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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Gregory XIII.
Pope Gregory XIII decrees
the introduction of the
Gregorian calendar .
Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci begins proselytizing China.
Siege of Pskov
The failed siege of Pskov by Poland
leads to the end of the Livonian War with Russia .
1582 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1030/31 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1574/75 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Buddhist calendar 2125/26 (southern Buddhism); 2124/25 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 71st (72nd) cycle

Year of the water horse壬午 ( at the beginning of the year metal snake 辛巳)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 944/945 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3915/16 (October 2-3)
Iranian calendar 960/961
Islamic calendar 989/990 (turn of the year 25/26 January)
Jewish calendar 5342/43 (September 16/17)
Coptic calendar 1298/99 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 757/758
Seleucid era Babylon: 1892/93 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1893/94 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1638/39 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Gregorian calendar reform

Calendar from 1st Jan of year 1 (the correction from August up to year 8 is not taken into account )
Perpetual Gregorian calendar from October 15, 1582

Gregory XIII. on February 24th signs the Pontifical Bull Inter gravissimas for the introduction of the Gregorian calendar . The bull decreed that the days from October 5th to 14th, 1582, had to be omitted and that the 15th of this year immediately followed Thursday, October 4th. In this way it is achieved that in 1583 the spring equinox falls again on March 21. On the other hand, the bull stipulated that the year 1600 is, as usual, a leap year, the secular years 1700 , 1800 and 1900 however not, but the year 2000 again, and so on. This ensures that there is no further systematic shift in the spring equinox in the following centuries . The calendar dispute with the Protestants begins because of their rejection of the papal decreed calendar.

Thursday October 4th is followed by Friday October 15th in several Catholic countries ; the time calculation according to the Gregorian calendar ( correction year ) begins .

Livonian War / Tsarist Russia

The fall of Qashliq to Yermak and the flight of Kuchum Khan; Miniature from the Kungur Chronicle

Holy Roman Empire



Memorial stone for the battle of Yamazaki


Duke Bogislaw XIII.

science and technology

Culture and society


The Jesuit Matteo Ricci is sent to China as a missionary as assistant to Michele Ruggieri . During his stay in Macau , Ricci already learned the Chinese language and writing . First, it can be in Zhaoqing in the province of Guangdong down. He is very popular with the Chinese and 20 years later brings out the first map of the world in China, the Kunyu Wanguo Quantu , on which the country of China is actually shown in the middle of the world according to the Chinese imagination. Ricci's missionary activity established the arrival of Christianity in China during the Ming Dynasty .


Because of the war events during the Desmond Rebellions , there is a famine in the Irish county of Munster .


Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown


Date of death secured

Oda Nobunaga
Teresa of Ávila

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1582  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files