Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly
dies of a
gunshot wound after the
Battle of Rain am Lech .
|Gottfried Heinrich zu Pappenheim dies of a gunshot wound after the battle of Lützen .|
|Gustav II Adolf wins and falls in the battle of Lützen .|
|1632 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1080/81 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1624/25 (10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1037/38 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2175/76 (southern Buddhism); 2174/75 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||994/995 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3965/66 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1010/11 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1041/42 (July 18-19)|
|Jewish calendar||5392/93 (September 15/16)|
|Coptic calendar||1348/49 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1942/43 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1943/44 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1688/89 (April)|
Politics and world events
Thirty Years War / Eighty Years War
- March 9th : Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly wins the Battle of Bamberg over the Swedes.
- March 16 : Siege of Donauwörth by Swedish troops.
- April 14 : Emperor Ferdinand II reappoints Wallenstein in Göllersdorf as commander-in-chief of the imperial troops with extensive powers, including the power to conduct diplomatic negotiations independently.
- April 15 : In the Battle of Rain am Lech , the Swedes under King Gustav II Adolf defeat the troops of the Catholic League during the Thirty Years' War . Their general Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly died 15 days later in Ingolstadt from a gunshot wound in the thigh sustained in battle. The attempt of Sweden to conquer Ingolstadt is, however, repulsed by the Imperial where the king's war horse was shot "under the butt." The attackers then turn south and threaten Munich. Elector Maximilian of Bavaria has to flee.
- May 14th : Johann von Werth defeated the Swedes in a battle near Landshut .
- May 25 : Wallenstein occupies Prague .
- June 5th : The Ehrenbreitstein fortress near Koblenz is occupied by French troops.
- July 20 : Swedish and Imperial troops face each other in Wiesloch and deliver their first battles.
- July 27 : Archduke Leopold Wilhelm successfully defends Ehrenberg Fortress near Reutte ( Tyrol ) against the Swedes under Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar .
- August 16 : In the Battle of Wiesloch , the Swedes under Gustaf Graf Horn defeat the imperial under Ernesto Montecuccoli .
- June 19 to August 22 : Friedrich Heinrich of Orange besieges and conquers the city of Maastricht from the Spaniards in the Eighty Years War .
- August 17 : Gottfried Heinrich zu Pappenheim's troops fail in the Thirty Years' War with an assault on the besiegers of the city of Maastricht in the Spanish Netherlands against Dutch soldiers. The imperial general, lured by a high reward promised by the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain , retreats to the Saale and plundered after the failure .
- September 3 : In the Battle of the Alte Veste near Nuremberg , during the Thirty Years' War, the imperial mercenaries under the command of Wallenstein inflict the first defeat on the Swedish troops under King Gustav Adolf .
- September 20 : Catholic farmers from Solothurn defeat the Reformed city of Bern in the Kluser Handel .
- The Marchland peasant movement , a peasant war under the leadership of Martin Aichinger , known as Laimbauer, begins in the Riedmark . It lasted until 1636 . On October 22nd, the captain of the land ob der Enns instructs the mayor and the council of the city of Freistadt to get hold of the Laim farmer and bring him to Linz , which does not succeed.
- November 16 : Thirty Years War : Swedish and imperial troops clash in the Battle of Lützen . King Gustav II Adolf is killed in action. Wallenstein's commander Gottfried Heinrich zu Pappenheim died of a gunshot wound the following day.
- November 16 : Gustav Adolf's six-year-old daughter Christina becomes queen in Sweden . Axel Oxenstierna takes over the political leadership for the minor queen .
- December 21 : The Swedes under Wolf Heinrich von Baudissin occupy Cologne-Deutz , but leave the next day because of the great resistance.
- December 30th : Freiburg im Breisgau is taken by Swedish troops.
Other events in Europe
- April 30th : Sigismund III. Wasa , King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania , dies. His son Władysław IV. Wasa is elected as his successor.
- October: The up 1,634 permanent Smolensk war between the Tsardom of Russia and Poland-Lithuania starts with a Russian attack with the voivod Mikhail appearance at the top of the city of Smolensk . The Russian Tsar Michael I uses this in Poland through the death of King Sigismund III. Wasa power vacuum to try to, in violation of the ceasefire Deulino , the 1618 recapture fallen to Poland-Lithuania areas.
- October 30 : In Toulouse is Henri II de Montmorency. Executed. He and Gaston von Orléans , the younger brother of King Louis XIII. , organized a noble uprising in Languedoc against Cardinal Richelieu , but was defeated and captured by royal troops in September. With him the Montmorencys will die out.
- March 29th : In the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , the return of New France from England to France is agreed. Acadia , which the English invaded in 1622 , will also be returned .
- The English colonize the West Indies island of Antigua in the Caribbean and found the city of Saint John’s .
science and technology
- February 22nd : In Florence, Galileo Galilei dedicates the book Dialogo (on the world systems) to Grand Duke Ferdinand II and presents him with the first printed copy.
- The Swedish King Gustav II Adolf founded the Academia Gustaviana in Tartu as part of the Swedish colonial policy after the conquest of Livonia in 1629 .
- Thomas James is continuing the expedition he started the previous year in search of the Northwest Passage in the Arctic Ocean .
On January 16, Rembrandt van Rijn is present at an anatomy lecture given by the physician Nicolaes Tulp , during which he autopsies the body of the executed mugger Adriaan Adriaanszoon . In the course of the year he completed the painting The Anatomy of Dr. Tulip .
The Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens painted the picture The Love Garden around 1632 . Rubens seems to have immortalized himself and his second wife Helene Fourment several times in the oil-on-canvas painting, which was not commissioned .
Literature / music
On the occasion of the inauguration of the Altrossgärtner Church in Königsberg, the Protestant pastor and poet Georg Weissel wrote the poem Power up the door , today one of the most famous ecumenical Advent songs .
- April 21 : The Dordrecht Confession is accepted. With this creed of the Dutch Mennonites , different views of parishes are to be put on a common basis.
- September 6th : The Archdiocese of Baghdad is founded.
- The plague is raging in Central Europe, especially in southern and central Germany.
- January 31st : End of the volcanic eruption of Vesuvius, which killed over 4000 people
First half of the year
- January 8 : Samuel von Pufendorf , German natural law philosopher and historian († 1694 )
- January 29 : Johann Georg Graevius , German classical philologist and text critic († 1703 )
- February 18 : Giovanni Battista Vitali , Italian violinist, singer and composer († 1692 )
- February 21 : Aegidius Strauch , German Lutheran theologian († 1682 )
- May 8 : Heino Heinrich Graf von Flemming , military leader, field marshal and governor of Berlin († 1706 )
- May 15 : Adolf Wilhelm , Duke of Saxony-Eisenach († 1668 )
- Ludolf Hugo , German lawyer and politician († 1704 ) May:
Second half of the year
- August 2 : Kaspar von Stieler , German scholar and linguist († 1707 )
- August 29 : John Locke , English philosopher and thought leader of the Enlightenment († 1704 )
- September 14 : Franz Hyazinth , Duke of Savoy († 1638 )
- September 23 : Augustinus Balthasar , German Protestant theologian († 1688 )
- September 29th : George III. , paraged Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1676 )
- October 4 : Gustav Adolf von der Schulenburg , privy councilor and chamberlain of Kurbrandenburg († 1691 )
- October 17 : Heinrich Ammersbach , German pastor and writer († 1691 )
- October 24th : Antoni van Leeuwenhoek , Dutch naturalist and microscope maker († 1723 )
- October 30 : Christopher Wren , British mathematician and astronomer († 1723 )
- October 31 : Jan Vermeer , Dutch painter († 1675 )
- November 3 : Michael I. Apafi , Prince of Transylvania († 1690 )
- November 23 : Jean Mabillon , founder of the auxiliary historical sciences († 1707 )
- November 24 : Baruch de Spinoza , Dutch philosopher († 1677 )
- November 28 : Jean-Baptiste Lully , French composer of Italian descent († 1687 )
- Philipp Ludwig III. , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg († 1641 ) November:
Exact date of birth unknown
- Thomas de Choisy , French officer and engineer and governor of Saarlouis († 1710 )
- Henry Compton , English bishop († 1713 )
Born around 1632
First half of the year
- January 16 : Antoinette de Pons , French nobleman (* around 1570 )
- January 25 : Maria Andreae , German medicine and healing expert (* 1550 )
- Al-Maqqari , Arab historian (* before 1591) January:
- February 7th : Margarita Gonzaga , Duchess of Lorraine (* 1591 )
- February 10 : Müezzinzade Filibeli Hafız Ahmed Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1564 )
- February 23 : Giambattista Basile , Italian writer and courtier, is widely regarded as Europe's first great storyteller (* 1575 )
- February 26 : Cesare II Gonzaga , Duke of Guastalla and Duke of Amalfi (* 1592 )
- April 30 : Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly , Dutch general in imperial service (* 1559 )
- April 30th : Sigismund III. Wasa , King of Poland (* 1566 )
- May 3 : Johann II. Freiherr von Viermund zu Neersen , German general (* 1588 )
- 10 May : Louis de Marillac , French military leader and statesman, Marshal of France (* 1573 )
- May 10 : Mathias Tinctorius , victim of the witch hunt in Hüfingen (* 1568 )
- June 2 : Ernst Casimir , Count of Nassau-Dietz, governor of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe (* 1573 )
- June 7th : Lavinia della Rovere , Princess of Urbino (* 1558 )
- June 26th : Alexandru Coconul , Voivode of Wallachia
- June 28 : George Calvert Baltimore , English statesman (* 1578 )
Second half of the year
- August 3 : Josua Stegmann , German theologian and hymn poet (* 1588 )
- August 14th : August , Count Palatine and Duke of Sulzbach (* 1582 )
- August 25 : Thomas Dekker , English playwright (* around 1572 )
- September 17th : Sissinios , Emperor of Ethiopia (* 1572 )
- September 30th : Thomas Allen , English mathematician and astrologer (* 1542 )
- October 6th : Wilhelm Heinrich von Bentheim-Steinfurt , member of the Fruit-Bringing Society, Count, Canon of Strasbourg (* 1584 )
- October 16 : Anna von Jülich-Kleve-Berg , Countess Palatine near Rhein zu Neuburg (* 1552 )
- October 23 : Giovanni Battista Crespi , Italian painter, sculptor and architect (* 1573 )
- October 30th : Henri II. De Montmorency , French military leader, grand admiral, marshal, viceroy and governor (* 1595 )
- November 5 : Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland , English nobleman (* 1564 )
- November 16 : Gustav II Adolf , King of Sweden and general (* 1594 )
- November 16 : Johann Bernhard Schenk zu Schweinsberg , Prince Abbot of Fulda (* 1584 )
- November 17 : Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim , commander of a well-known cuirassier regiment in the Habsburg service (* 1594 )
- November 17 : Henri de Schomberg , French general of Electoral Saxon origin (* 1575 )
- November 19 or 29 : Friedrich V , "Winter King" of Bohemia, Elector Palatinate (* 1596 )
- November 27th : John Eliot , English politician in the run-up to the English Civil War (* 1592 )
- December 2nd : Johann Wilhelm , Duke of Saxony-Altenburg and Duke of Jülich-Kleve-Berg (* 1600 )
- December 20 : Melchior Borchgrevinck , Danish composer and court conductor (* around 1570 )