Calendar overview 1655
the successful defense of Jasna Gora
against the attacking Sweden in the Second Northern War .
|Christoffer von Gabel receives the Faroe Islands as a fief, and that is where the fork period begins .||William Penn conquer Jamaica in the Anglo-Spanish War .|
|1655 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1103/04 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1647/48 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1060/61 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2198/99 (southern Buddhism); 2197/98 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1017/18 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3988/89 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1065/66 (October 30/31)|
|Jewish calendar||5415/16 (October 1-2)|
|Coptic calendar||1371/72 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1965/66 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1966/67 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1711/12 (April)|
Politics and world events
- Oliver Cromwell tries to take advantage of the Franco-Spanish War , which has been going on since 1635 . In Operation Western Design , England plans to conquer the Spanish colonies of Hispaniola and Cuba.
- England begins the Anglo-Spanish War with a naval blockade of Cádiz and an attack on Spain's silver fleet .
- May 10th : Jamaica is conquered by the English, while the planned conquest of Hispaniola and Cuba fails.
Northern, Central and Eastern Europe
- July 1 : Beginning of the Second Northern War between Poland-Lithuania , Sweden and Russia for supremacy in the Baltic States
- July 3 : In the Russo-Polish War , the Russians take Vilnius .
- October 20 : The Union of Kėdainiai between the Lithuanian aristocrats Janusz Radziwiłł and Bogusław Radziwiłł and the representative of Sweden, Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie , effectively places the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, oppressed by the troops of Russian Tsar Alexei in the east, under the protectorate of the Kingdom of Sweden .
- November 18 to December 27 : The siege of Jasna Góra ends in failure for the attacking Swedes.
- December 29th / 31st : Tyszowce Confederation
- Johann Heinrich Waser , Mayor of Zurich, designed the federal project from 1655 for the Swiss Confederation, which was rejected by the Catholic communities.
- The Peach Tree War between Wappinger - Indians from the tribe of the Lenni Lenape and Dutch settlers in the colony Nieuw Nederland starts.
- September: Dutch colonists from Nieuw Nederland under Petrus Stuyvesant conquer Fort Casimir from the Swedes. The Swedish colony Nya Sverige , founded in 1638 , ceases to exist.
- February 27th : At the southernmost point of Norway the first beacon is lit in the lighthouse Lindesnes fyr . The light from thirty candles behind leaded glass windows on a wooden tower should provide orientation for ships.
- The Waldglashütte am Lakenborn is founded.
science and technology
- March 25th : Christiaan Huygens discovers the Saturn moon Titan with a telescope he and his brother Constantijn made themselves .
- October 14 : The University of Duisburg , founded in the previous year by Elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg , begins teaching after a ceremonial opening in the presence of Prince Johann Moritz von Nassau-Siegen , the governor of the Elector of Brandenburg in the Duchy of Kleve . The university has four faculties: one theological, one legal, one medical and one philosophical and is therefore a fully developed university for the time. The founding rector is the professor of theology and philosophy Johannes Clauberg .
- The handicapped Nuremberg watchmaker Stephan Farfler invents the wheelchair .
- The English war and flagship Naseby is built. It is considered to be the prototype of the warship for the next 150 years.
- May 27 : Alfonso IV. D'Este , Duke of Modena , marries Laura Martinozzi , a niece of the French minister Jules Mazarin , by procuration .
- April 7th : After the death of Pope Innocent X on January 7th, the conclave needed almost three months to elect a pope. After a bitter dispute, 63 of the 64 cardinals present finally elect Fabio Chigi as the new Pope . He takes the name Alexander VII and declares himself an opponent of nepotism , a point of view that he adheres to in the first year of his reign.
- The first Festival of the Sons of the Clergy is held in England .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 1 : Christian Thomasius , German lawyer and philosopher († 1728 )
- January 6 : Jakob I Bernoulli , Swiss mathematician and physicist († 1705 )
- January 6 : Eleonore Magdalene von Pfalz-Neuburg , Empress of the Holy Roman Empire († 1720 )
- January 25 : Cornelius Anckarstjerna , Swedish admiral and baron († 1714 )
- February 15 : August , Duke of Saxony-Merseburg-Zörbig († 1715 )
- February 25 : Carel de Moor , Dutch painter († 1738 )
- February 28 : Johann Beer , Austrian writer and composer († 1700 )
- April 8th : Ludwig Wilhelm I , the so-called "Türkenlouis", regent of the county of Baden-Baden († 1707 )
- May 4th : Bartolomeo Cristofori , Italian musical instrument maker, inventor of the fortepiano († 1731 )
- May 13 : Michelangelo dei Conti, under the name of Innocent XIII. Pope († 1724 )
Second half of the year
- August 21 : Paul Zeiller , Austrian painter († 1738 )
- 23 August : Philippe de Bourbon , Duke of Vendôme, French general and Grand Prior of the Order of Malta in France († 1727 )
- September 29 : Johann Ferdinand von Auersperg , Prince of Auersperg and Duke of Silesia-Münsterberg († 1705 )
- October 4 : Lothar Franz von Schönborn , Bishop of the Diocese of Bamberg and Archbishop of the Diocese of Mainz († 1729 )
- November 12 : Francis Nicholson , British colonial governor of various American colonies († 1727 )
- November 16 : Alessandro Gherardini , Italian painter († 1726 )
- December 1 : Wolf Christoph Zorn von Plobsheim , German architect († 1721 )
- December 3 : Johann Philipp , regent of the county of Isenburg († 1718 )
- December 4th : Charles XI. , King of Sweden and Duke of Zweibrücken († 1697 )
- December 9 : Georg Thormann , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1708 )
Exact date of birth unknown
First half of the year
- January 1 : Frans Banninck Cocq , Regent of Amsterdam (* 1605 )
- January 7th : Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, Pope Innocent X from 1644 to 1655 (* 1574 )
- January 7th : Laurids Pedersen Thura , Danish orientalist, educator and pastor (* 1598 )
- January 8 : Ludwig Philipp von Pfalz-Simmern , administrator of the Palatinate (* 1602 )
- February 21 : Johann von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , Prince-Bishop of Lübeck (* 1606 )
- February 25 : Daniel Heinsius , scholar of the Dutch Renaissance (* 1580 )
- February 27 : Francesco Molin , 99th Doge of Venice (* 1575 )
- March 12th : Anna Maßmeyer , victim of the witch hunts of the city council of Minden (* 1615 )
- March 28 : Kaspar Friederich , Mayor of St. Gallen (* 1572 )
- April 3 : Andrzej Niżankowski , Polish organist and composer (around 1580)
- April 6 : David Blondel , French Reformed theologian (* 1590 )
- April 30 : Eustache Le Sueur , French painter (* 1616 )
- June 26th : Margaret of Savoy , Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat, Spanish viceroy of Portugal (* 1589 )
- June 27 : Anna Katharina Dorothea von Salm-Kyrburg , Duchess of Württemberg (* 1614 )
- June 27 : Eleonora Gonzaga , youngest daughter of Vincenzo I. Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (* 1598 )
Second half of the year
- July 24th : Friedrich von Logau , German Baroque poet (* 1605 )
- July 28 : Cyrano von Bergerac , French writer (* 1619 )
- September 19 : Francisco López de Zúñiga y Meneses , Spanish officer and governor of Chile (* 1599 )
- October 24th : Pierre Gassendi , French philosopher, theologian, mathematician, astronomer and physicist (* 1592 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Grete Adrian , German farmer and widow, victim of the early modern witch hunt (* around 1610 )
- Pierre de Conty d'Argencour , French fortress builder (* 1575 )
- Hans Herstorffer , master builder for St. Stephan in Vienna
- Sigmund Theophil Gottlieb Staden , German organist, composer, town piper, painter and poet (* 1607 )
- Valentin Wagner , German painter and draftsman (* around 1610 )