfried Fischer : The language societies. The fruitful society. In: Wiener Sprachblätter. Magazine for good German. 53, 2, 2003, ISSN  0510-4491 , pp. 40f.
  • Andreas Herz: "Wältz right". Fruit-bringing ceremony and its 'background' in an engraving by Peter Isselburg. In: Ars et Amicitia. FS f. Martin Bircher for the 60th birthday. F. van Ingen et al. Ch. Juranek . Amsterdam 1998 (Chloe, 28), pp. 353-408.
  • Andreas Herz: The noble palm tree and the critical mill. The fruitful society as a network of courtly-aristocratic knowledge culture of the early modern period. In: Thoughts. Issue 2 (2009), pp. 152-191 online ( memento of April 19, 2009 in the Internet Archive ).
  • Andreas Herz: sincerity, trust, peace. A historical search for traces in the vicinity of the fruitful society. In: Euphorion 105 (2011), pp. 317-359.
  • Michael Ludscheidt: Georg Neumark (1621–1681). Life and work. Heidelberg 2002.
  • The Fruchtbringer - a Teutschhertzige society . Edited by Klaus Manger. Heidelberg 2001
  • Karl F. Otto Jr .: The Language Societies of the 17th Century. Stuttgart 1972.
  • Jürgen Trabant : Academy and national language. In: The Europe of the Academies. Edited by Volker Sellin . Heidelberg 2010, pp. 43-75.

Web links

Commons : Fruitful Society  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Fruitful Society  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Cf. Conermann: Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft. Volume 1: "Kurtzer report" in the society book of Prince Ludwig v. Anhalt-Koethen (1646).
  2. Klaus Manger: Teutschhertziger culture patriotism in the fruit-bearing Society. In Die Fruchtbringer , pp. 79-104. On the other hand, Frank Boblenz, among others, is the creation of legends or reality? The fruitful society was initiated in Weimar 385 years ago. In: Palmbaum 10 (2002), pp. 162-170; Andreas Herz / Gabriele Ball with important evidence and clues for August 24, 1617 as the day of the foundation: A German academy in the field of tension between language, culture and politics. In: newly discovered. Thuringia - land of residences. 2nd Thuringian State Exhibition. 3 vol. Ed. V. K. Scheurmann et al. J. Frank. Mainz 2004, catalog volume. 1, pp. 132–146, here note 1. Cf. also Conermann: Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft u. the principality of Anhalt.
  3. ^ Georg Schmidt: The beginnings of the fruitful society as a politically motivated collection movement and court academy. In Die Fruchtbringer , pp. 5–38.
  4. Printed among others in Erika Ising: Wolfgang Ratke's writings on German grammar (1612-1630). Berlin 1959, p. 101.
  5. ^ Droste zu Hülshoff, Wilderich Freiherr: "900 years Droste zu Hülshoff", LPV Hortense von Gelmini, 2019, p. 125
  6. DA Köthen I, Vol. 1, p. 137.
  7. ^ Martin Opitz: Correspondence and life testimonies. Critical edition with transl. Ed. Klaus Conermann with the assistance of v. Harald Bollbuck. 3 volumes Berlin et al. 2009.
  8. ^ Since Otto Schulz: The language societies of the seventeenth century. Berlin 1824. See Karl F. Otto Jr. (literature).
  9. Presentation of the special stamp “400 Years of Fruit-Bringing Society ., July 31, 2017.