Johann Christoph Gottsched

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Johann Christoph Gottsched, painting by Leonhard Schorer, 1744

Johann Christoph Gottsched (born February 2, 1700 in Juditten , Duchy of Prussia ; † December 12, 1766 in Leipzig , Electorate of Saxony ) was a German writer , dramaturge , linguist , literary theorist and professor of poetics , logic and metaphysics of the Enlightenment .


Gottsched was the son of the pastor of Juditten, Christoph Gottsched (1668–1737), and his wife Anna Regina Biemann (1671–1763). Johann Heinrich Gottsched (1706–1771), the editor of the Hessian court and state calendar , was his brother. Johann Daniel Gottsched was his nephew and temporarily the secretary of Gabriel de Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau . Gottsched's maternal grandfather was the pastor Johann Biemann (born June 24, 1646 in Königsberg ), who was inclined to write and who had administered the pastor's office at the fortress Groß Friedrichsburg (Königsberg) for fifteen years .

After the first lessons he received from his father, Gottsched enrolled in 1714 at the age of 14 at the Albertina , the University of Königsberg, to study theology . His interest in philosophy brought Gottsched to work with the works of the universal scholar Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and the pioneer of the Enlightenment, Christian Wolff . He then switched to philosophy and remained an unwavering Wolffian throughout his life . He describes his Wolff-oriented philosophical method as a mathematical type of teaching . One of his teachers was u. a. also Johann Jakob Quandt .

In January 1724 Gottsched, who had meanwhile acquired the academic degree of a Magister Artium , fled to Leipzig. Rumors about the brutal methods of the Prussian military recruits had driven the tall lecturer away. At the University of Leipzig he soon made friends with the polyhistor Johann Burckhardt Mencke , who hired him as court master for his eldest son. Gottsched was unable to work on the Acta eruditorum , which Mencke published. That is why he completed his habilitation in the same year and received a teaching permit.

Mencke not only introduced Gottsched into society, but was also an advocate for him when he was admitted to the Teutsch-practicing poetic society . When he was elected to her “senior” in 1727, he converted this association into the German Society in Leipzig. For Gottsched, this society became the ideal forum for his efforts to reform language and literature. German societies based on Gottsched's stipulations were soon founded in several places, mostly in university towns.

Der Biedermann , title page from April 19, 1728

In 1725, Gottsched began to publish his moral weekly, Die verdutenigen Tadlerinnen , first in Halle, then in Leipzig. As is not unusual in this type of journal, it was designed for two years from the start. The weekly Der Biedermann followed from 1727 to 1729 . In these weeklies he began to shape the literary life of the early enlightenment .

In the course of 1727 Gottsched made the acquaintance of the theater principal Friederike Caroline Neuber and her husband Johann Neuber . In a fruitful collaboration, a regular national German theater should emerge. The great role model of this early enlightenment thinker were the dramas by Pierre and Thomas Corneille , Philippe Néricault Destouches , Molière , Jean Racine , Voltaire and others influenced by antiquity and mostly translated from French . a. In October 1737, the figure of the harlequin ( Hanswurst ) was banned from the stage in a specially created play .

In 1730 Gottsched was promoted to extraordinary professor of poetics , and four years later he was appointed full professor of logic and metaphysics . During this time he was elected "Rector magnificus" (Dean of the Philosophical Faculty) several times .

A pioneer and pioneer in Gottsched's reform efforts was his former Königsberg professor Johann Valentin Pietsch (1690–1733). This reinforced Gottsched again and again in his aversion to the literature of the Baroque period , especially the second half of the 17th century, and its linguistic mannerisms . Gottsched's linguistic and literary reform efforts continued in his literary critical periodicals. In the years 1732 to 1744 the contributions to the critical history of the German language, poetry and eloquence appeared . They were continued from 1745 to 1750 with the New Book Hall of the Fine Sciences and Free Arts and in the years 1751 to 1762 the latest from graceful erudition appeared . Gottsched was the main author and editor of the journals, which also offered other scientists a forum for discussion. In total, the Leipzig scholar produced around 20,000 printed magazine pages in the course of his life.

In 1731 Gottsched's tragedy Dying Cato was premiered in Leipzig . He wrote this extremely successful piece strictly according to the guidelines of contemporary French drama poetics, which referred to Aristotle (see regular drama ). Gottsched's work, which was considered the first German “original drama” to be written according to the rules of Enlightenment poetics, was inspired by the play of the same name by Joseph Addison . A little later, the drama was the target of ridicule and criticism from its opponents, of whom there were quite a few, especially on the part of the Swiss Johann Jakob Bodmer and Johann Jakob Breitinger and Jakob Immanuel Pyra from Halle ; Pyra claimed that Gottsched made the drama "with scissors and glue" and believed he could establish massive violations of the Aristotelian rules.

The Gottschedin , the first wife, Luise Adelgunde Victorie Kulmus , oil painting by Elias Gottlob Haußmann around 1750

In 1735 Gottsched married the literarily gifted Luise Adelgunde Victorie Kulmus in Danzig . His wife, who was usually only called “the skilled friend” in magazine publications, supported him as much as she could and also became literary. She mainly wrote comedies and magazine articles and translated from English (including Alexander Popes Lockenraub ) and French. In literary history, her poetic talent is generally valued far higher than that of her husband. Because of Gottsched's extramarital adventures, but also because of his increasingly doctrinal rejection of recent literary endeavors, the marriage was not happy.

In Critische Dichtkunst (first 1729, 4th edition 1751), his main work on literary theory, Gottsched argued for his rationalistic conception of poetry that, according to poetry, rules had to be followed which could be justified with the means of reason. The imagination conceded Gottsched no liberties with the rational one, and the wonderful thing was regulated by the Leibnizian and wolffianische theory of possible worlds. These guidelines resulted in Gottsched's rejection of the representation of supernatural phenomena, the literary paradigm of which in contemporary discussion was John Milton's religious epic Paradise Lost . Gottsched, who was also close to deism in his philosophical writings , rejected religious topics as the subject of literature. This conception of poetry led to the so-called Zurich literary dispute with the two Swiss Johann Jakob Bodmer and Johann Jakob Breitinger, whose literary theoretical ideas were no less rationalistic than the Gottscheds, who - also due to the realities of Reformed Zurich - in their attitude to the miraculous and to religious poetry but set different accents than Gottsched from Leipzig. The controversies, increasingly fought on both sides by means of satire and personal denigration, were the main literary event of the years between 1730 and around 1745, but even uninvolved contemporaries considered the dispute to be primarily a literary-political issue between two parties competing for influence. There was also strong criticism of Gottsched in Germany. In 1743, Jakob Immanuel Pyra launched an attack on Gottsched by “showing that the Gottschedian sect spoiled the taste”. Due to the massive attack on Gottsched, his contemporaries judged his opponents to be the victors of the dispute, especially since Bodmer knew how to get the most important authors of the time to his side. Gottsched's crucial role in the formation of 18th century literature was underestimated for a long time after his death. The scientific re-evaluation of Gottsched goes back above all to Theodor Wilhelm Danzel .

In 1736 his Detailed Oratory was published , in which Gottsched summarized the tradition of classical rhetoric and reinterpreted it according to the rationalistic standards of the early Enlightenment. Gottsched's position in poetics and rhetoric is characterized by two things: on the one hand, the criticism of the style of baroque rhetoric (" pompous style"), on the other hand, the enlightening conviction that everything is recognizable through reason. The key concept is the “joke” in the sense of the ability to recognize similarities between apparently unrelated things or facts, as well as the “taste” as the ability to make reasonable judgments without deducting them beforehand.

In addition to these two main works by Gottsched, the third was the extensive First Reasons of Total World Wisdom , which essentially represent a German adaptation of Wolff's Latin metaphysics, and Deutsche Sprachkunst , a German grammar that has been used in school lessons for decades and which is so important the development of the written German language in the 18th century.

In 1754 the last German-language textbook based on ancient rhetoric appeared with the Preliminary Exercises of Eloquence , an excerpt from the detailed rhetoric enriched with sample texts .

Between 1757 and 1765 Gottsched began to publish his Necessary Supply on the History of German Dramatic Poetry . This compilation should list all dramas from 1450 to 1760, but remained unfinished. This torso is still an important tool for studying the history of German drama today.

From the very beginning, Gottsched endeavored to convey the writings of the French Enlightenment. He was particularly close to Fontenelle , of whom he translated and commented on several works. Other authors who were further important to him, such as Pierre Bayle and Helvétius , were edited by him in German translations that came from his students or acquaintances, and provided with critical comments. Gottsched rejected Bayle's skepticism as well as Helvétius' materialism, but he thought their writings were important enough to be presented to the German public anyway. Just as important was Gottsched's early teaching of English literature, which he dealt with particularly in the weeklies he edited. But since his poetics were based more on the literary theory of French classicism, which v. a. was polemically criticized by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in his 17th literary letter (February 16, 1759), Gottsched's important role as a mediator of English literature and philosophy has mostly been underestimated.

On June 26th 1762 his first wife, Luise Adelgunde Victorie Gottsched nee died. Kulmus, after a short illness at the age of 49. After three years of mourning, Gottsched married his second wife, 19-year-old Ernestine Susanne Katharina Neunes (1746–1811) in Camburg an der Saale in 1765 .

The following year, Johann Christoph Gottsched died at the age of 66 on December 12, 1766 in Leipzig.

In 1729 he was accepted as a foreign member of the Royal Prussian Society of Sciences . Streets were named after him in Berlin, Ingolstadt and Leipzig .

The late baroque language dispute

Johann Christoph Gottsched was of particular importance in the late Baroque language dispute over the definition of a generally applicable German writing standard. He belonged to the faction called anomalists who wanted to create a standard based on a German dialect, namely the East Central German Saxon. This of course met with massive rejection in other language regions, whose local peculiarities should not be taken into account. Linguists in particular from the Swabian-Alemannic region, from Switzerland, from Bavaria and from Austria, who were still writing in the Upper German writing language, had no understanding of the goals of Gottsched and his German Society in Leipzig. Thanks to the initiative of the Saxon and Silesian language societies, this language question also only became a pressing issue in the 1740s.

Johann Christoph Gottsched, painting by Anna Maria Werner

Gottsched received particular rejection or open hostility from the following contemporaries:

The opposition, especially of the respected Swiss scholars Bodmer and Breitinger, even led to the fact that not a few of his Leipzig friends broke his friendship and excluded him from German society. The Zurich professor Johann Jakob Bodmer spoke out in his work Lob der Mundart , published in 1746, for the regional diversity of the German language and called Gottsched a "tyrannical spokesman from Saxony". Incidentally, he said that no people are entitled to linguistically enslave others. In the Electorate of Bavaria , on the other hand, attempts were made to develop their own Upper German writing language with the help of the scientific journal Parnassus Boicus . In Habsburg Austria, the first reaction was diplomatic and in 1749 Gottsched was invited to Vienna so that he could present his theses there. After the Empress Maria Theresa had seen his play Cato in the Vienna Burgtheater , he managed, through the mediation of Count Nikolaus Esterházy , to be admitted to an audience at court, and contrary to his other convictions, he strongly praised the dialectal and Saxon language use on this occasion divergent German of the Empress in the highest tones. Nevertheless, he was initially only able to find very few followers for his constructed language standard in Vienna, as influential scholars opposed him with their own grammars, such as Johann Balthasar Antesperg ( The Imperial Grammatick, or the art of speaking the German language correctly and writing without errors , 1747) and Johann Siegmund Popowitsch ( The most necessary beginnings of the German art of language, drawn up for the use of Austrian schools , 1754). The southern German Catholic clergy, above all the Jesuits , Augustinians and Benedictines , also rejected Lutheran Saxon as a supra-regional writing standard and continued to teach the Upper German way of writing that was previously used in their schools and universities. The Austrian Piarist Order , on the other hand, made a very pragmatic decision in 1763 to teach both Gottsched's and Popowitsch's grammar side by side.

Only after Gottsched's death in 1766 did this Upper German resistance begin to crumble, and finally the late Baroque language dispute in 1774 was decided not by the unity of scholars but by politics. After the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763) Austria's political position was so weakened that a special route in Upper Germany no longer seemed possible. For strategic reasons, Empress Maria Theresia was therefore interested in a common standard both in her Austrian hereditary lands and in the empire, and because in the north the opposition to any Upper German standard was too great, with the introduction of compulsory schooling in Austria, the Gottsched ' cal German set as the official standard. This was confirmed again in 1780 by her son, Emperor Joseph II , and also established as a binding norm for the imperial civil service. After Austria had made its decision, the other southern German states also gave up their resistance, and Gottsched's German became the new supraregional standard German.

Historical-critical edition of the correspondence

Since 2000, the Saxon Academy of Sciences has had a project for a historical-critical edition of Gottsched's correspondence, which also includes the correspondence of his wife Luise Adelgunde Victorie. The head of the project is the Leipzig historian Manfred Rudersdorf , the head of the department was the historian and theologian Detlef Döring, who died in 2015 . The project is funded by the federal and state governments in the academy program. In total there are 6,000 letters, which are edited in full text in chronological order. According to the Academy, the correspondence is "one of the most significant documents in the history of the German Enlightenment in the second third of the 18th century". Since 2007, 10 volumes have been published by Walter de Gruyter-Verlag , comprising letters from 1722 to 1745 (as of 2016). The edition should comprise a total of 25 volumes.



Theoretical works

Literary works

  • Dying Cato 1732


  • The sensible blasphemers. 1725–1726 , Olms, Hildesheim, 1993 (reprint of the Frankfurt edition 1725/26)
  • The honest man. 1727–1729 , Leipzig: Deer ( ZDB -ID 130685-6 ; Metzler, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-476-00317-5 : facsimile print of the original Leipzig edition 1727–1729, with an afterword and explanations, edited by Wolfgang Martens)
  • Contributions to the critical history of the German language, poetry and eloquence. Olms, Hildesheim, 1970 (reprint of the Leipzig 1732/45 edition)
  • New book hall for fine sciences and free arts. 1745–1750 , Saur (MF edition), Munich 1994 (reprint of the Leipzig edition 1732/45)
  • The latest from graceful learning. 1751–1762 , Saur (MF edition), Munich 1994 (reprint of the Leipzig edition 1732/45)
  • Johann Joachim Schwabe : Amusements of the mind and wit. 1741-1745


  • Commemorative speech on the immortally deserved Dom Herr in Frauenberg, Nicolaus Copernicus , Leipzig 1743 ( digitized in the Google book search)
  • Mr. Peter Baylens, weyland professor of philosophy and history in Rotterdam, historical and critical dictionary , translated into German according to the latest edition from 1740; Also provided with a preface and various remarks particularly in the case of offensive passages, by Johann Christoph Gottscheden ... in four parts. Leipzig: Breitkopf, 1741–1744 (4 vols.)
  • Hand lexicon or concise dictionary of the fine sciences and free arts . Leipzig: Gleditsch, 1760

Work edition

  • Selected Works. Edited by Joachim Birke. 12 vols. De Gruyter, Berlin 1968–1995. (Editions of German literature from the XVth to XVIIIth centuries.)


  • Eric Achermann (Ed.): Johann Christoph Gottsched (1700–1766). Philosophy, poetics and science (= work profiles. Volume 4). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 3-05-006034-4 .
  • Gabriele Ball: Moral kisses. Gottsched as magazine editor and literary mediator (= The Eighteenth Century. Supplementa. Volume 7). Wallstein, Göttingen 2000, ISBN 3-89244-350-5 Dissertation University of Marburg 1997, 483 pages).
  • Gabriele Ball, Helga Brandes, Katherine R. Goodman (eds.): Discourses of the Enlightenment. Luise Adelgunde Victorie and Johann Christoph Gottsched (= Wolfenbütteler Research. Volume 112). Harrasowitz, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-447-05495-6 .
  • Andreas Beck: Beyond the nobility and mob, or all people are citizens - republican tendencies in Gottsched's “Reasonable Blamers”. In: Lessing Yearbook. = Lessing yearbook. 38, 2008/2009, ISSN  0075-8833 , pp. 105-136.
  • Joachim Birke: Christian Wolff's metaphysics and contemporary literary and music theory. Gottsched, Scheibe, Mizler (= sources and research on the linguistic and cultural history of the Germanic peoples. NF 21 = 145, ISSN  0481-3596 ). In the appendix: New edition of two music theory treatises from the middle of the 18th century. de Gruyter, Berlin 1966.
  • Eric A. Blackall: The development of German for literary language 1700–1775. With a report on new research results 1955–1964 by Dieter Kimpel. Metzler, Stuttgart 1966 (translated into German by Hans G. Schürmann); DNB 456124810 (contains a comprehensive description of Gottsched's work).
  • Fritz Brüggemann (Hrsg.): Gottscheds life and art reform in the twenties and thirties. Gottsched, Breitinger, die Gottschedin, die Neuberin (= German literature. (14): Enlightenment series. Vol. 3, ZDB -ID 1171326-4 ). Reclam, Leipzig 1935.
  • Theodor W. Danzel : Gottsched and his time. Excerpts from his correspondence. In addition to an appendix: Daniel Wilhelm Triller's comments on Klopstock's Republic of Scholars. Dyk, Leipzig 1848, ( digitized version ).
  • Friedrich Dewischeit : In memory of JE Gottsched. In: Patriotic archive for science, art, industry and agriculture, or Prussian provincial sheets. Vol. 24, 1840, pp. 126-140 .
  • Detlef Döring : The history of the German society in Leipzig. From the foundation to the first years of the Seniorat Johann Christoph Gottscheds (= early modern times. 70). Niemeyer, Tübingen 2002, ISBN 3-484-36570-6 .
  • Johann Christoph Gottsched: Correspondence. Including the correspondence from Luise Adelgunde Victorie Gottsched. Historical-critical edition. Published by Detlef Döring and Manfred Rudersdorf on behalf of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig. de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2007– *
  • Friedrich Gaede: Gottscheds imitation theory and logic. In: German quarterly for literary studies and intellectual history . Vol. 49, Supplement 1, 1975, pp. 105-117, doi : 10.1007 / BF03376139 .
  • Ekkehard Gühne: Gottscheds literary criticism in the "Vernfungigen Tadlerinnen". (1725/26) (= Stuttgart work on German studies. 48). Heinz, Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-88099-049-2 (Dissertation University of Münster, Faculty 7 - Philosophy, 1978, IV, 468 pages).
  • Franz Hundsnurscher: Syntax change in Gottsched's time. In: Anne Betten et al. (Ed.): Newer research on the historical syntax of German (= series Germanistische Linguistik. 103). Niemeyer, Tübingen 1990, ISBN 3-484-31103-7 , pp. 422-438.
  • Karlheinz Jakob : Johann Christoph Gottsched's language norms and their implementation in the second half of the 18th century. In: Linguistics . 24, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-46.
  • Phillip M. Mitchell: Johann Christoph Gottsched. (1700-1766). Harbinger of German Classicism. Camden House, Columbia SC 1995, ISBN 1-57113-063-2 ( online in Google Book Search).
  • Jürgen Manthey : Publicity, impact, conviction: these three (Johann Christoph Gottsched and Johann Valentin Pietsch) , in this: Königsberg. History of a world citizenship republic . Munich 2005, ISBN 978-3-423-34318-3 , pp. 95-116.
  • Martin Mulsow : Free spirits in the Gottsched circle. Wolffianism, student activities and criticism of religion in Leipzig 1740–1745. Wallstein, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-8353-0202-0 .
  • Kurt Nowak , Ludwig Stockinger (ed.): Gottsched day. Scientific event for the 300th birthday of Johann Christoph Gottsched on February 17th, 2000 in the old trading exchange in Leipzig. Hirzel, Leipzig et al. 2007, ISBN 3-7776-1214-6 .
  • Herbert Penzl: Gottsched and the pronunciation of German in the 18th century. In: Linguistics. Vol. 2, No. 1, 1977, pp. 61-92.
  • Ulrich Püschel: Of ambiguous and indifferent words. Gottsched's contribution to monolingual lexicography. In: German Linguistics. H. 2-5, 1978, ISSN  0072-1492 , pp. 285-321.
  • Marie-Hélène Quéval: Les paradoxes d'Eros ou l'amour dans l'oeuvre de Johann Christoph Gottsched (= Contacts. Series 3: Etudes et Documents. 48). Lang, Bern et al. 1999, ISBN 3-906763-63-3 .
  • Marie-Hélène Quéval:  Gottsched, Johann Christoph. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 31, Bautz, Nordhausen 2010, ISBN 978-3-88309-544-8 , Sp. 508-514.
  • Ingo Reiffenstein : Gottsched and Bavaria. The Panassus Boicus, the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and the maintenance of the German language in the 18th century. In: Sabine Heimann, Sabine Seelbach (Eds.): Sociocultural Contexts of Language and Literature Development. Festschrift for Rudolf Große on his 65th birthday (= Stuttgart works on German studies. 231). Heinz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-88099-235-5 , pp. 177-184.
  • Manfred Rudersdorf (Ed.): Johann Christoph Gottsched in his time. New contributions to life, work and impact. de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-019490-6 .
  • Werner Rieck: Johann Christoph Gottsched. A critical appreciation of his work. Potsdam 1966, DNB 481627766 ( Dissertation B / Habilitation thesis PH Potsdam, Faculty of History and Philosophy, May 30, 1968, XV, 378 pages, pp. 379-765); Book trade edition : Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1972, DNB 720169755 Table of contents .
  • Gerhard Schäfer: “Well-sounding writing” and “touching images”. Sociological studies on the aesthetics of Gottsched and the Swiss (= European university publications. Series 1: German language and literature. Volume 967). Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 1987, ISBN 3-8204-0027-3 (dissertation University of Tübingen 1986, 335 pages).
  • Horst Dieter Schlosser : Language norm and regional difference in the context of the controversy between Gottsched and Bodmer / Breitinger. In: Dieter Kimpel (Ed.): Multilingualism in the German Enlightenment (= studies on the eighteenth century. 5 = lectures at the annual meeting of the German Society for Research in the Eighteenth Century. 6). Meiner, Hamburg 1985, ISBN 3-7873-0624-2 , pp. 52-68.
  • Andres Straßberger: Johann Christoph Gottsched and the "philosophical" sermon. Studies on the educational transformation of Protestant homiletics in the field of tension between theology, philosophy, rhetoric and politics (= contributions to historical theology. 151). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-16-150014-5 (Dissertation University of Leipzig 2007, 646 pages).
  • Gustav Waniek: Gottsched and the German literature of his time. Breitkopf and Härtel, Leipzig 1897, ( digitized version ).
  • Peter Wiesinger : On the development of the written German language in Austria under Gottsched's influence in the second half of the 18th century. In: Dieter Nerius (Ed.): Development tendencies of the German language since the 18th century (= linguistic studies. Series A: Arbeitsberichte. 111, ISSN  0138-4694 ). Academy of Sciences of the GDR - Central Institute for Linguistics, Berlin 1983, pp. 227–248, (reproduced as a manuscript).
  • Kurt WölfelGottsched, Johann Christoph. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 6, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1964, ISBN 3-428-00187-7 , p. 686 f. ( Digitized version ).

Web links

Wikisource: Johann Christoph Gottsched  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Johann Christoph Gottsched  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Kurt Wölfel:  Gottsched, Johann Christoph. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 6, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1964, ISBN 3-428-00187-7 , p. 686 f. ( Digitized version ).
  2. Correspondence including the correspondence from Luise Adelgunde Victorie Gottsched: 1734–1735. Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 510.
  3. Adolf Rogge : Johann Biemann, Gottsched’s grandfather . In: New Prussian Provincial Papers . Volume 73, Koenigsberg 1870, pp. 233-246.
  4. Johann Gottfried Gottsched: First reasons of the entire world wisdom , Vol. 1, Leipzig 1756, p. 126.
  5. Renate Feyl : Idyll with Professor. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 2002, ISBN 978-3-462-02194-3 .
  6. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Letters concerning the latest literature, 17th letter, pp. 35–39. In: G. E. Lessing: literary theoretical and aesthetic writings, ed. Albert Meier, Stuttgart 2006.
  7. ^ Andreas Dorschel : Polemics and Schadenfreude. In: Zeitschrift für Ideengeschichte XIII / 3 (autumn 2019), pp. 117–122, esp. P. 119.
  8. ^ Members of the previous academies. Johann Christoph Gottsched. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences , accessed March 30, 2015 .
  9. When night falls, Helvetisms - the fifth national language. In: NZZ Folio . 10/98, topic: These Swiss
  10. Gerda Mraz: The Josephine Archducal ABC or name booklet ; Dortmund 1980; ISBN 3-88379-167-9 , page 84 (afterword)
  11. see page of the SAW on the edition of the correspondence
  12. see page of the Academy Union on the Gottsched correspondence
  13. see normative data of the book series at
  14. Franz Ulbrich : The amusements of the mind and the wit. A contribution to 18th century journalism. Leipzig 1911 (= test drives , 18)