Calendar overview 1716
Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I
give the Russian Tsar Peter I the Amber Room .
Charles III Philipp becomes Count Palatine
and Elector of the Electoral Palatinate .
Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg
becomes Archbishop and
Elector of Trier .
|1716 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1164/65 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1708/09 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1121/22 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2259/60 (southern Buddhism); 2258/59 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1078/79 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4049/50 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||1128/29 (turn of the year December 15/16)|
|Jewish calendar||5476/77 (September 16-17)|
|Coptic calendar||1432/33 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2026/27 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2027/28 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1772/73 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- March 8 : Charles XII. of Sweden invades Norway in the Great Northern War with a 7,000-strong army , occupies the capital Christiania , and besieges the Akershus fortress . The Norwegian army uses scorched earth tactics, which Charles XII. forces his army to move from Christiania to southeastern Norway.
- April 19 : Karl Leopold , Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin , marries the Russian czar's niece Katharina Ivanovna in Danzig . The Treaty of Danzig with Tsar Peter I of Russia guarantees the Duke and his successors Russia's military support. Russia receives the right to build military bases in the duchy and to station troops there.
- April 19 : The Pomeranian campaign of the Prussian, Saxon and Russian allies in 1715/1716 comes to an end with the conquest of Wismar , Sweden loses the city , which has been besieged since the previous year, as the last base in the Holy Roman Empire. The fortress is then razed.
- July 4th : The attack on Frederikshald by Charles XII. is repulsed by Danish-Norwegian troops.
- July 8 : In a sea battle in the Dynekilen Fjord , a weak Danish-Norwegian naval command under Captain Peter Wessel Tordenskiold defeated an equally weak Swedish command under Schoutby Night Olof Strömstierna in the Dynekilenfjord on the west coast of Sweden. The Swedish command has escorted Swedish transport ships carrying troops and siege artillery from Gothenburg in Sweden to Fredrikstad in Norway. The whole Swedish transport fleet is captured or destroyed, so that King Charles XII. is forced to abandon his Norwegian campaign and withdraw his army from Norway.
- February: After a few fighting, the Tarnogród Confederation formed by the Polish aristocracy under the leadership of Stanisław Ledóchowski asks the Russian Tsar Peter I to mediate between the confederation and the Polish King August II .
- In April the Tsar travels to Gdansk , and negotiations begin in Lublin in July . These are interrupted when the Confederation conquers Poznan .
- Mid-August: August II personally asks Tsar Peter for military assistance against the Confederation. As a result, Russian troops march into Poland .
- October: New negotiations begin in Warsaw .
- November 3 : The Tarnogród Confederation and August II conclude a peace treaty in Warsaw.
Holy Roman Empire
- June 8th : After the death of Johann Wilhelm , his brother Karl III. Philipp new Elector of the Electoral Palatinate and Duke of Pfalz-Neuburg as well as of Jülich and Berg .
- Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg becomes Archbishop of Trier and at the same time elector. He succeeds Charles III, who died the previous year . Joseph of Lorraine . Thus the Wittelsbachers provide four of the nine electors (Palatinate, Bavaria, Cologne and Trier) for a few years.
Venetian-Austrian Turkish War
- Citing the Holy League of 1684 , Venice , which in the previous year lost all of its possessions in the Peloponnese to the advancing Ottomans , urges the Habsburgs to intervene in the war. Emperor Charles VI. , whose army and finances have not yet recovered from the War of the Spanish Succession , but hesitates. Only when Pope Clement XI. Providing funds and obtaining a guarantee from France , the arch enemy of the Habsburgs , for their possessions in Italy, Charles renews the alliance with Venice on April 13th . The Ottoman Empire then declares war on Austria .
- July 25th : The Ottomans land near Corfu and begin the siege of the island.
- July: An Ottoman armed force, whose strength is estimated at 200,000 men, moves towards the fortress Peterwardein on the Danube.
- August 2nd : In the Venetian-Austrian Turkish War , there are battles between the imperial vanguard and Turkish horsemen.
- August 5th : Prince Eugene of Savoy achieves a crushing victory over the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Peterwardein . In honor of this victory, the Pope rings all the bells of Rome and sends the prince a consecrated hat and sword, while the Reichstag grants the emperor additional Turkish taxes .
- Then Prince Eugene wants to strategically exploit his victory. His river flotilla, however, is not sufficient for a siege of the Belgrade fortress, which is located between the Danube and the Sava . So he decided to attack the Temesvár fortress , the center of the Banat . The siege, which began in August, ends in October with the surrender of the crew, who are granted free retreat. With the handover of Temesvár, 164 years of Turkish sovereignty over the Banat, the last region of the old Kingdom of Hungary , which was still held by the Ottomans, ended.
- 18 / August 20 : The Venetian Field Marshal Matthias Johann von der Schulenburg defeated the Ottomans in Corfu , which then break off the siege of the island. He then conquered the fortress of Butrinto and the island of Santa Maura .
- February 4th : After the Jacobite revolt in Scotland collapsed, their leaders John Erskine, 23rd Earl of Mar , and James Francis Edward Stuart , the Old Pretender , fled to France.
- May: With the Septennial Act 1716 , the Whigs- dominated British Parliament extended its term of office from a maximum of three to a maximum of seven years.
- November 1 : As a result of the Jacobites -Aufstände is in the Kingdom of disarming act enacted. It prohibits the possession, carrying and use of weapons in certain parts of Scotland . However, the law is ineffective.
- A law in South Carolina forces planters to import one white servant for every ten slaves . As an incentive, the planters are to receive a bonus of £ 25 for each imported white servant. The background to the law is the legislature's concern about possible slave revolts.
- The Natchez's first war against the French is resolved through negotiation.
- The Yamasee War between Carolina Province and several Indian tribes continues. The Cherokee side with the province.
- February 19 : David III. the Solomonic dynasty becomes negus of Ethiopia , after presumably strangling his predecessor Yostos, who had been paralyzed since the previous year . In March he had three missionaries of the Franciscan Order from Gonder stoned when they refused to take part in the Ethiopian Eucharist.
- June 19 : Tokugawa Ietsugu , the seventh Shogun of the Edo period in Japan , dies at the age of seven . His successor Tokugawa Yoshimune is chosen from the Kii line of the family.
- The Scottish economist John Law , with the approval of the French regent, founds the Banque Generale in Paris and issues loans on paper money basis . The bank is private, but three quarters of its capital is raised from - largely worthless - government bonds . Despite the initial undercapitalization, it is slowly gaining public confidence and its notes are accepted as means of payment.
- The Ruhrort magistrate decides to build a port, the nucleus of today's Duisburg-Ruhrorter ports .
- Johann Georg Katz builds a sawmill in Weisenbach in Baden .
science and technology
- Emperor Charles VI. founds a mountain school in Ostrava , from which the Technical University of Ostrava developed over the decades .
- After about six years of work, the Kangxi dictionary of the Qing dynasty is completed in China . This reduces the number of radicals to 214 .
- January 2nd : The founding decree on the Spanish National Library is only now being announced. She has to founded by King Philip V in the year 1712 included the activities.
- January 19th : The church cantata Mein Gott, how long, oh long? by Johann Sebastian Bach has its world premiere in the castle church of Weimar. The cantata text comes from the Weimar court poet Salomon Franck .
- April 30th : The opera house in front of the Salztor in Naumburg (Saale) is completely destroyed by fire and then not rebuilt.
- November: The oratorio Juditha triumphans devicta Holofernis barbarie by Antonio Vivaldi is premiered by the orchestra and choir of the Ospedale della Pietà in Venice. Vivaldi's only oratorio preserved today was commissioned by the Republic of Venice to celebrate the victory against the Turks at the siege of Corfu in the same year. The libretto is by Iacopo Cassetti .
- After two years construction work is Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt , the commissioned by Prince Eugene of Savoy built Lower Belvedere outside Vienna's city walls finished.
Society, religion and sport
- December 10th : Six Sorbian Protestant theology students from Upper Lusatia found the Wendish Preachers College at the University of Leipzig . The aim is to work out sermons in their mother tongue and to present them to each other in order to prepare for their later work in Sorbian-speaking congregations.
- The Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I gives the Russian Tsar Peter I the Amber Room designed by Andreas Schlueter . In return, he receives " Lange Kerls " for his bodyguard. Peter's daughter Elisabeth has the room expanded and initially installed in the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg .
- The first curling club is founded in Kilsyth , Scotland . The stones at this point are mostly untreated, flat stones that can be found in rivers.
First half of the year
- 11 January : Edmund Sheffield, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Normanby , British nobleman († 1735 )
- January 12 : Antonio de Ulloa , Spanish scholar and admiral († 1795 )
- January 14 : Franz Dionys von Rost , Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Chur († 1793 )
- January 19 : Johann Friedrich Esaias Steffens , German Protestant theologian († 1802 )
- January 20 : Charles III. , King of Spain († 1788 )
- January 26 : George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville , British soldier and politician († 1785 )
- January 30 : Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz , Swedish architect († 1796 )
- February 10 : Johann Daniel Müller , German violinist, violist, concert director and radical pietist author
- March 2 : Itō Jakuchū , Japanese painter († 1800 )
- March 5 : Nikolaus von Pacassi , Austrian architect († 1790 )
- March 5 : Catherine Théot , French mystic († 1794 )
- March 13 : Philippine Charlotte of Prussia , Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and Duchess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel († 1801 )
- March 16 : Eberhard Heinrich Daniel Stosch , German Reformed theologian († 1781 )
- March 20 : Guillaume Coustou the Younger , French sculptor († 1777 )
- March 21 : Josef Seger , Bohemian organist and composer († 1782 )
- March 25 : Alexei Petrovich Antropov , Russian painter, court painter to Peter III. and Catherine the Great († 1795 )
- April 9 : Johann Georg Zechner , Austrian organist and composer († 1778 )
- April 13 : Leopold Johann of Austria , Archduke of Austria, last born male descendant from the House of Habsburg († 1716)
- May 3 : Franz Anton Zeiller , Austrian painter († 1794 )
- May 18 : Franz Ludwig Pfyffer , Swiss politician and cartographer († 1802 )
- May 21 (baptized): Gottlieb Benedict Zemisch , German tobacco merchant and art patron in Leipzig († 1789 )
- May 24 : Johann Matthias von Bernuth , German civil servant († 1797 )
- May 25 : Georg Abbt , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1757 )
- May 29 : Louis Jean-Marie Daubenton , French doctor and naturalist († 1799 )
- May 29 : Ernst Ludwig Pauli , German Protestant theologian († 1783 )
- May 31 : Georg Hermann Richerz , German Lutheran clergyman († 1767 )
- June 11 : Otto von Münchhausen , German botanist († 1774 )
- June 13 : Albert Schulte , Mayor of Hamburg († 1786 )
- June 18 : Carl Edzard , Prince of East Friesland († 1744 )
- June 27 : Louise Diane d'Orléans , Princess of Conti († 1736 )
- June 29 : Joseph Stepling , German-Bohemian scholar († 1778 )
Second half of the year
- July 3 : Philipp Gotthard von Schaffgotsch , Prince-Bishop of Breslau († 1795 )
- August 10 : Eugenios Voulgaris , Greek monk, theologian, philosopher and writer († 1806 )
- August 12 : Johann Jakob Simmler , Swiss Protestant clergyman and church historian († 1788 )
- August 24 : Johann Friedrich Heintzmann , master builder and miner from Wernigerode († 1764 )
- November 19 : Ernst Daniel Adami , German Kapellmeister, organist, music teacher, writer, choir director, teacher and theologian († 1795 )
- November 24th : Philipp Ernst Kern , General Superintendent in Hildburghausen († 1776 )
- November 27 : Louise-Henriette Volland , French intellectual, lover of the philosopher Denis Diderot († 1784 )
- December 1 : Étienne-Maurice Falconet , French sculptor († 1791 )
- December 7th : Heinrich Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode , German politician, canon, provost and poet of numerous hymns († 1778 )
- December 12th : Leopoldine Marie von Anhalt-Dessau , Margravine of Brandenburg-Schwedt († 1782 )
- December 15 : Sabine Elisabeth Oelgard von Bassewitz , German writer († 1790 )
- December 16 : Louis-Jules Mancini-Mazarini , French politician and writer († 1798 )
- December 25 : Johann Jacob Reiske , German founder of Arabic studies as a sovereign science († 1774 )
- December 26th : Thomas Gray , English poet and scholar († 1771 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ludwig von Angelelli de Malvezzi , Prussian major general († 1797 )
- Charles-Louis d'Authville Des Amourettes , French military, author and encyclopedia († 1762 )
- Yosa Buson , Japanese poet and painter († 1784 )
- Yuan Mei , Chinese poet and gourmet († 1797 )
January to April
- January 1 : William Wycherley , English playwright (* 1640 )
- January 2nd : Michelangelo Fardella , Sicilian scholar (* 1650 )
- January 8 : Franz Ernst von Hessen-Darmstadt , German nobleman (* 1695 )
- January 11th : Marfa Matwejewna Apraxina , Tsarina of Russia (* 1664 )
- January 30th : Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien , French nobleman, Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania (* 1641 )
- February 2 : Juan Domingo de Zuñiga y Fonseca , governor of the Spanish Netherlands (* 1640 )
- February 3 : Giuseppe Alberti , Italian painter and sculptor (* 1640 )
- after February 8: Christoph von Rappe , Courland-Polish general
- February 13 : Georg Albrecht Hamberger , German mathematician and physicist (* 1662 )
- February 19 : Dorothe Engelbretsdatter , Norwegian poet (* 1634 )
- February 19 : Yostos , Emperor of Ethiopia
- February 23 : Maria Anna von Thun and Hohenstein , Princess of Liechtenstein (* 1698 )
- March 3 : Liberat Weiß , missionary of the Franciscan Order in Ethiopia and Catholic martyr (* 1675 )
- March 10 : Wenzel Ludwig von Radolt , Austrian nobleman, composer and lutenist (* 1667 )
- March 15 : Franz Ferdinand von Rummel , Prince-Bishop of the Diocese of Vienna (* 1644 )
- March 19 : Dietrich von Brömbsen , councilor of Lübeck (* 1653 )
- March 26 : Johann Friedrich Gleditsch , German publisher and bookseller (* 1653 )
- April 6 : Johann Heinrich Hoffmann , German astronomer (* 1669 )
- April 9 : Andreas Wolff , German painter (* 1652 )
- April 10 : Samuel Faber , Nuremberg theologian and poet (* 1657 )
- April 11 : Christian Knaut , German doctor, botanist and librarian (* 1656 )
- April 11 : Leo Ulfeldt , Danish nobleman, Austrian field marshal and viceroy of Catalonia (* 1651 )
- April 13 : Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington , English peer and politician (* 1647 )
- April 13 : Johann Jakob Müller , German moral philosopher (* 1650 )
- April 21 : Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce , French officer and traveler in the French colonies of North America (* 1666 )
- April 27 : Ferdinand Karl Weinhart , Austrian physician and university professor, personal physician to Joseph I and Charles VI. (* 1654 )
- April 28 : Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort , French people's missionary, writer and founder of an order (* 1673 )
May to August
- May 5 : Paolo Pagani , Italian painter (* 1655 )
- May 11 : Franz de Hieronymo , Italian Jesuit and people's missionary, saint of the Roman Catholic Church (* 1642 )
- May 17th : Joan Corver , Regent of Amsterdam (* 1628 )
- May 29 : Carl Piper , Swedish statesman (* 1647 )
- June 2 : Ogata Kōrin , Japanese painter and lacquer artist (* 1658 )
- June 5 : Roger Cotes , English mathematician (* 1682 )
- June 8th : Johann Wilhelm , Count Palatine and Elector Palatinate, Duke of Jülich and Berg and Arch-Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire (* 1658 )
- June 19 : Tokugawa Ietsugu , 7th Shogun of the Edo period in Japan (* 1709 )
- June 24th : Hans Rudolf Tschudi , Swiss pastor in Wartau, Canton St. Gallen (* 1641 )
- July 15 : Gaetano Veneziano , Italian composer and conductor (* 1656 )
- July 20 : Sigismund Christoph von Herberstein , Bishop of Laibach (* 1644 )
- July 20 : Diederik van Veldhuyzen , Utrecht aristocrat and politician (* 1651 )
- July 24th : Johann Georg Haresleben , Austrian sculptor from Eggenburg, Lower Austria (* 1671 )
- July 26 : Paolo Alessandro Maffei , Italian writer and antiquarian (* 1653 )
- August 3 : Sebastián Durón , Spanish organist and composer (* 1660 )
- August 6 : Friedrich August , Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt (* 1654 )
- August 20 : Brand Westermann , German builder (* 1646 )
September to December
- September 1 : Heinrich Meißner , Hamburg mathematician and founder of the Mathematical Society in Hamburg (* 1644 )
- September 25 : Johann Christoph Pez , German composer and Kapellmeister (* 1664 )
- September 26th : Antoine Parent , French mathematician (* 1666 )
- September 30th : Heinrich Georg Neuss , German hymn poet (* 1654 )
- October 1 : Giovanni Battista Bassani , Italian violinist and composer (* around 1647 )
- October 6th : Johann David Feyerabend , Mayor of the Imperial City of Heilbronn (* 1643 )
- October 10 : Anton Egon , Imperial Prince and Prince Landgrave of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg (* 1656 )
- October 15 : Jakob Gronovius , German-Dutch classical philologist, archaeologist, historian and geographer (* 1645 )
- October 17th : Anne Hamilton, 3rd Duchess of Hamilton , Scottish noblewoman (* 1632 )
- November 2 : Engelbert Kaempfer , German doctor and research traveler, trade representative on behalf of the Swedish king (* 1651 )
- November 3 : Johann Joseph Ignaz Loew von Erlsfeld , German-Bohemian lawyer (* 1673 )
- November 4th : Leopold Johann of Austria , Archduke of Austria, last born male descendant from the House of Habsburg (* 1716)
- November 4 : Giovanni Simonetti , master builder and plasterer from Graubünden in Brandenburg (* 1652 )
- November 14 : Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , German philosopher and polymath (* 1646 )
- November: Johann Egidius Bach , violist and alto in the Stadtmusikanten-Kompagnie in Erfurt (* 1645 )
- December 6th : Benedictus a Sancto Josepho , Dutch composer (* around 1642 )
- December 9th : Friedrich Aly , Ottoman soldier, Chamberlain at the court of Elector Friedrich III. of Brandenburg (* around 1666 )
- December 13 : Charles de La Fosse , French painter (* 1636 )
- December 18 : Jan van Cleef , Dutch painter (* 1646 )
- December 18 : Thomas von Wickede , Mayor of Lübeck (* 1646 )
- December 20 : Anton Günther II , Prince of Schwarzburg, Count of Hohnstein, Lord of Sondershausen, Arnstadt and Leutenberg (* 1653 )
- December 20 : Susanna Maria von Sandrart , Nuremberg illustrator and copperplate engraver (* 1658 )
- December 22nd : Tobias Reimers , German lawyer and mayor of Lüneburg (* 1653 )
- December: Pierre Tabart , French composer (* 1645 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Diedrich Baedeker , German printer and publisher (* 1680 )
- Pietro Guerrini , Florentine draftsman, technician and spy (* 1651 )
- Na'īmā , Ottoman administrator, historian and author (* around 1655 )