Gregory XIII decrees
the introduction of the
Gregorian calendar .
|Matteo Ricci begins proselytizing China.|
siege of Pskov by Poland
leads to the end of the Livonian War with Russia .
|1582 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1030/31 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1574/75 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Buddhist calendar||2125/26 (southern Buddhism); 2124/25 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||944/945 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3915/16 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||989/990 (turn of the year 25/26 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5342/43 (September 16/17)|
|Coptic calendar||1298/99 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1892/93 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1893/94 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1638/39 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Gregorian calendar reform
Gregory XIII. on February 24th signs the Pontifical Bull Inter gravissimas for the introduction of the Gregorian calendar . The bull decreed that the days from October 5th to 14th, 1582, had to be omitted and that the 15th of this year immediately followed Thursday, October 4th. In this way it is achieved that in 1583 the spring equinox falls again on March 21. On the other hand, the bull stipulated that the year 1600 is, as usual, a leap year, the secular years 1700 , 1800 and 1900 however not, but the year 2000 again, and so on. This ensures that there is no further systematic shift in the spring equinox in the following centuries . The calendar dispute with the Protestants begins because of their rejection of the papal decreed calendar.
Livonian War / Tsarist Russia
- January 15 : The Jam Zapolski armistice ends the Livonian War . The Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible leaves Livonia to the Polish-Lithuanian crown under Stephan Báthory .
- February 4 : The siege of Pskov in the Livonian War ends after the armistice agreed in the Yam Zapolski Treaty with the withdrawal of the last Polish-Lithuanian units from the Russian city.
- October 23 : The Russian Cossack ataman Yermak Timofejewitsch conquered the Tatar Khanate of Sibir after a three-day battle on the Irtysh near today's Tobolsk , thus opening the way for the colonization of large parts of western Siberia. The capital, Qashliq , falls on October 26th and is renamed Siberia. The conquest of the Siberian Khanate is a first step towards the Russian conquest of all of Siberia .
Holy Roman Empire
- March 18 : The Biscay Jean Jaureguy carried out an assassination attempt on William I of Orange , a leader in the Eighty Years' War , which the victim survived.
- The Diet of Augsburg rises Radkersburg to imperial fortress and approved Emperor Rudolf II. Funding for the fight against the Turks , although for several decades a relative peace with the Ottoman Empire there. In the Reichsfürstenrat , a distinction will be made between old and new princes .
- April 16 : Hernando de Lerma founds today's city of Salta in northwest Argentina under the name Ciudad de Lerma en el Valle de Salta .
- July 2 : After Oda Nobunaga by Akechi Mitsuhide on June 21 has been killed, uses Toyotomi Hideyoshi his chance, defeating Mitsuhide at the Battle of Yamazaki and secures Nobunaga's successor as the second realm unifier in Japan of the Sengoku period .
- The Ducal Printing House in Barth is founded. Duke Bogislaw XIII. of Pomerania leaves in the city a Offizin set.
science and technology
- The University of Würzburg is newly founded.
- The Scottish King James VI. founds the University of Edinburgh by royal charter .
- In the Franciscan monastery in Zerbst / Anhalt , the Francisceum library was founded as part of the illustrious Anhaltinum grammar school .
Culture and society
- November 27 : The line-up for the marriage of 18-year-old William Shakespeare with Anne Hathaway is ordered.
The Jesuit Matteo Ricci is sent to China as a missionary as assistant to Michele Ruggieri . During his stay in Macau , Ricci already learned the Chinese language and writing . First, it can be in Zhaoqing in the province of Guangdong down. He is very popular with the Chinese and 20 years later brings out the first map of the world in China, the Kunyu Wanguo Quantu , on which the country of China is actually shown in the middle of the world according to the Chinese imagination. Ricci's missionary activity established the arrival of Christianity in China during the Ming Dynasty .
Date of birth saved
- January 26 : Giovanni Lanfranco , Italian painter († 1647 )
- January 28 : John Barclay , Scottish poet and satirist († 1621 )
- February 2 : Erasmus Ungebaur , German legal scholar († 1659 )
- February 17th : Georg von Braunschweig and Lüneburg-Calenberg , Duke of the Principalities of Calenberg and Göttingen († 1641 )
- February 20 : Valentin Riemer , German legal scholar († 1635 )
- March 7th : Kaspar Ernst von Knoch , civil servant in the principalities of Anhalt-Bernburg and Anhalt-Dessau and member of the Fruit-Bringing Society († 1641 )
- April 13 : Bernhard von Krosigk , Anhalt officer († 1620 )
- April 29 : Albert Friedrich von Brandenburg , Margrave of Brandenburg († 1600 )
- May 5 : Johann Friedrich , Duke of Württemberg († 1628)
- May 20 : Georg von der Wense , German administrative officer († 1641 )
- June 4 : Rudolf von Drachenfels , German administrative officer and occasional poet († 1656 )
- June 28 : William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele , English nobleman and politician († 1662 )
- August 6 : Wolfgang Schaller , German physician († 1626 )
- August 7 : Johann von den Birghden , German postmaster († 1645 )
- August 26 : Enoch Heiland , German legal scholar († 1639 )
- August 28 : Hans Meinhard von Schönberg , electoral Palatinate and Brandenburg field bishop and court master of Elector Friedrich V of the Palatinate († 1616 )
- August 28 : Taichang , Chinese emperor of the Ming Dynasty († 1620 )
- September 26 : Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern , Bishop of Osnabrück († 1625 )
- October 2 : August , Count Palatine and Duke of Sulzbach († 1632 )
- October 19 : Dimitri , Tsarevich of Russia († 1591 )
- November 29 : Heinrich Höpfner , German Evangelical Lutheran theologian and university professor († 1642 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Gregorio Allegri , Italian composer († 1652 )
- Philipp Dirr (also Philipp Thürr), German Kistler and sculptor († 1633 )
- William Juxon , Archbishop of Canterbury († 1663 )
Date of death secured
- January 23 : Jean Bauhin , French doctor (* 1511 )
- January 26th : Thomas Platter the Elder , Swiss writer (* 1499 )
- March 12th : Andreas Ellinger , German medic and neo-Latin poet (* 1526 )
- March 15 : Elisabeth of Hesse , Electress of the Palatinate (* 1539 )
- March 22nd : Daniel Brendel von Homburg , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz (* 1523 )
- April 3 : Takeda Katsuyori , daimyo of the Japanese Sengoku period (* 1546 )
- April 3 : Takeda Nobukatsu , son of Takeda Katsuyori (* 1567 )
- 3. or 4 May : Giorgio Mainerio , Italian composer (* 1530 / 40 )
- May 5 : Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier , the third wife of William I of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Orange (* 1546 or 1547 )
- June 21 : Nobukimi Anayama , Japanese samurai (* 1541 )
- June 21 : Oda Nobunaga , Japanese prince ( daimyō ) and one of the "three unites" (* 1534 )
- August 15 : Francisco de Toledo , Spanish military leader and viceroy of Peru (* 1515 )
- August 16 : Pietro Perna , Italian printer and publisher (* before 1522 )
- August 24 : Anna , Countess of Tecklenburg, Bentheim and Steinfurt (* 1532 )
- October 4th : Teresa of Ávila , Spanish nun and doctor of the church, saint (* 1515 )
- December 11 : Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba , Spanish general and statesman (* 1507 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Johann Aurpach , German poet and lawyer (* 1531 )
- Ulrich Campell , Swiss reformer and Rhaeto-Romanic songwriter (* around 1510 )