Calendar overview 1790
becomes Emperor of the
Holy Roman Empire .
Alexander Wassiljewitsch Suworow conquers the
Ottoman fortress Ismajil .
|Mozart's opera Così fan tutte has its world premiere in Vienna.|
|1790 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1238/39 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1782/83 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1195/96 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2333/34 (southern Buddhism); 2332/33 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1152/53 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4123/24 (October 2/3)|
|French revolutionary calendar||Year II of freedom|
|Islamic calendar||1204/05 (New Year 10/11 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5550/51 (September 8/9)|
|Coptic calendar||1506/07 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2100/01 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2101/02 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1846/47 (April)|
Politics and world events
- 11 January : The first French mayoral elections take place in Ris-Orangis .
- February 26th / March 4th : In France , the division into 83 départements becomes valid instead of the historical provinces .
- March 21 : In France, the particularly unpopular salt tax is eliminated in the wake of the French Revolution .
- April 27th : During the French Revolution , the Club des Cordeliers , considered radical, is founded. Its members popularize the motto Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité .
- June 19 : The National Assembly creates the hereditary nobility , and prohibits titles of nobility.
- July 12th : The French National Assembly adopts a civil constitution that deprives the Pope of rights over the French Church. Clergymen become civil servants.
- July 14th : Federation festival on the Paris Field of Mars
- August 31 : A contingent of troops under the command of François-Claude Amour de Bouille finished on August 5th begun Nancy affair . Depositing a mutiny of the garrison in Nancy costs at least 89 people in the barricades life. At least 22 soldiers are then immediately executed after each death sentence.
- September 6 : Abolition of the parliaments, the previous courts of law.
- September: Jacques-René Hébert's ultra-revolutionary magazine Le père Duchesne appears for the first time.
- October 31 : Removal of internal tariffs.
- November 27th : A decree of the National Assembly obliges the clergy to take an oath on the constitution. Adoption of the civil constitution of the clergy
Holy Roman Empire
- January 11 : After the Brabant Revolution, Hendrik van der Noot declares the United Belgian States on the territory of the Austrian Netherlands . But on December 2nd of that year the country became Austrian again due to troops that had moved in.
- February 20 : Change of throne in Austria. On Joseph II. Follows his brother Leopold II.
- June / July to September: In Kursachsen it comes to Saxon peasant uprising .
- July 27th : With a view to the French Revolution , King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia and the Habsburg Leopold II agree on the settlement of their conflicts in the Reichenbacher Convention .
- August 30th : The Mainz knot uprising begins.
- September 30th : Leopold II is elected Roman-German Emperor in Frankfurt am Main .
- October 9th : Leopold II is crowned emperor in Frankfurt am Main.
Russo-Swedish War 1788–1790
- July 3 : In the Russo-Swedish War , the Swedish fleet near Vyborg is ordered to use King Gustav III's escape route . secure. The Battle of Vyborg Bay ends eventually successful with heavy losses.
- July 10 : The second naval battle at Ruotsinsalmi ends with a victory for Sweden . The battle, also known as the Second Archipelago Battle on Svensksund in the Gulf of Finland off Kotka , became a catastrophe for Russia after it began the day before, losing between 9,000 and 14,000 men and a third of its fleet. It is, however, the greatest military success in the history of the Swedish Navy .
- August 14th : The Peace of Värälä ends the war between Sweden and Russia that began in 1788 without any territorial change. All prisoners of war are to be released unconditionally. Sweden receives some small economic advantages in trading with Russian ports. Russia does not interfere in Swedish domestic politics.
Russo-Austrian Turkish War (1787–1792)
- July 19 : In the sea battle near Kerch , a Russian fleet, supported by the turning of the wind, repels the landing of Ottoman invasion units on the Crimean peninsula . The opposing fleet withdraws unsuccessfully in the evening.
- December 22nd : General Alexander Wassiljewitsch Suvorov and his Russian troops conquered the strong Ismajil fortress of the Ottoman Empire in what was later to be Bessarabia in the Russo-Turkish War . Thereupon, Empress Catherine II donates the Order of Merit Cross of Ismail .
United States of America
- March 26th : The first US Naturalization Act states that only “free white persons” can acquire American citizenship .
- May 29 : Rhode Island , where there is a strong anti-constitutional movement, becomes the last of the Thirteen Colonies to ratify the United States Constitution , becoming the 13th state of the United States after the US has threatened to treat Rhode Island as a foreign state To ask for import duties. Governor John Collins costs his approval for re-election in the same year.
- July 16 : The Residence Act creates the District of Columbia in the United States . This creates the planned capital Washington, DC
- August 2 : The 1790 United States Census is the first census in the United States .
- January 15 : Fletcher Christian arrives with other mutineers from the Bounty in search of refuge off Pitcairn Island . The crew lets the ship run aground off the island. In order to destroy any trace visible from the sea, one of the mutineers of the Bounty set the ship on fire on January 23rd .
- January 19 : A fleet of three ships leaves Portsmouth, England, to transport over 1,000 prisoners to the Australian convict colony . It reached Sydney in June of the same year. Despite the comparatively fast crossing, the death rate among convicts is the highest in the history of deportation to Australia . Of the embarked 1,006 convicts, 267 (256 men and 11 women) died on the voyage.
- January 1st : The Oxford Canal is ceremonially opened.
- July 31 : The inventor Samuel Hopkins receives the first patent of the United States for a new production process of potash . The document bears the signatures of President George Washington and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson , among others .
- October 6th : Jacob Schweppe presents his soda water , the later Schweppes drink , in London . He now uses the bottling process he found in Geneva in 1783 in a factory founded with partners in the British capital.
science and technology
- January 30th : The first lifeboat is tested on the Tyne .
- March 18 : Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxy NGC 3642 in the constellation Great Bear .
- April 1 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the barred spiral galaxy NGC 3079 while observing the sky .
- October 9 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the two galaxies NGC 1097 and NGC 1425 in the chemical furnace constellation .
- November 2 : Wilhelm Herschel sees the galaxy NGC 39 for the first time in the constellation Andromeda .
- November 26th : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxies NGC 13 and NGC 21 in the constellation Andromeda .
- December 6th : Wilhelm Herschel's observations of the sky let him discover the galaxy NGC 12 in the constellation Pisces .
- December 17 : In Tenochtitlan in Mexico City is in construction work of the Sun Stone of Aztecs excavated.
- The German botanist Christian Konrad Sprengel discovered on narrow-leaved willow herb , the cross-pollination .
- Immanuel Kant : Critique of Judgment
- Francis Hopkinson is the first to receive the Magellanic Premium from the American Philosophical Society .
- January 26th : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Così fan tutte ( This is how everyone does it ) based on a text by Lorenzo da Ponte is premiered in Vienna's Burgtheater .
- January 27 : Heinrich Harries publishes the original version of the song Heil dir im Siegerkranz in the Flensburger Wochenblatt für Jedermann on the occasion of King Christian VII 's birthday Folk song God save George the King ”.
- March 1st : World premiere of the opera Les Brouilleries by Henri Montan Berton at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- May 10 : World premiere of the historical drama Jeanne d'Arc à Orléans by Rodolphe Kreutzer at the Comédie Italienne in Paris
- July 6th : A city theater is founded in Leoben in Styria , which has been used continuously since then. It is now one of Austria's oldest such institutions.
- 23 August : World premiere of the opera Les Rigueurs du cloître by Henri Montan Berton at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- September 11th : The Singspiel The Philosopher's Stone or The Magic Island based on a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder has its world premiere at the Wiedner Theater near Vienna. The music for this work by Schikaneder is said to come from Johann Baptist Henneberg , and it contains insert numbers by Franz Xaver Gerl , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Benedikt Schack and Schikaneder himself.
- The Chinese Tower is being built in Munich .
- Johann Abraham Peter Schulz sets the evening song by Matthias Claudius to music .
- Anton David Steiger founds the “ Wildenstein Knighthood on Blue Earth ” as “Hainz am Stein der Wilde” with the aim of reviving medieval knighthood in the sense of Romanticism .
Historical maps and views
- January 6 : Arnold Naudain , American politician († 1872 )
- January 10 : Jacob Jacobsen Dampe , Danish theologian and philosopher († 1867 )
- January 14 : Daniel Dunklin , American politician († 1844 )
- January 17 : Johann Georg Frech , German music director, composer and organist († 1864 )
- January 19 : Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom , Swedish poet and literary historian († 1855 )
- January 20 : John Blackwall , British naturalist († 1881 )
- January 27 : William Davies Evans , Welsh chess player († 1872 )
- January 27 : Petro Hulak-Artemowskyj , Ukrainian writer († 1865 )
- January 29 : Julius Georg Knoll , German lawyer († 1851 )
- February 1 : Franz Joseph Aloys Antony , German Catholic clergyman, church musician, pedagogue and author († 1837 )
- February 2 : William Elford Leach , British zoologist and marine biologist († 1836 )
- February 3 : Gideon Mantell , English doctor, geologist and paleontologist († 1852 )
- February 4 : John Bachman , American natural scholar and priest († 1874 )
- February 5 : Wilhelmine Karoline Friederike Apranzow , German writer († 1844 )
- February 6 : John Silva Meehan , Head of the Library of Congress († 1863 )
- February 11 : Ignaz Aßmayer , Austrian composer and church musician († 1862 )
- February 11 : Ferdinand Schureman Schenck , American politician († 1860 )
- February 16 : Juan Van Halen , Spanish general († 1864 )
- February 16 : Claude Servais Mathias Pouillet , French physicist († 1868 )
- February 28 : Joseph Christian von Zedlitz , Austrian officer and poet († 1862 )
- March 1 : Emil André , German forester († 1869 )
- March 3 : John Austin , English lawyer and legal philosopher († 1859 )
- March 7 : Vincenz August Wagner , Austrian lawyer and university professor († 1833 )
- March 11th : Ignaz von Rudhart , Bavarian politician and Prime Minister of Greece († 1838 )
- March 14 : Ludwig Emil Grimm , painter and engraver, brother of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm († 1863 )
- March 15 : Nicola Vaccai , Italian composer († 1848 )
- March 21 : Hermann von Beisler , politician and military man († 1859 )
- March 29 : John Tyler , President of the United States († 1862 )
- March 29 : Carl Theodor Welcker , scholar and liberal politician († 1869 )
- April 2 : Jacques Lisfranc , French surgeon († 1847 )
- April 6 : Félix Cazot , French music teacher and composer († 1857 )
- April 11 : George Rockingham Gilmer , American politician († 1859 )
- April 12 : Joseph Kille , American politician († 1865 )
- April 13 : Wilhelm von Rahden , military man and writer († 1860 )
- April 21 : Manuel Blanco Encalada , Chilean politician († 1876 )
- April 20 : Alfred Moore Gatlin , American politician († 1841 )
- April 30 : Bernhard Baader , collector of Baden sagas († 1859 )
- April 30 : Karl Wilhelm von Willisen , Prussian general († 1879 )
- May 2 : Carl von Carnap , Prussian major general and landowner († 1869 )
- May 20 : Micajah Thomas Hawkins , American politician († 1858 )
- May 23 : James Pradier , French sculptor († 1852 )
- May 23 : Jules Dumont d'Urville , French navigator and polar explorer († 1842 )
- May 27 : Johann Ludwig Urban Blesson , Prussian military writer († 1861 )
- June 1 : Chester Ashley , American politician († 1848 )
- June 1 : Ferdinand Raimund , Austrian playwright († 1836 )
- June 10 : Ami Bost , Swiss revival preacher († 1874 )
- June 10 : Louis-Joseph Daussoigne-Mehul , French composer († 1875 )
- June 17 : Abel P. Upshur , American lawyer, politician and foreign minister († 1844 )
- June 18 : John Henry Eaton , American politician († 1856 )
- June 19 : Johann Heinrich Fischer , Swiss politician († 1861 )
- June 23 : Charles Thomas , American politician († 1848 )
- July 4th : George Everest , British engineer († 1866 )
- July 7 : Theodor Hilgard , German legal scholar († 1873 )
- July 12 : David Hansemann , German politician and banker († 1864 )
- July 17 : William Gardner Angel , American politician († 1858 )
- July 21 : Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse , historian († 1866 )
- August 3 : John Cockerill , British industrialist († 1840 )
- August 29 : Leopold , Grand Duke of Baden († 1852 )
- September 1 : Ferdinand von Eckstein , Danish writer and French civil servant († 1861 )
- September 3 : Hermann Josef Neefe , German stage painter († 1854 )
- September 4 : Joseph Anton von Maffei , German industrialist, railway manufacturer († 1870 )
- September 9 : Sergei Trubetskoi , leader of the Russian Decembrist uprising in 1825 († 1860 )
- September 13 : John Blair , American politician († 1863 )
- September 16 : Thomas Vowler Short , British clergyman and writer († 1872 )
- September 17 : Ludwig Friedrich Leopold von Gerlach , Prussian general and politician († 1861 )
- September 23 : William Trousdale , American politician († 1872 )
- September 26 : Nassau William Sr. , English economist († 1864 )
- September 28 : Christian Ludwig Wilhelm Stark , German Protestant theologian († 1818 )
- October 1 : Henry H. Chambers , American politician († 1826 )
- October 5 : Johann Anton Ramboux , German painter and lithographer, († 1866 )
- October 8 : Waldemar Thrane , Norwegian composer, violinist and conductor († 1828 )
- October 9 : Carl Ludwig Heusler , German entrepreneur and mining official († 1851 )
- October 14 : Wilhelm Ernst Weber , German educator and philologist († 1850 )
- October 16 : Karl von Prittwitz , Prussian infantry general († 1871 )
- October 16 : Valentin Rost , German classical philologist and lexicographer († 1862 )
- October 17 : August Ferdinand Anacker , German composer († 1854 )
- October 21 : Alphonse de Lamartine , French poet, writer and politician († 1869 )
- October 22 : Jan Ackersdijck , Dutch lawyer, statistician and economist († 1861 )
- October 25 : Robert Stirling , Scottish priest and engineer († 1878 )
- October 26 : Lambert Joseph von Babo , German agronomist and vinologist († 1862 )
- October 29 : Adolph Diesterweg , German educator and founder of the publishing house († 1866 )
- October 30 : Karol Lipiński , Polish violinist, composer and opera conductor († 1861 )
- November 4 : Carlos Antonio López , President of Paraguay († 1862 )
- November 6th : Johann Jacob Wehrli , Swiss educator († 1855 )
- November 7th : Luigi Rinaldo Legnani , Italian singer, guitarist and composer († 1877 )
- November 12 : Heinrich Schmückert , General Post Director of the North German Confederation († 1862 )
- November 17 : August Ferdinand Möbius , German mathematician and astronomer († 1868 )
- November 17 : João Carlos de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun , Portuguese politician and general († 1876 )
- November 18 : George Robertson , American politician († 1874 )
- November 21 : Edmund Lyons , British admiral and diplomat († 1858 )
- November 22nd : Gregor Wilhelm Nitzsch , philologist († 1861 )
- November 23 : Thomas Flournoy Foster , American politician († 1848 )
- December 6th : Jean-Baptiste Philibert Vaillant , French general, Marshal of France († 1872 )
- December 9 : Henry S. Geyer , American politician († 1859 )
- December 9 : William Edward Parry , British admiral and polar explorer († 1855 )
- December 10 : Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer , orientalist and publicist († 1861 )
- December 12 : Gustavus Miller Bower , American politician († 1864 )
- December 13 : Joseph Fieschi , assassin († 1836 )
- December 23 : Jean-François Champollion , French linguist († 1832 )
- December 31 : Antonie Adamberger , Austrian actress, fiancee Theodor Körner († 1867 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Carl C. Ackermann , German publisher († 1859 )
- Jonker Afrikaner , Kaptein der Orlam († 1861 )
- Joseph Audo , Ottoman Patriarch of Babylon († 1878 )
- Mathias Drexler , German-Austrian master stonemason and sculptor of historicism († 1850 )
- Bennett C. Riley , American officer († 1853 )
- Tamenaga Shunsui , Japanese writer († 1844 )
- Johann Nepomuk Tröndlin , German piano maker († 1862 )
- Wilhelm Würfel , Czech, composer, organist, pianist and music teacher († 1832 )
First half of the year
- January 5 : Jacob Christian Schäffer , German Protestant superintendent (* 1718 )
- January 7th : Johann Karl Götzinger , German Lutheran theologian (* 1731 )
- January 30th : Jacques-André Mallet , Swiss mathematician and astronomer (* 1740 )
- February 2 : Friedrich Wolfgang Reiz , German classical philologist (* 1733 )
- February 3 : Johann Bernhard Hermann , intellectual of the 18th century (* 1761 )
- February 5 : William Cullen , Scottish medic and chemist (* 1710 )
- March 5 : Flora MacDonald , wife of the Jacobites as a heroine (* 1722 )
- March 12 : William Grayson , American politician (* 1736 )
- March 16 : Wilhelm Heinrich Schultze , German Protestant clergyman (* 1724 )
- March 17 : Benjamin Wilhelm Daniel Schulze , German educator and philologist (* 1715 )
- March 23 : Georg Christian Crollius , German historian (* 1728 )
- March 30th : Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1713 )
- April 6 : Louis IX. , Hessian-Darmstadt Landgrave (* 1719 )
- April 9 : Nicolas-Sylvestre Bergier , French theologian and apologist (* 1718 )
- April 17 : Benjamin Franklin , American scientist and politician (* 1706 )
- April 29 : Charles-Nicolas Cochin the Younger , French engraver and etcher (* 1715 )
- April 29th : Samuel Heinicke , educator and "inventor" of the German method of deaf education (* 1727 )
- May 2nd : Philipp Matthäus Hahn , German pastor, designer and inventor (* 1739 )
- May 3 : Johann Jakob Hemmer , meteorologist, physicist and linguist (* 1733 )
- May 9 : Johann Friedrich Brandis , German lawyer and university professor (* 1760 )
- May 20 : Nathan Miller , American politician (* 1743 )
- May 24th : François-Henri Clicquot , French organ builder (* 1732 )
- May 29 : Israel Putnam , British officer and American general in the War of Independence (* 1718 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Johann Gerhard Gruner , German lawyer and historian (* 1734)
- July 7th : Frans Hemsterhuis , Dutch philosopher (* 1721 )
- July 10 : Johann Georg Pfranger , German Protestant clergyman (* 1745 )
- July 11 : Carl Gottlieb Strauss , German Protestant clergyman and educator (* 1743 )
- July 14th : Gideon Ernst von Laudon , Austrian general (* 1717 )
- July 17th : Adam Smith , Scottish economist (* 1723 )
- July 24th : Johann Friedrich Hiller , German educator, rhetorician and philosopher. (* 1718 )
- July 25 : Johann Bernhard Basedow , German pedagogue and writer (* 1724 )
- September 1 : Adrian Andreas Pfannenschmidt , German entrepreneur (* 1724 )
- September 2nd : Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim , advocate of church freedom (* 1701 )
- September 5 : Martin Crugot , German Protestant clergyman (* 1725 )
- September 27 : Johann Jacob Sartorius , German Protestant clergyman and educator (* 1730 )
- September 28 : Nikolaus I. Joseph Prince Esterházy , Field Marshal (* 1714 )
- October 5 : Christian David Jani , German philologist and educator (* 1743 )
- October 11th : Marmaduke Tunstall , English ornithologist and collector (* 1743 )
- October 26 : Ferdinand von Meggenhofen , civil servant and member of the Illuminati Order (* 1760 )
- October 30 : Karai Senryū , Japanese poet (* 1718 )
- November 11th : Nikolaus von Pacassi , Austrian architect (* 1716 )
- November 22nd : Larcum Kendall , British watchmaker (* 1719 )
- November 24th : Robert Henry , Scottish historian (* 1718 )
- December 16 : Ludwig August Lebrun , German oboist and composer (* 1752 )
- December 25th : Johann Gottfried Heinitz , German pedagogue and hymn poet (* 1712 )