Calendar overview 1714
naval battle of Hanko
, the Imperial Russian Navy wins
a victory over Sweden in the Great Northern War .
|George I becomes King of Great Britain and Ireland .||Elisabetta Farnese is her marriage to Philip V Queen of Spain .|
|1714 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1162/63 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1706/07 (New Year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1119/20 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2257/58 (southern Buddhism); 2256/57 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1076/77 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4047/48 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1125/26 (turn of the year 16/17 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5474/75 (9/10 September)|
|Coptic calendar||1430/31 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2024/25 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2025/26 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1770/71 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- February 7th : The siege of Tönning that began last year ends with the surrender of the city by fortress commander Wolf. The Danish winners let the fortress drag and destroy the Tönningen Castle in the process . Denmark annexes the Duchy of Schleswig . Duke Karl Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , who violated his neutrality by accepting Swedish troops, sees his duchy reduced to Holstein-Gottorf.
- February 19 : As a result of the Battle of Storkyro , in which the Russian army under Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn wins, the entire Swedish army under the command of Carl Gustaf Armfelt is destroyed in Finland .
- June 12 : In the Prussian-Russian alliance treaty , Prussia and Russia mutually confirmed their territorial possessions after Sweden's expected defeat in the Great Northern War .
- August 7th : In the naval battle near Hanko , the Imperial Russian Navy under Tsar Peter I and Admiral Fyodor Matwejewitsch Apraxin achieves its first important victory in the Great Northern War. The commander of the opposing Swedes, Nils Ehrenskiöld , is captured.
- August 7th : Heligoland is occupied by Denmark.
- August 9th : With the capture of Nyslott Castle , the conquest of southern Finland by Russia is completed.
- October 1st : The Swedish King Charles XII. leaves Demotika , where he was taken after the scuffle by Bender , to return to Sweden. He gathers his remaining troops in Piteşti in what is now Romania, but then decides to travel home alone in disguise.
- October 27th to November 11th : The violence of Charles XII. from Piteşti to Stralsund ends after 15 days with the arrival of the Swedish king in front of the walls of Stralsund . During this time, he covered around 2,400 kilometers from his exile in the Ottoman Empire to Sweden.
Ottoman Empire / Venice
- December 9th : Alleged illegality of Venetian merchants leads to declaration of war by the Ottoman Empire against the Republic of Venice . However, military operations in the Venetian-Austrian Turkish War did not start until the summer of 1715.
- March 6th : The Peace of Rastatt ends the War of the Spanish Succession between France and Austria . The treaty essentially confirms the previous peace of Utrecht from the previous year, which Charles VI. did not want to accept yet. Breisach am Rhein , Freiburg im Breisgau and Kehl , the Spanish Netherlands , Sardinia and the parts of Italy that formerly belonged to the Spanish crown, including Lombardy with the Duchy of Milan , the Duchy of Mantua and the Kingdom of Naples , fall to Austria . France had to evacuate all conquests, especially those on the right bank of the Rhine, but remained in the possession of the city of Landau in the Palatinate with its fortress . The emperor has to return the French allies , Elector Max II. Emanuel of Bavaria and the Archbishop of Cologne , Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , to their previous status and property. The contract is written in French instead of the traditional Latin . The main reason for this is the low level of trust in the French negotiator Marshal Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars ' own knowledge of Latin , who has a military, but no diplomatic, training. Despite a clause that this should not set a precedent for future international treaties, French subsequently became the language of diplomacy.
- September 7th : The Peace of Baden enables the final end of the War of the Spanish Succession. In it, among other things, the formal agreements with the Holy Roman Empire that are still missing are made.
- September 11th : The siege of Barcelona that began last summer ends with the capture of the city by the Franco-Spanish army. Catalonia will then be firmly integrated into the Spanish state.
- December 23 : After a staged scandal , Elisabetta Farnese , who became Queen of Spain on September 16 through the marriage brokered by Cardinal Giulio Alberoni to King Philip V , who had been widowed since February 14, refers the all-powerful Camarera mayor Marie-Anne de La Trémoille des Landes.
Great Britain and Ireland / Hanover
- August 12 : George I , Duke and Elector in Hanover , is in accordance with the Act of Settlement of 1701 as the next Protestant relative of the successor to the late Queen Anne as King of Great Britain and Ireland . The personal union between Great Britain and Hanover presents the two states with administrative challenges. On August 29, a first ordinance, mainly of a military nature, is issued, which includes the affairs of government in the electorate in the absence of the elector. It forms a first basis for the governance of Hanover from London. The newly established German law firm , headquartered in St James's Palace , under the direction of Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, handles the most important business, as well as the foreign affairs of Kurhano.
- On October 20, George I is crowned at Westminster Abbey . One of his first acts is the dismissal of the Tory cabinet, which he replaces with a Whig government.
- At the Meherrin River in present-day Brunswick County, Virginia is Governor Alexander Spotswood , the Fort Christian Anna built. It serves the settlers, but especially the neighboring Indians, as protection against hostile tribes during the Tuscarora War . Members of the Sioux-speaking Occaneechi , Monacan , Manahoac , Eno , Tutelo and Saponi place themselves under the protection of the fort, while the Iroquois tribes reject the offer of the British .
Caribbean / Indian Ocean
- After the end of the Spanish War of Succession, numerous privateers previously sponsored by one of the warring nations lose their support from these states and from now on operate on their own account. The short-lived golden age of piracy is reaching its climax. The main bases include New Providence in the Bahamas , Madagascar and Mauritius .
- A new Siamese-Cambodian war begins between the Siamese Kingdom of Ayutthaya under Thai Sa and the Khmer Empire .
- During the Edo period in Japan , Arai Hakuseki , the advisor to the four-year-old Shogun Tokugawa Ietsugu , introduced a new metal currency. The falling price of rice lowers the income of the samurai vassals who are paid in rice. In the long term, this weakens the position of the sword nobility in relation to the emerging but despised merchants.
- The Englishman Henry Mill was the first to receive a patent on a typewriter .
science and technology
Natural and geosciences
- Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit from Gdansk introduces the Fahrenheit temperature scale.
- The British Parliament convenes the Board of Longitude . The task of the panel of experts is to issue research contracts and award prizes for the solution of the longitude problem to determine the geographical longitude when determining the position of ships in the open sea in particular. Half of the body consists of mathematicians and astronomers, as well as representatives of the Admiralty, the military navy and merchant shipping, and the other half of parliamentarians and representatives appointed by the Commons.
- The English astronomer Edmond Halley discovered a globular cluster in the constellation Hercules , which later was named Messier 13 .
- In his work Monadology, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz sets out his doctrine of monads in 90 paragraphs .
Teaching and Research
- In Saint Petersburg, a collection of books and manuscripts is being created on behalf of Peter the Great, from which the library of the Russian Academy of Sciences will develop. As a result, all academic institutions are legally obliged to provide the library with copies of their holdings.
- June 3 : The water features created by architect Giovanni Francesco Guerniero in Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe are presented for the first time under Landgrave Karl von Hessen-Kassel .
- Prince Eugene of Savoy commissioned the architect Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt with the construction of a garden palace outside the city walls of Vienna, today 's Belvedere Palace .
- Planning for Tsar Peter's Summer Palace near Saint Petersburg, which was newly founded in 1703, begins.
Music and theater
- January 20th : The world premiere of the opera Amor d'un ombra e gelosia d'un aura (Love of a shadow and jealousy of a dawn) by Domenico Scarlatti takes place in Rome.
- May 13 : The world premiere of the musical drama Pisistrato by Leonardo Leo takes place at the Teatro San Bartolomeo in Naples.
- October 1st : The musical drama Die Oesterreichische Großmuth, or Carolus V. by Reinhard Keizer is premiered at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- October 1st : The world premiere of the opera Dafne in Lauro by Johann Joseph Fux takes place in Vienna.
- October 1st : The world premiere of the opera Arianna e Teseo by Nicola Porpora takes place in Vienna.
Johann Sebastian Bach
- March 2nd : Johann Sebastian Bach is appointed concertmaster in Weimar . With the new office there is the obligation to compose a church cantata every four weeks for the respective Sunday.
- March 19 : After three months of reflection, Bach cancels the offered position as organist at the Marktkirche Unser Lieben Frauen in Halle.
- March 25th : Bach's first commissioned composition Himmelskönig will be performed in the Weimar Castle Church on Palm Sunday . The lyricist is probably Salomon Franck .
- April 22nd : The cantata Weeping, Lamenting, Worrying, Zagen is premiered in the castle church. The text probably comes from Salomon Franck again. The final chorale is the last stanza of the hymn What God does is well done by Samuel Rodigast .
- May 20 : At Pentecost the cantata " Schallet" sounds , you songs, sound, you strings! for the first time.
- July 1st / July 15th : Resist sin has its premiere. The cantata text comes from Georg Christian Lehms from 1711.
- August 12th : Bach also used a template by Georg Christian Lehms for My Heart Swims in Blood .
- December 2 : On the first Sunday of Advent , Johann Sebastian Bach performs his cantata Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland in the castle church in Weimar for the first time. The lyricist Erdmann Neumeister takes over the first stanza of Martin Luther's Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland , the main song of the 1st Advent, for the opening chorus and uses the swan song of the last stanza of Philipp Nicolai's How beautifully the morning star shines as the final chorale . The third sentence contains the request for a “blessed new year”, since the new church year begins on the first Sunday in Advent .
- December 30th : Bach's last church cantata, which will be performed this calendar year, is stepping on the path of faith . Again the text comes from Salomon Franck.
- July 4th : The Florentine scholar and librarian Antonio Magliabechi bequeaths Grand Duke Cosimo III. de 'Medici will use his 30,000-volume book collection as the basis for a public library in Florence. 1714 is considered to be the founding date of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze .
- Tsar Peter I founds the Order of Saint Catherine for Russia . It is said to be a memento of the rescue of Peter and his army from the encirclement by the Turkish army during the Prut campaign of 1711.
- September 14 : The Jewish community in Berlin inaugurates its synagogue in Heidereutergasse after a construction period of over two years . The construction of synagogues was banned in the country until then.
- Johann Philipp von Greiffenclau zu Vollraths , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg , founds the canonical monastery of St. Anna .
First half of the year
- January 1 : Kristijonas Donelaitis , Lithuanian writer († 1780 )
- January 1 : Giovanni Battista Mancini , Italian singer, singing teacher and writer († 1800 )
- January 1 : Anna Morandi Manzolini , Italian anatomist and wax artist († 1774 )
- January 6 : Percivall Pott , British surgeon († 1788 )
- January 13 : Christian Friedrich Polz , German logician and Protestant theologian († 1782 )
- January 26 : Jean-Baptiste Pigalle , French sculptor († 1785 )
- February 2 : Gottfried August Homilius , German composer, cantor and organist († 1785 )
- February 5 : Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch , German botanist and doctor († 1786 )
- February 12 : Sebastian Sailer , German Premonstratensian, preacher and writer († 1777 )
- February 25 : René-Nicolas-Charles-Augustin de Maupeou , Chancellor of France († 1792 )
- February 28 : Gioacchino Conti , also called Gizziello, Italian soprano castrato († 1762 )
- March 8 : Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach , German composer († 1788 )
- March 21 : Georg Heinrich Borz , German mathematician († 1799 )
- March 21 : Dorothea Ritter , childhood friend of Frederick the Great († 1762 )
- March 25 : Friedrich Christian Glume , German sculptor († 1752 )
- March 25 : Matthew Griswold , American politician († 1799 )
- April 15 : Claude Yvon , French theologian and encyclopaedist († 1789 )
- April 25 : Emer de Vattel , Swiss international lawyer († 1767 )
- May 10 : Sophie Charlotte Schröder , German actress († 1792 )
- May 17 : Anna Charlotte of Lorraine , Abbess of Remiremont and Sainte-Waudru and Koadjutrix in the Essen Abbey and the Thorn Imperial Abbey († 1773 )
- June 6 : Joseph I , King of Portugal from the House of Braganza († 1777 )
- June 17 : César François Cassini de Thury , French geographer († 1784 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Christoph Willibald Gluck , German composer († 1787 )
- July 12 : Michael Larionowitsch Voronzow , Russian nobleman and politician († 1767 )
- July 16 : Marc-René de Montalembert , French engineer for weapons technology and fortress construction († 1800 )
- July 17 : Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten , German philosopher († 1762 )
- August 1 : Richard Wilson , Welsh landscape painter († 1782 )
- August 10th : Johann Carl Sigmund Haussdörffer , organ builder from Württemberg († 1767 )
- August 14 : Claude Joseph Vernet , French painter († 1789 )
- August 28 : Anton Ulrich , Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, General of the Russian Army († 1774 )
- September 10 : Niccolò Jommelli , Italian composer († 1774 )
- September 17 : Gottlieb Wilhelm Rabener , German writer and publicist of the Enlightenment († 1771 )
- September 19 : Charles Humphreys , American politician († 1786 )
- September 24 : Alaungpaya , Burmese king and the founder of the Konbaung dynasty († 1760 )
- September 28 : Friederike Luise von Prussia , Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach († 1784 )
- September 29 : Johann Joachim Schwabe , German scholar, librarian, philosopher and translator († 1784 )
- September 30 : Étienne Bonnot de Condillac , French philosopher of the Enlightenment († 1780 )
- October 16 : Giovanni Arduino , Italian geologist († 1795 )
- October 20 : Christoph Anton von Migazzi , Catholic Archbishop and Cardinal († 1803 )
- October 25 : James Burnett, Lord Monboddo , Scottish lawyer and man of letters († 1799 )
- October 26 : Maria Viktoria Pauline von Arenberg , Margravine of Baden-Baden († 1793 )
- November 21 : Georg Andreas Högl , Austrian master stonemason and sculptor, head of the Wiener Bauhütte († 1780 )
- December 16 : George Whitefield , English clergyman and preacher († 1770 )
- December 18 : Nikolaus I. Joseph Esterházy de Galantha , Hungarian prince († 1790 )
- December 23 : Ranieri de 'Calzabigi , Italian poet and librettist († 1795 )
- December 29 : Marie-Anne Botot Dangeville , French actress († 1796 )
Exact date of birth unknown
January to April
- January 3rd : Maria Katharina Strozzi , Austrian nobleman and founder of the Vienna suburb Strozzigrund (* 1633 )
- January 10 : Constantin Ranst , Dutch merchant (* 1635 )
- January 23 : Ernst Detlof von Krassow , Swedish general (* around 1660 )
- February 14 : Clemens Hader gen. Clementino , German-Austrian singer and neuter (* around 1655 )
- February 14 : Maria Luisa Gabriella of Savoy , Queen of Spain (* 1688 )
- February 21 : Eugen Alexander , Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Imperial Postmaster General (* 1652 )
- February 24th : Edmund Andros , English colonial governor (* 1637 )
- March 2 : Philipp Cuno von Bassewitz , Mecklenburg district administrator and provisional officer of the Dobbertin monastery (* 1659 )
- March 3 : Hans Carl von Carlowitz , German cameraman, royal Polish and electoral Saxon chamber and mountain ridge as well as chief miner of the Ore Mountains (* 1645 )
- March 11 : Johanna Vergouwen , Flemish painter (* 1630 )
- March 23 : Bernhard Simon von Kerssenbrock , Lieutenant General Hesse-Kassel (* 1639 )
- March 27th : Anton Ulrich , Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* 1633 )
- March 27 : Charlotte Amalie of Hessen-Kassel , Queen of Denmark (* 1650 )
- April 11 : Christoph Gerke , Mayor and chronicler of the city of Braunschweig (* 1628 )
- April 15 : Esther Schulhoff , German-Jewish entrepreneur, mint master and owner of the coin shelf of Brandenburg and Prussia (* 1649 )
- April 17 : Philipp Heinrich Erlebach , German composer (* 1657 )
- April 17th : Haquin Spegel , Swedish Lutheran theologian and poet, Archbishop of Uppsala (* 1645 )
- April 21 : Cornelius Anckarstjerna , Swedish admiral and baron (* 1655 )
- April 21 : Wassili Wassiljewitsch Golitsyn , Russian politician (* around 1644 )
- April 27 : Vincenzo Gonzaga , Duke of Guastalla, Lord of Bozzolo and Pomponesco and Sabbioneta (* 1634 )
- April 29th : Antonio Riva , master builder from Graubünden (* 1650 )
- April 29th : Dietrich Joseph Speckhewer , Mayor of the Imperial City of Aachen (* 1659 )
May to August
- May 4 : Charles de Bourbon , Duke of Berry, Count of Ponthieu, Duke of Alençon and Duke of Angoulême, Prince of France (* 1686 )
- May 5 : Christian Maximilian Spener , German medic, heraldist and genealogist (* 1678 )
- May 15 : Jörg Hofmann , carpenter and wood carver from the Mainland (* around 1660 )
- May 18 : Ivan Fedosejewitsch Bozis , Russian admiral and one of the founders of the Imperial Russian Navy
- May 30th : Gottfried Arnold , German theologian, did a great job writing church history (* 1666 )
- June 8th : Sophie von der Pfalz , Electress of Hanover (* 1630 )
- June 19 : Christian Juncker , Saxon historiographer and writer (* 1668 )
- June 20 : Maria Anna Mancini , Duchess of Bouillon (* 1649 )
- June 22 : Matthew Henry , Presbyterian pastor and Bible commentator (* 1662 )
- before June 23: Andreas Schlüter , German sculptor and architect (* 1659 or 1660 )
- July 3 : Paolo Amato , Sicilian architect (* 1634 )
- July 4th : Antonio Magliabechi , Florentine scholar, bibliophile and librarian (* 1633 )
- before July 28th: Thomas Thynne, 1st Viscount Weymouth , English nobleman and politician (* 1640 )
- August 1st : Elias Meniates , university professor in Venice and Archbishop of Kernike and Kalavryta (* 1669 )
- August 1 : Anne , Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (* 1665 )
- August 15 : Constantin Brâncoveanu , Prince of Wallachia (* 1654 )
- August 15 : Anna Mons , Westphalian lover of Peter the Great (* 1672 )
- August 20 : Cristóbal de Villalpando , New Spanish painter (* 1649 )
- August 21 : Georg Beyer , German lawyer and law teacher (* 1665 )
- August 30 : Johannes Andreas Planer , German mathematician (* around 1665 )
September to December
- September 3 : Pietro Antonio Fiocco , Venetian composer and conductor in the Habsburg Netherlands (* 1654 )
- September 9 : Johannes Riemer , German writer and theologian (* 1648 )
- September 9 : Heinrich Günther von Thulemeyer , German lawyer, historian and polyhistor (* 1642 )
- September 11th : Johann Ludolph Quenstedt , bookseller and first Lord Mayor of Wittenberg (* 1663 )
- September 20 : Detlev Siegfried von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Brodau and Royal District Administrator (* 1658 )
- September 20 : Anna Waser , Swiss painter and etcher (* 1678 )
- September 22nd : Lorenzo Piccolomini , Duke of Amalfi, imperial prince and landlord of the East Bohemian rule Nachod (* 1656 )
- September 27th : Thomas Britton , English coal merchant and amateur musician (* 1644 )
- October 4 : Peter Strudel , Austrian sculptor and painter (* 1660 )
- October 5 : Kaibara Ekiken , Japanese Neo-Confucian and naturalist (* 1630 )
- October 6 : Adalbert von Schleifras , Prince Abbot of Fulda (* 1650 )
- October 18 : Takemoto Gidayū , Japanese Jōruri singer, founder of a Bunraku theater and founder of the musical style named after him, Gidayū-bushi (* 1651 )
- October 23 : Philip Wilhelm von Hornick , German-Austrian economist and camerawoman (* 1640 )
- October 25 : Sébastien Le Clerc , Lorraine etcher and engraver (* 1637 )
- November 2 : Giuseppe Passeri , Roman architect, church painter and portraitist (* 1654 )
- November 16 : Alexander Benedikt Sobieski , Polish prince (* 1677 )
- November 30th : Jakob Engel , master builder from Graubünden (* 1632 )
- November 30th : Guillaume-Gabriel Nivers , French organist, composer and music theorist (* around 1632 )
- December 10 : Anton Günther , Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and Prussian Lieutenant General (* 1653 )
- December 19 : Johann von Reutern , councilor in Riga (* 1666 )
- December 19 : Johann Stridbeck the Younger , German draftsman, engraver and publisher (* 1665 )
- December 31 : Johann Karl Naeve , German legal scholar (* around 1650 )