war for Jenkins' ear
the British Prime Minister declaring war
Mughal mogul Muhammad Shah
is defeated in the
battle of Karnal
Persian king Nadir Shah .
|Peace of Belgrade Austria had to accept territorial losses after the Russo-Austrian Turkish War .|
|1739 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1187/88 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1731/32 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1144/45 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2282/83 (southern Buddhism); 2281/82 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1101/02 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4072/73 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1151/52 (turn of the year 9/10 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5499/5500 (October 2/3)|
|Coptic calendar||1455/56 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2049/50 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2050/51 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1795/96 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 13 : Nadir Shah from the Afsharid dynasty in Persia crossed the Indus at the end of last year and invaded the Mughal Empire . The army sent by Mughal Mogul Muhammad Shah to defend himself in the Battle of Karnal and is taken prisoner. On March 11th, Nadir Shah entered Delhi and had the city looted.
- March 20 : After tumults in the population of Delhi, who resisted the collection of assets by Persian soldiers, a massacre begins in the city on the orders of the warlord Nadir Shah , killing at least 20,000 people.
- May 5 : After several weeks of looting the city of Delhi attracts Nadir Shah from his troops. In addition to many young slaves , the army also takes the peacock throne and precious stones such as the diamonds Koh-i-Noor and Darya-ye Noor for their ruler. With this huge booty, Nadir is able to exempt his people from taxes for three years.
Russo-Austrian Turkish War
- July 22nd : In the Battle of Grocka , the Ottoman troops under the command of the French adventurer Claude Alexandre de Bonneval inflict a sensitive and surprising defeat on the Imperial-Austrian army under Georg Olivier von Wallis in the Russo-Austrian Turkish War , which the imperial court also suffered moved to strive for peace at all costs with the Sublime Porte .
- August 27 : In the battle of Stavutschan , the Russians defeat the Ottoman troops and march on Chotyn .
- September 1 : A preliminary peace between Austria and the Ottoman Empire is concluded.
- September 18 : In the Peace of Belgrade Austria loses all territories gained in the Peace of Passarowitz in 1718 in the Balkans , northern Serbia with Belgrade , northern Bosnia and Little Wallachia , to the Ottoman Empire . Only the Banat remains with Austria.
- Due to Austria's withdrawal from the war and an alliance between the Ottoman Empire and Sweden , Russia, which previously fought successfully against the Turks, must also conclude a peace treaty with the Ottomans that will undo most of the Russian conquests.
North America and the Caribbean
- September 9 : The Stono Uprising takes place near Charleston in the British colony of South Carolina , the largest slave uprising in North American colonial history. The uprising is fueled by a yellow fever epidemic that weakens numerous slave owners. 80 slaves burn down seven plantations in the course of the uprising and kill twenty whites. Then they try to escape to the Spanish colony of Florida , but are caught and defeated by a group of armed men on the way. The 36 surviving insurgents are then beheaded.
- October 23 : With the declaration of war against Spain by British Prime Minister Robert Walpole , the war for Jenkins' ear begins .
- The First Maroon War in Jamaica ends with a peace treaty between the British colonial rulers and the Leeward Maroons under Cudjoe . Great Britain recognizes the independence and freedom of the former slaves , who, however, must remain in their five main settlements and are no longer allowed to accept any more runaway slaves.
- The 1723 resolution Viceroyalty of New Granada under the name Virreinato de Nueva Granada from parts of existing Spanish viceroyalties New Spain and Peru re-established; it includes the areas of today's Colombia , Venezuela, and Ecuador .
Voyages of discovery
- January 1 : On his South Sea expedition , Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier sighted the Cap de la Circoncision , the Bouvet Island that was later named after him . Since he cannot land for twelve days and his team suffers from scurvy , he continues east until he has to give up because of the illness. He meets on Feb. 24 at the Cape of Good Hope and is on June 24 back to Lorient . He has to inform his client that a southern continent must face the pole and is therefore out of the question for supply options.
science and technology
- January: The German Society of Bern for the Maintenance of the German Language is founded.
- June 2nd : The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is founded. The founding members include Carl von Linné , Jonas Alströmer , Mårten Triewald , Sten Carl Bielke , Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm and Anders Johan von Höpken .
- September 2nd : The German Society of Greifswald in Swedish-Pomerania has its constituent meeting. The aim of the society is to promote science in the sense of the Enlightenment and the German language.
Music and theater
- January 16 : The world premiere of Georg Friedrich Händel's oratorio Saul takes place at the Haymarket Theater in London . The Bible-based libretto was written by Charles Jennens .
- April 4 : The oratorio Israel in Egypt by George Frideric Handel is premiered at King's Theater on London's Haymarket. Probably the organ concerto The Cuckoo and the Nightingale , which Handel completed shortly before, is played between the acts .
- May 1 : Georg Friedrich Händel's opera pasticcio Giove in Argo has its world premiere at King's Theater in London's Haymarket. The piece is a failure and will only see a second performance on May 5th .
- November 22nd : George Frideric Handel's Ode for St. Cecilia's Day, based on a poem by the Englishman John Dryden , premieres together with a performance of Alexander's Feast at the Lincoln's Inn Fields Theater in London.
- December 1st : The opera Nancy, or The Parting Lovers by Henry Carey is premiered in London.
- Christmas: The Christmas Carol Hark! The Herald Angels Sing by Charles Wesley is published in his Hymns and Sacred Poems collection .
- May 21 : The world premiere of the ballet opera Les Fêtes d'Hébé ou Les Talents lyriques by Jean-Philippe Rameau at the Grand Opéra Paris .
- November 19 : The opera Dardanus by Jean-Philippe Rameau based on the libretto by Charles-Antoine Leclerc de La Bruère is premiered at the Grand Opéra Paris . While the plot already met with criticism from Rameau's contemporaries because of its weaknesses, the opera is considered one of the highlights of the tragedy lyrique because of its differentiated music .
- August 28 : The libretto Astrea placata ovvero La felicità della terra to a Componimento drammatico by Pietro Metastasio is premiered in its first setting by Luca Antonio Predieri in the gallery of the imperial favorites in Vienna for the birthday party of Empress Elisabeth .
- 23 January : A regulation introduces compulsory primary schooling in Norway .
- March 29th : Horace Walpole starts his Grand Tour through Europe together with Thomas Gray from Dover , which will last until 1741.
- October 25th : Infant Philip of Spain marries - after a marriage by procurationem on August 26th in Versailles - in Madrid the twelve-year-old Marie Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon , eldest daughter of the French King Louis XV.
- September 22nd : A lightning strike in one of Bremen's powder towers is followed by a huge detonation that triggers a conflagration in Bremen . About a sixth of the city and 32 people fall victim to it.
- Famine in France. There are isolated riots.
nature and environment
In England, the mean temperatures for December 1739 and January 1740 are below zero. That did not happen again until December 1878 and January 1879. The frost begins on Christmas Day 1739 and does not end until February 17, 1740. The cold lasts until April 5.
January to April
- January 3 : Karl Wilhelm Hennert , German forester († 1800 )
- January 5 : Karl von Zinzendorf , Austrian statesman († 1813 )
- January 17th : James Anderson of Hermiston , Scottish agricultural economist and writer († 1808 )
- January 17th : Padre Sojo , Venezuelan priest and music teacher († 1799 )
- January 23 : Franz Anton Xaver Hauser , German sculptor († 1819 )
- February 6 : Christian Gottfried Hahmann , German master builder († 1798 )
- February 11 : Johann Christian Hofmann , German civil servant († 1792 )
- February 15 : Charles Henri Sanson , French executioner († 1806 )
- February 16 : Gottlieb Schlegel , German Protestant theologian and general superintendent for Western Pomerania († 1810 )
- February 19 : Giambattista Dall'Olio , Italian musician and music theorist († 1823 )
- February 21 : Karl Friedrich Reinhard von Gemmingen , Minister at the court of Karl Alexander von Brandenburg-Ansbach, knight captain of the knightly canton of Odenwald and general director of the imperial knighthood († 1822 )
- March 12 : Friedrich Wilhelm Strieder , German librarian, lexicographer and historian († 1815 )
- March 16 : George Clymer , American politician, signatory of the Declaration of Independence of the United States († 1813 )
- March 18 : Domingo de Iriarte , Spanish diplomat († 1795 )
- March 19 : Charles-François Lebrun , French consul and Duke of Piacenza († 1824 )
- March 20 : Maria Josepha of Bavaria , Empress of the Holy Roman Empire († 1767 )
- March 22 : Louis Alexandre d'Albignac , French general († 1825 )
- March 24th : Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart , German poet, organist, composer and journalist († 1791 )
- March 25 : Eduard August, Duke of York and Albany , and Earl of Ulster († 1767 )
- 30 March : Dominik Andreas von Kaunitz-Rietberg-Questenberg , Austrian diplomat and imperial court official († 1812 )
- April 5 : Philemon Dickinson , American politician († 1809 )
- April 9 : Johann Joseph Imhoff , German sculptor († 1802 )
- April 17 : Robert-André Andréa de Nerciat , French writer, soldier, architect and librarian († 1800 )
- April 17 : Caroline Schuch , German actress († 1787 )
- April 20 : William Bartram , American naturalist († 1823 )
- April 20 : Johann Konrad Friedrich von Hotze , Austrian general of Swiss origin († 1799 )
May to August
- May 8 : Stanisław Trembecki , Polish poet († 1812 )
- May 11th : Eleanor Charlotte Butler , Irish noblewoman, one of the Ladies of Llangollen († 1829 )
- May 14 : Paine Wingate , American politician († 1838 )
- May 27 : François Ignace Ervoil d'Oyré , French general († 1799 )
- June 4 : Johann Beckmann , German economist († 1811 )
- June 4 : Christian Hartmann Samuel von Gatzert , German lawyer and politician († 1807 )
- June 11 : Johann Friedrich Schultz , German Protestant theologian, mathematician and philosopher († 1805 )
- June 25 : Jeremias Nicolaus Eyring , German rector and university professor († 1803 )
- July 2 : Matthias Friese , German schoolmaster, organist and organ builder († 1786 )
- July 4th : Johann Karl Christoph Ferber , German university professor and philosopher († 1786 )
- July 6 : Georges Jacob , French cabinet maker († 1814 )
- July 6 : Friedrich Wilhelm Rust , German violinist and composer († 1796 )
- July 19 : Joseph Stanton , American politician († 1807 )
- July 26 : George Clinton , American politician, governor of New York and Vice President of the United States († 1812 )
- July 26 : Karl Friedrich Senf , German Protestant theologian and hymn poet († 1814 )
- August 3 : Dominika von Gillern , abbess of Trebnitz († 1810 )
- August 3 : Johann Jakob von Pistor , Russian lieutenant general († 1814 )
- August 6 : Caetano de Lemos Telo de Meneses , governor of Portuguese Timor († 1795 )
- August 18 : Cornelis de Pauw , Dutch historian, cultural philosopher and philologist († 1799 )
- August 28 : Agostino Accorimboni , Italian opera composer, violinist and pianist († 1818 )
- August 30 : George Mathews , American politician, Governor of Georgia († 1812 )
September to December
- September 4 : Blaise Duval , French general († 1803 )
- September 9 : Friderika Baldinger , German writer († 1786 )
- September 17 : John Rutledge , American politician, governor of South Carolina and chief federal judge († 1800 )
- September 24 : Grigory Potjomkin , Russian prince, field marshal and confidante and lover of the Russian Tsarina Catherine the Great († 1791 )
- September 28 : John Haring , American politician († 1809 )
- October 13 : Christian Friedrich von Jäger , German physician and researcher († 1808 )
- October 14 : Ioan Bob , Romanian Greek Catholic Bishop of Făgăraș († 1830 )
- October 16 : Wenzel Trnka von Krzowitz , Bohemian doctor and composer († 1791 )
- October 24 : Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, patroness and composer († 1807 )
- October 26 : Matthias Jorissen , German Reformed pastor and hymn poet († 1823 )
- November 2 : Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf , Austrian composer and violin virtuoso and forester († 1799 )
- November 7th : Ernst Franz von Platen-Hallermund , electoral Palatinate privy councilor and hereditary postmaster general of Brunswick-Lüneburg († 1818 )
- November 19 : François-Claude-Amour de Bouillé , French general († 1800 )
- November 25th : Philipp Matthäus Hahn , Wuerttemberg pastor and inventor († 1790 )
- November: Józef Boruwłaski , Polish short man († 1837 )
- December 7th : Christiane Karoline Lucius , German writer († 1833 )
- December 7th : Johann Georg Schlosser , German lawyer, historian, statesman, writer and translator († 1799 )
- December 9th : Ignaz Ablasser , Austrian painter († 1799 )
- December 10 : Agostino Poli , Italian composer and conductor († 1819 )
- December 14 : Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours , French economist († 1817 )
- December 24 : Allen Jones , American politician († 1798 )
- December 31 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Arnim-Boitzenburg , Prussian civil servant and minister of war († 1801 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Giambattista Gherardo d'Arco , Italian economist († 1791 )
- Samuel John Atlee , American politician († 1786 )
- Robert Barker , Irish painter († 1806 )
- Joseph Carr , American music publisher († 1819 )
- Jean-François Chalgrin , French architect († 1811 )
- Frei Galvão , Brazilian and Catholic saint († 1822 )
- Jindřich Krištof Hataš , Bohemian composer († 1808 )
- Karoline Kaulla , German court factor, was considered the richest woman in Germany († 1809 )
- Hyde Parker , Vice Admiral in the British Royal Navy († 1807 )
- Eliza Parsons , English writer († 1811 )
- Johann Heinrich Schulz , German Lutheran pastor († 1823 )
- Charles Scott , American politician, governor of Kentucky († 1813 )
- Thomas Scott , American politician († 1796 )
First half of the year
- January 1st : Johann Georg Neidhardt , German organist, composer and theorist (* around 1680 )
- January 17th : Johann Jakob Stupan von Ehrenstein , Austrian composer (* 1664 )
- January 20 : Francesco Galli da Bibiena , Italian scenographer, architect, set designer and decorative painter (* 1659 )
- February 8 : Gottfried Leonhard Baudis the Elder , German legal scholar (* 1683 )
- February 15 : Eustachio Manfredi , Italian astronomer, mathematician and poet (* 1674 )
- March 6 : Johann Friedrich Schannat , German priest and legal scholar (* 1683 )
- March 18 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow , Prussian field marshal and statesman (* 1678 )
- March 19 : Patrick Laules , Spanish general and diplomat of Irish descent (* 1676 )
- March 21 : Johann Ernst Bach , German organist (* 1683 )
- March 22nd : Georg Anton Machein , German sculptor and wood carver (* 1685 )
- March 23 : Georg Friedrich Schröer , German Lutheran theologian (* 1663 )
- March 27 : Hieronymus Florentinus Quehl , German composer and organist (* 1694 )
- March 31 : Magnus Berg , Norwegian painter and ivory carver (* 1666 )
- April 7 : Richard Turpin , English mugger and cattle thief (* 1705 )
- April 24 : Karl-Franz Hannong , Dutch-French ceramist and entrepreneur (* 1669 )
- April 25 : Santiago de Murcia , Spanish guitarist, composer and music theorist (* 1673 )
- April 26 : Johann Michael Prunner , Austrian architect (* 1669 )
- April 27 : Gioacchino Vitagliano , Sicilian sculptor (* 1669 )
- May 3 : Marie Anne de Bourbon , Princess of Conti (* 1666 )
- May 10 : Cosmas Damian Asam , Bavarian builder and painter (* 1686 )
- May 11 : Pierre Charles Trémolières , French painter (* 1703 )
- May 13 : Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer , Prussian general (* 1654 )
- May 27 : Johann Gottfried Bernhard Bach , German organist (* 1715 )
- May 28 : James Anderson , Scottish preacher (* around 1678 )
- June 6 : Samuel Dale , English physician and botanist (* 1659 )
- June 9th : Theodorus van der Croon , Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht (* 1668 )
- June 11 : Farfallino (formerly Giacinto Fontana), Italian opera singer and castrato (* 1692 )
- June 12 : Georg Albrecht , Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Barby (* 1695 )
- June 13 : Sophie Christiane Luise of Brandenburg-Bayreuth , Princess of Thurn and Taxis (* 1710 )
- June 18 : Karl Friedrich , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (* 1700 )
Second half of the year
- July 8 : Carlo Colonna , Cardinal of the Roman Church (* 1665 )
- July 20 : Francesco Alborea , Italian cellist and composer (* 1691 )
- July 24th : Benedetto Marcello , Italian composer (* 1686 )
- August 1st : Johann Jakob Bager , German builder (* around 1670 )
- August 5th : Friedrich Bernhard , Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld zu Gelnhausen (* 1697 )
- August 24 : Takebe Katahiro , Japanese mathematician (* 1664 )
- August 28 : Christian , Prince of Nassau-Dillenburg (* 1688 )
- Matthias Buchinger , German artist, musician, draftsman, calligrapher and magician, who was born without hands or feet (* 1674 ) August:
- September 1 : Johann Gottfried Kraus , German legal scholar (* 1680 )
- September 6 : Heinrich von Huyssen , German diplomat and advisor to Peter the Great (* 1666 )
- September 6th : Conrad von Ranck , Swedish and Hesse-Kassel lieutenant general and governor of the Rheinfels fortress (* 1664 )
- September 8th : Johann Benedict Carpzov III. , German historian, lawyer and mayor of Zittau (* 1675 )
- September 12 : Cesare Antonio Canavese , Italian sculptor and plasterer (* 1672 )
- September 12 : Ernst Ludwig , Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (* 1667 )
- September 12 : Reinhard Keizer , German composer (* 1674 )
- September 23 : Johann Christoph Aurbach , German civil servant and office director of the Quedlinburg Abbey (* unb.)
- October 8 : Christian Georg Vick , German author and builder (* 1668 )
- October 18 : Jacob Wittich , German philosopher and mathematician (* 1677 )
- October 19 : António José da Silva , Portuguese-Brazilian comedy poet and victim of the Inquisition (* 1705 )
- November 8 : Anselm Franz von Thurn und Taxis , German general inheritance postmaster, head of the Imperial Post Office (* 1681 )
- November 12th Hans Heinrich Schulthess , Swiss businessman, politician and Pietist (* 1665 )
- November 17 : Maria Amalia von Brandenburg-Schwedt , Duchess of Saxony-Zeitz (* 1670 )
- November 29th : Sebastian Johann Georg Graf von Künigl , governor and imperial governor of Tyrol (* 1663 )
- Josef Carlone , Styrian builder (* 1678 ) November:
- December 3 : Christian Wermuth , German medalist (* 1661 )
- December 4 : Johann Josef Auer , German sculptor and wood carver (* 1666 )
- December 8th : William Ramsay, 6th Earl of Dalhousie , Scottish nobleman and soldier (* 1660 )
- 19 / 20 December : Gottfried Grünewald , German singer, harpsichordist and composer (* 1673 )
- Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach , Swedish officer of Baltic German origin and Governor General of Swedish Estonia (* around 1650 ) December:
Exact date of death unknown
- Benedikt von Ahlefeldt , Privy Councilor, Chancellery President and Chamberlain of Duke Karl Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (* 1685 )
- Peter d'Arbaud , Prussian Colonel
- Catherine Barton , Isaac Newton's adoptive daughter and administrator (* 1679 )
- Friedrich Christian Feustking , German poet and librettist (* 1678 )
- Giuseppe Giovanni Guarneri , Italian violin maker (* 1666 )