Calendar overview 1700
Charles XII. of Sweden defeats the Russian army of Peter I in the Battle of Narva
, Elector Friedrich III.
of Brandenburg to designate as
King in Prussia .
Louis XIV proclaims
his grandson Philippe of Anjou
as King of Spain .
|1700 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1148/49 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1692/93 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1105/06 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2243/44 (southern Buddhism); 2242/43 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1062/63 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4033/34 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1111/12 (turn of the year June 17th / 18th)|
|Jewish calendar||5460/61 (September 13-14)|
|Coptic calendar||1416/17 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2010/11 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2011/12 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1756/57 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- January 13 : Sweden, England and Holland sign an alliance agreement in Hague.
- February 12 : An invasion of the Saxon army under Jacob Heinrich von Flemming in Livonia without declaring war and following a failed sneak attack first siege of Riga is the first hostile act in erupting Great Northern War . The siege can not be sustained by the Saxons, however, because the Saxon army lacks effective artillery to bomb the city, and the infantry cannot pull a complete siege ring around the city, so that 350 Livonian charioteers succeed in defeating the siege lines of the Saxon ones Breach infantry and supply the fortress with supplies.
- March 11 : Denmark declares war on Sweden and invades the Schleswig-Holstein sub-duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf .
- March 13th to 15th : Saxon units under Jacob Heinrich von Flemming conquer the Dünamünde fortress , which is renamed Augustusburg .
- March 22nd : The siege of Tönning by the Danish King Friedrich VI. begins.
- May 17th : Swedish relief units under the command of Georg Johann Maydell land near Riga and defeat the Saxons in battle near Jungfernhof . The Saxon troops break off the siege of Riga, evade behind the Dvina and wait for reinforcements first.
- June 5 : The Polish King Augustus the Strong , who is also Elector of Saxony , personally begins the second siege of Riga .
- July: When Saxon reinforcements arrive in June under General Field Marshal Adam Heinrich von Steinau , the Polish-Saxon units attack again and defeat a Swedish detachment under General Otto Ottoson Vellingk near Jungfernhof .
- July 3 : Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Constantinople , which ends the Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700 . Azov and Taganrog fall to Russia.
- August 4th : The Swedish King Charles XII lands under the protection of his own fleet . on the main Danish island of Zealand , enclosing Copenhagen and starting the siege of the Danish capital in August.
- August 18th : Sweden's King Charles XII. enforces the peace of Traventhal from the Danish King Frederick IV through the armed forces invading Zealand and threatening Copenhagen . The anti-Swedish coalition in the Great Northern War thus loses Denmark as its partner. The siege of Tönning fortress by the Danes is canceled.
- August 19 : Immediately after Russia declares war on Sweden, the assembled Russian army and other troop divisions move into Swedish Estonia and Ingermanland .
- August 28th : The Saxon-Polish army begins bombing Riga. The trading offices of English and Dutch merchants are also destroyed.
- October 1 : A Swedish fleet of 200 ships and 8,000 men set sail from the Swedish mainland to relieve the besieged Riga . August the Strong then called off the siege after England and the Netherlands had formally confirmed their commercial interests in Riga.
- October 4th : Under Alexander Artschilowitsch Imeretinski the siege of Narva by the Russian army begins .
- October 17th : The smaller Swedish fortress Kokenhausen , besieged by Saxony , is conquered.
- 4. bis 14. November : After a ten-day bombardment of Narva Russian troops ammunition goes out.
- November 17th : Charles XII. defeated Russian units in battle at Pühhajoggi Pass on the way to Narva.
- November 30th : Charles XII. defeat the Russian army in the battle of Narva . Assuming he could beat them again at any time, he refrains from pursuing them in order to reach a decision and instead turns against Poland under Augustus the Strong .
War of the Spanish Succession
- March 25th : Between the maritime powers ( England , Netherlands ) and France (after 1698) the second contract of inheritance of the soon to be expected Spanish inheritance is signed .
- November 1st : The Spanish King Charles II dies, with him the Spanish Habsburgs die out. In his will on October 3rd, under pressure from France , he appointed Philip of Anjou , grandson of Louis XIV of France , as heir. On the other hand, the Roman-German Emperor Leopold I made inheritance claims as the husband of Charles II's younger sister , Margarita Theresa of Spain , who died in 1673 . The War of the Spanish Succession breaks out over the succession to the throne .
- November 24th : The Bourbone Philip of Anjou is proclaimed King of Spain as Philip V.
Holy Roman Empire
- November 16 : Emperor Leopold I agrees in the so-called contract that the Brandenburg Elector Friedrich III. after fulfilling certain conditions may in future be called King in Prussia and thus increase in rank. (see King Frederick III of Brandenburg's coronation )
- The uprising of Francis II Rákóczi begins when the Hungarian nobleman Franz II Rákóczi contacts Louis XIV of France and asks for support in an uprising against the Habsburgs.
- From France sold Waldensian found in the duchy Württemberg place Le Bourset , today Neuhengstett .
Republic of Venice
- July 17th : Alvise Mocenigo II is elected Doge of Venice to succeed Silvestro Valier , who died on July 7th . He celebrates his choice with days of festivities and fireworks in the city.
- May 2 : The construction company Hotibag is founded in Ziesar .
- May 28 : The Glücksburg glassworks in Saxony is founded.
- June 15 : The court post office in Berlin is founded.
- A trading business is founded in Munich, from which the Dallmayr delicatessen is developed.
science and technology
- February 27 : On his journey along the coast of New Guinea with his ship Roebuck , the English captain William Dampier discovers the island of New Britain and the Dampier Strait, which is named after him . However, the poor condition of his ship and the scurvy crew force Dampier to return to Timor , which he reaches in May.
- July 11 : The Prussian Academy of Sciences is founded in Berlin, of which Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz becomes its first president .
- Around 1700 putty was developed as a sealant .
- around 1700: Isaac Newton suggests the Newton scale as the temperature scale . He defines zero when the snow is melting and 33 degrees as boiling water.
- June 6th : The world premiere of the opera Atys o L'inganno vinto dalla Costanza by Attilio Ariosti takes place in the Lietzenburg in Berlin. The libretto is by Ortensio Mauro .
- January 1st : Tsar Peter I replaces the Byzantine year counting in Russia from the creation of the world by the Julian calendar with year counting from the birth of Christ.
- March 1 : In the Protestant parts of the Holy Roman Empire and in Denmark is Gregorian calendar introduced. The previous day was February 18th July. .
- In Sweden, the Swedish calendar is introduced as a transition between the Julian and Gregorian calendar .
- August 15 : The Patriarch of the Maronite Church in Syria Gabriel II. Al Blouzani founds the monastic order of the Maronite Antonians . The first members of the order are recruited from the Lebanese Maronite Order .
- September 4th : The Romanian Greek Catholic Church enters into a union with the Catholic Church .
- November 23 : Giovanni Francesco Albani, cardinal deacon of the Church of Santa Maria in Aquiro , succeeds Innocent XII , who died on September 27 . elected Pope by the conclave . He takes the name Clement XI in honor of the day saint Clement of Rome . on.
- around 1700: Elector Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz donates the St. Maria monastery in Neuburg an der Donau . The monastery has its own St. Ursula church and is an educational institution for girls of all classes.
- January 26 : The Cascadian earthquake of 1700 off the west coast of North America triggers a tsunami that reaches as far as Japan.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 14 : Christian Friedrich Henrici , most important lyricist of Johann Sebastian Bach († 1764 )
- January 23 : Johann Christian Joseph , Hereditary Prince of the Electoral Palatinate († 1733 )
- February 8 : Daniel Bernoulli , Swiss mathematician and physicist († 1782 )
- February 16 : Pedro Messía de la Cerda , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Granada († 1783 )
- March 3 : Charles-Joseph Natoire , French painter († 1777 )
- March 4 : Louis Auguste de Bourbon , Duke of Maine and Prince of Dombes († 1755 )
- March 4th Salomon Kleiner , architectural draftsman and engraver from Augsburg († 1761 )
- March 13 : Michel Blavet , French flautist and composer († 1768 )
- March 20 : Benedykt Chmielowski , Polish priest and encyclopaedist († 1763 )
- March 25 : Abraham Kyburz , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1765 )
- April 1 : Ulrich von Löwendal , general and marshal of France († 1755 )
- April 29 : Karl Friedrich , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf († 1739 )
- May 2 : Charlotte von Hanau-Lichtenberg , Countess of Hessen-Darmstadt († 1726 )
- May 7th : Gerard van Swieten , Austrian medic of Dutch origin († 1772 )
- May 14 : Mary Delany , English painter, horticultural artist and author († 1788 )
- May 26th : Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf , German Lutheran-Pietist theologian, founder and bishop of the Moravian Brethren and poet of numerous hymns († 1760 )
- June 10 : Ewald Georg von Kleist , Prussian lawyer and natural scientist († 1748 )
- June 19 : Charles de Bourbon , Count of Charolais, libertine († 1760 )
- June 20 : Peter Faneuil , American colonial merchant († 1743 )
Second half of the year
- July 6 : Joseph Gabler , German master organ builder († 1771 )
- July 29 : Peter Joseph Kofler , Mayor of Vienna († 1764 )
- August 13 : Heinrich von Brühl , Electoral Saxon and Royal Polish Prime Minister († 1763 )
- August 16 : Clemens August von Bayern , Archbishop of Cologne († 1761 )
- August 17th : Johann Michael Beer von Bleichten , Austrian builder and architect († 1767 )
- August 25 : Johann Friedrich Stoy , German Protestant theologian († 1760 )
- August 27 : Joaquín de Montserrat , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain († 1771 )
- September 11th : James Thomson , Scottish poet († 1748 )
- September 14 : Johann Michael Franz , German geographer († 1761 )
- September 29 : Caroline von Erbach-Fürstenau , Duchess and Regent of Saxony-Hildburghausen († 1758 )
- October 10 : Lambert-Sigisbert Adam , French sculptor († 1759 )
- October 14 : Anastassija Trubezkaja , Russian princess and hereditary princess of Hesse-Homburg († 1755 )
- October 22 : Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans , French noblewoman and Duchess of Modena († 1761 )
- November 7th : Erdmuthe Dorothea von Zinzendorf , German Pietist and hymn poet († 1756 )
- November 15 : Georg Friedrich Schmahl , German organ builder († 1773 )
- November 24th : Johann Bernhard Bach the Younger , German composer and organist († 1743 )
- November 28 : Sophie Magdalene von Brandenburg-Kulmbach , Queen of Denmark († 1770 )
- December 8 : Jeremias Friedrich Reuss , German theologian († 1777 )
- December 10 : Placidus Amon , Austrian Benedictine and philologist († 1759 )
- December 13 : Giovanni Carestini , called Il Cusanino , Italian opera singer and castrato, Handel interpreter († 1760 )
- December 19 : Julián Manuel de Arriaga y Rivera , Spanish nobleman, officer and minister († 1776 )
- December 20 : Charles-Augustin de Ferriol d'Argental , French administrator and ambassador († 1788 )
- December 25 : Leopold II. Maximilian , Prince of Anhalt-Dessau and Prussian General († 1751 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johann Christoph Glaubitz , Silesian builder in Lithuania († 1767 )
- Granny Nanny , woman abducted as a slave to Jamaica from the Ashanti Empire, national heroine of Jamaica († after 1739)
- Anna Clara Manera , citizen of Mainz and founder († 1781 )
- Opoku Ware I. , ruler of the Ashanti Empire († 1750 )
Born around 1700
- Elizabeth Blackwell , Scottish draftsman, engraver and illustrator († 1758 )
- Christian Kretzschmar , German builder († 1768 )
- Muhammad ibn Saud , first imam of the Saudi dynasty († 1765 )
- Ebu Sehil Nu'man Efendi , Ottoman lawyer and chronicler († after 1750)
January to April
- January 3 : Eva Magdalena von Windhag , first prioress of the Dominican convent Windhaag and sole heiress of Count Joachim Enzmilner (* 1629 )
- January 12 : Margareta Bourgeoys , educator in New France and saint of the Roman Catholic Church (* 1620 )
- January 13 : Theodor Timmermann , pharmacist, mayor of Mannheim and mayor of the Palatinate Colony in Magdeburg (* 1627 )
- January 16 : Antonio Draghi , Italian composer, librettist and singer in Vienna (* 1634 )
- January 17th : Johann Heinrich Florin , German Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1650 )
- January 17th : Christoph Rudolf von Stadion , Provost and President of the Councilor of the Electorate of Mainz (* 1638 )
- January 21 : Henry Somerset, 1st Duke of Beaufort , English nobleman (* 1629 )
- January 22nd : Hans Mössner , German blacksmith (* around 1640 )
- January 30th : Clara Elisabeth von Platen , mistress of the future Elector Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and mastermind in the Königsmarck affair (* 1648 )
- February 18 : Bodo von Bodenhausen , Chief Justice of the Electorate of Mainz (* 1633 )
- February 25 : James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas , Scottish nobleman (* 1646 )
- March 1 : Caspar Posner , German physicist and medic (* 1626 )
- March 1 : Takatsukasa Fusasuke , Japanese nobleman and regent (* 1637 )
- March 4 : Lorenzo Pasinelli , Italian painter (* 1629 )
- March 12 : Kasimir , Count of Lippe-Brake (* 1627 )
- March 14 : Christoph Haizmann , Austrian painter and alleged Teufelsbündler (* 1651 / 52 )
- March 18 : Cornelis Valckenier , Amsterdam regent and director of the Suriname law firm (* 1640 )
- March 26th : Heinrich Meibom , German medic (* 1638 )
- March 29 : Giovanni Lorenzo Lulier , Italian violonist, cellist, trombonist and composer (* around 1662 )
- April 4 : Heinrich von Mering , priest and canon in Cologne (* 1620 )
- April 25 : Valentin Veltheim , German moral philosopher and Lutheran theologian (* 1645 )
- April 26th : Johann Wolfgang Frölicher , federal architect and sculptor (* 1652 )
May to August
- May 5th : Christian Eltester , Brandenburg architect, engineer and draftsman (* 1671 )
- May 12 : John Dryden , English writer (* 1631 )
- May 12 : Johannes Brever , German Lutheran theologian (* 1616 )
- May 16 : Peter Herold , German organ builder
- May 17 : Adam Adamandy Kochański , Polish mathematician (* 1631 )
- May 23 : Jens Juel , Danish diplomat and politician (* 1631 )
- May 28 : Jan Six , Dutch art collector, patron and Amsterdam regent (* 1618 )
- May 31 : Agostino Scilla , Italian Baroque painter, paleontologist, numismatist and geologist (* 1629 )
- June 1 : Willem ten Rhijne , Dutch doctor in the service of the Dutch East India Company and author of medical works (* 1647 )
- June 22nd : Placidus von Droste , prince abbot of Fulda (* 1641 )
- June 29 : Olof Svebilius , Swedish Lutheran theologian and Archbishop of Uppsala (* 1624 )
- July 2 : Lambert Doomer , Dutch painter (* 1624 )
- July 2 : Johann Trost , German architect (* 1639 )
- July 6th : Bartholomäus Anhorn , Swiss pastor and historian (* 1616 )
- July 7th : Silvestro Valier , Doge of Venice (* 1630 )
- July 19 : Hieronymus Kradenthaller , German organist and composer (* 1637 )
- July 22nd : Alderano Cibo , Italian cardinal (* 1613 )
- August 6th : Johann Beer , Austrian writer and composer (* 1655 )
- August 9 : Jean-Baptiste Tuby , French sculptor of Italian origin (* 1635 )
- August 14 : Martin Friedrich Friese , Saxon medic (* 1632 )
- August 18 : Johannes Spengler , Mayor of St. Gallen (* 1629 )
- August 19 : Adrian Steger , lawyer from the Electorate of Saxony and mayor of Leipzig (* 1623 )
- August 31 : Stephan Kessler , Tyrolean painter (* 1622 )
September to December
- September 1 : Johann Ritter , Mayor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (* 1622 )
- September 3 : Johann Jacob Merklein , German barber surgeon, traveler to India and travel writer (* 1620 )
- September 15 : André Le Nôtre , French landscape architect (* 1613 )
- September 23 : Nicolaus Adam Strungk , German composer (* 1640 )
- September 26 : David Wyss , Swiss Protestant theologian and university professor (* 1632 )
- September 27 : Georg Kaspar Kirchmaier , German polymath (* 1635 )
- October 1 : Hans Haubold von Einsiedel , court clerk of the Electoral Saxony and owner of several estates (* 1654 )
- October 2 : Tetsugyū Dōki , monk of the Ōbaku-shū of Japanese Zen Buddhism (* 1628 )
- October 27 : Armand Jean Le Bouthillier de Rancé , founder of the Trappist order (* 1626 )
- End of October: Hinrich Mahlstede , Bremen chronicler (* around 1620 )
- November 1st : Charles II , King of Spain, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia and Duke of Milan and Luxembourg (* 1661 )
- November 7th : Pietro Santi Bartoli , Italian draftsman, engraver and antiquarian (* 1635 )
- 19 / 20 November : André Hubert , a French comedian, member of the troupe of Molière (* around 1634 )
- November 22nd : Artus Quellinus II , Flemish sculptor (* 1625 )
- December 3 : Konrad Tiburtius Rango , German theologian and natural scientist (* 1639 )
- December 26 : Franz Bernhard Rodde , Lübeck merchant and councilor (* 1644 )
- December 29th : Philipp Matthäus , German medic (* 1621 )
- December 31 : Pietro Sanmartini , Italian composer and organist (* 1636 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Armande Béjart , French actress (* 1642 )
- Angelo Italia , Sicilian architect (* 1628 )
- Louis Joliet , French explorer and cartographer (* 1645 )
- Johann Jakob Keller , Swiss goldsmith and ore caster (* 1635 )
- Kosa Pan , Siamese diplomat and statesman (* before 1650)
- Pyotr Ivanovich Potjomkin , Russian diplomat, voivode and Namestnik from Borowsk (* 1617 )
- Richard Sievers , German pirate in the Indian Ocean (* around 1660 )
- Hans van Steenwinckel , Danish architect and sculptor (* before 1639)
- Johannes Thopas , Dutch draftsman and painter (* 1625 )
Died around 1700
- Josef ben Abraham Athias , Jewish-Hebrew printer (* around 1635 )
- Moll Davis , English theater actress and matress of Charles II of England (* 1648 )