Giordano Bruno (born January 1548 in Nola as Filippo Bruno , † February 17, 1600 in Rome ) was an Italian priest , poet , philosopher and astronomer . He was found guilty of heresy and magic by the Inquisition and sentenced to death at the stake by the Governor of Rome . On March 12, 2000, Pope John Paul II, after consulting the papal cultural council and a theological commission, declared that the execution was now to be regarded as an injustice from a church perspective.
Bruno postulated the infinity of space and the eternal duration of the universe. In doing so, he opposed the prevailing opinion of a geocentric world divided into spheres . Much more important at the time was that his pantheistic theses of an infinite material world left no room for an afterlife , since the temporal beginninglessness of the universe precluded a creation and its eternal existence a Last Judgment .
Giordano Bruno was born in 1548 under the name Filippo Bruno in Nola near Naples . His later self-name "Nolano" (the Nolaner) is derived from his hometown. His father was Giovanni Bruno, a soldier , his mother Fraulissa (Flaulisa?) Savolino.
Bruno initially studied in Naples and entered the Dominican order on June 15, 1565 , namely in the monastery of San Domenico Maggiore, where he gave up the baptismal name Filippo and took the religious name Jordanus / Giordano (after the second master of the order Jordan of Saxony ) . Soon afterwards he came into conflict with the order's leadership because he refused to worship Mary and removed all images of saints from his monastery cell . But this was taken as a youthful aberration and initially had no consequences. In 1572 he was ordained a priest .
Escape from Italy
In 1576 he was suspected of heresy for the first time and had to leave Naples. He fled to Rome to throw himself at the Pope 's feet. However, when it became known there that Bruno had thrown the writings of the church father Jerome into the latrine when he was fleeing the monastery , he had to flee Rome as well. He resigned from the monastic order and traveled to Noli and Savona (Liguria), then to Turin, Venice and Padua. From then on Bruno's life became a wandering through Europe.
He was greatly attracted to the rediscovered ideas of ancient natural philosophy . At this time the heliocentric worldview postulated by Nicolaus Copernicus began to prevail. Encouraged by this, Bruno developed his own philosophy over the following years.
Geneva, France, England
In 1578 Giordano Bruno had left Italy and went to Geneva. He reached Geneva via Chambéry in the late autumn of 1578 , where Théodore de Bèze had succeeded Johannes Calvin's death . By Calvin , the city had become a Protestant center. Bruno joined the Calvinist Church and hoped to find protection from the Roman Inquisition . As a result of irreconcilable theological differences, Bruno was imprisoned for a short time in August 1579 and subjected to measures of Calvinist church discipline. Because some positions of Calvinism found his criticism, so he wrote and distributed a polemic against the philosophy professor Antoine de la Faye (1540-1615), a leading Calvinist, ultimately the cause of his brief imprisonment. To get free, he revoked. Bruno finally left Geneva and moved to Toulouse in 1579 , where he initially held private lectures. He became a full lecturer in philosophy at the University of Toulouse . Among other things, he held lectures on Aristotle . At this time, his phenomenal memory began to cause a sensation - Bruno apparently worked with a special mnemonic technique . Contemporaries explained his abilities with magical abilities.
When the conflicts between Huguenots and Catholics ( Huguenot Wars and Seventh Huguenot War ) became more violent again in 1581 , Bruno had to leave Toulouse. At the end of August 1579 he was released and immediately traveled to Lyon. He then went to Paris . There he stayed until 1583 when King Heinrich III. promoted.
With a letter of recommendation from Heinrich III. he went to England in 1583, first tried to teach at Oxford , but caused a scandal with his attacks on Aristotle and an allegation of plagiarism and was not given a chair. Until mid-1585 he lived in the house of his friend and patron, the French ambassador Michel de Castelnau Mauvissière (1517–1592), in London . He made the acquaintance of Philip Sidney and members of John Dee's Hermetic Circle. It remains uncertain whether Bruno met John Dee personally. His views sparked an intense controversy in Oxford involving John Underhill , rector of Lincoln College and future Bishop of Oxford, and George Abbot , future Archbishop of Canterbury.
There he published his "Italian Dialogues", including Cena de le Ceneri (Ash Wednesday Supper) (1584), in which he practiced relentless polemics against the Oxford scholars and vigorously caricatured the London intellectual life, and De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi (c the infinity, the universe and the worlds). In the latter work he explained the stars by saying that they are like our sun, that the universe is infinite, there is an infinite number of worlds and these are populated with an infinite number of intelligent living beings.
In 1585 he went back to Paris, but the mood there was not as open-minded as it was two years earlier. After tumults that were sparked by his 120 theses against the Aristotelian theory of nature and its representatives, and after a diatribe against the mathematician Fabrizio Mordente , he had to leave Paris.
Germany, Prague, Geneva, Zurich
Bruno traveled on to Germany and tried to get a chair in Marburg . In the summer of 1586 Bruno came to Wittenberg . On the intercession of the legal scholar Alberico Gentilis , he was accepted as an associate professor at the Artistic Faculty of the University of Wittenberg . He was given the right to give free lectures on philosophy. In his lectures he dealt with Aristotle's organon , mathematics, logic, physics and metaphysics.
In 1587 in Wittenberg, two books on logic and the art of memory were written - a topic that Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz would later continue - that Bruno dedicated to the Chancellor of the University of Georg Mylius . When disputes broke out in Wittenberg in 1588 between Gnesio Lutherans and Philippists , Bruno left the city on March 8 and went to Prague for six months . Although he won the favor of Emperor Rudolf II , he was not given a teaching position. With financial support of 300 thalers from Rudolf II, he traveled on to Helmstedt , where he received a professorship at the Academia Julia . Here, as in Noli , he gathered his strength in the quiet and prepared the Frankfurt writings that were to become his philosophical legacy. It didn't last long; after the Calvinists in Geneva, he was now excommunicated by the Lutherans .
Wherever Bruno worked, he tried to get a permanent chair - unsuccessfully. Bruno's talent for asserting himself in the world of the complicated power relations of the Renaissance could not be interpreted more ambiguously: On the one hand, he repeatedly succeeded in attracting powerful patrons to his side. On the theological-philosophical battlefield, he created enemies with ruthless polemics, biting mockery and especially with the rejection of Christ's sonship and with his uncompromising opposition to Aristotle.
From July 1590 he lived in Frankfurt am Main . In the free and imperial city , however, there were disputes u. a. with Johannes Munzenberger , who had been custodian since 1574 and prior at the Carmelite monastery in Frankfurt from 1580 , but also with the city superiors from the city council , who expelled him in February 1591. He initially planned to live in the free imperial city with the publisher and printer Johann Wechel († 1593). The city lords rejected Bruno's request. Johann Wechel found accommodation for Bruno in the Carmelite monastery .
A short stay in Zurich follows .
Return to Italy and arrest
During his time in Frankfurt he was probably homesick. In Italy, of course, the Inquisition was powerful, and the Catholic Church fought the Reformation by all means . After all, it was the death of the conservative Pope Sixtus V and the vacancy of a chair in mathematics at the University of Padua that tipped the scales that Bruno returned to Italy. During a stay at the Frankfurt Book Fair , he received an invitation from Mocenigo to Venice , which he refused.
He initially taught in Padua , but the chair was soon given to Galileo Galilei . Bruno then accepted an invitation to Venice. His host, Zuane Mocenigo (1531–1598), Provveditore Generale di Marano, wanted to be initiated into the art of memory; but it is much more likely that he hoped that Bruno would give him an insight into far more “magical” arts. Disputes arose, probably out of disappointment that these expectations were not met. While Bruno was still considering leaving Venice, he was denounced by Mocenigo and arrested by the Inquisition on May 22, 1592.
In the Venetian dungeon he revoked after seven interrogations. The power of the Inquisition met with little resistance in Venice, as Venice may not have considered itself responsible for Bruno. On the one hand, Venice was initially not inclined to extradite Bruno to Rome, on the other hand, according to the legal opinion of the time, he was a fled monk who had to be extradited. He was also a victim of the political intrigues of the time.
Imprisoned in Rome and executed
At the beginning of 1593 Giordano Bruno was brought to Rome and imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo . The trial against him was prepared for the next seven years. He tried in vain to obtain an audience with Pope Clement VIII and was even ready to partially withdraw. But this was not enough for the Inquisition. When she asked for the complete revocation, Bruno reacted hesitantly and finally defiantly: He held fast to the rejection of Christ's sonship and the Last Judgment as well as to his assertion of many 'worlds'.
On February 8, 1600, the judgment of the Holy Office was read out: Giordano Bruno was expelled from the Dominican order and from the Church for heresy and magic and transferred to the secular court of the governor in Rome, with the conventional request that the latter should abolish the severity of the Mitigate the law and impose no penalties against life or limb. In addition, all of his writings were banned, and his works were to be publicly torn and burned. Bruno responded to the verdict with his now famous sentence: "You may announce the verdict against me with greater fear than I receive it" ( "Maiori forsan cum timore sententiam in me fertis quam ego accipiam" ).
Bruno was then sentenced to death at the stake by the secular court of the Roman governor . Physically broken by almost eight years of imprisonment, the 52-year-old Giordano Bruno was executed at the stake in the Campo de 'Fiori on February 17, 1600 . Before the execution , Giordano Bruno's tongue was allegedly tied so that he could not speak to the people present.
In 2000, after consulting the papal cultural council and a theological commission, Pope John Paul II declared the execution of Giordano Bruno to be injustice: even men of the Church had sometimes walked paths in the name of faith and ethics that “were not in accordance with the Gospels stand". A complete rehabilitation of the scholar Giordano Bruno by the Catholic Church did not take place, however, since pantheism is not compatible with Catholic teaching.
Bruno strongly influenced a number of philosophers and writers, including Pierre Gassendi , Baruch de Spinoza , Lucilio Vanini , Friedrich Schelling , Galileo Galilei , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Nietzsche . Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz took over the concept of the monad from him .
Two examples from the large number of literary processing of Bruno's life: In 1841 Leopold Schefer published the novella Divine Comedy in Rome about the trial and execution of Giordano Bruno. Bertolt Brecht wrote the story The Heretic's Coat . Gian Maria Volonté played Giordano Bruno in 1973 in the film The Monk of San Dominico (Giordano Bruno) by Giuliano Montaldo .
On the Campo de 'Fiori in Rome, a memorial commemorates the Freemasons of the Grande Oriente d'Italia , which the secularly ruled city community in 1889 against the will of the then Pope Leo XIII. (1878–1903), to Giordano Bruno.
The asteroid (5148) Giordano and a 22 km diameter crater of the moon , 103 ° east longitude, 36 ° north latitude, are named after Giordano Bruno . In the German-speaking area , the Giordano Bruno Foundation , founded in 2004, bears his name , which is dedicated to evolutionary humanism and the promotion of criticism of religion and in particular promoted the critic of religion Karlheinz Deschner . The Giordano Bruno Comprehensive School in Helmstedt is also named after him. Since 2008 there has been a Giordano Bruno monument at Potsdamer Platz in Berlin .
For Bruno everything originated from nature from the divine unity of matter and darkness. On the one hand, he separated God from the world and, on the other hand, he tended towards a pantheism opposite to that . Bruno combined the thesis that God is inherent in everything with the belief that reality arises from imagination. In doing so, he anticipated the thoughts of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Baruch de Spinoza . He opposed the geocentric view of the world , instead assumed that the world and people were a one-off accident of a single living world substance , and supported the Copernican theory . Furthermore, he postulated the monad , which as an indivisible unit represents an element of the world structure. The term monad was adopted by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Bruno is one of the most important exponents of a panpsychistic worldview, according to which spiritual properties are present everywhere in the cosmos.
For a long time , atheism and pantheism were equated by the Christian churches . Giordano Bruno's ideas stand in opposition to the materialistic worldview . They stand in the tradition of Neoplatonic idealism and mysticism , which he received primarily through the works of Avicenna , Averroes , and Nikolaus von Kues . It is true that Bruno anticipated many of the findings of modern natural sciences. However, this is due more to a “holistic philosophy of nature” than to a physical-analytical approach, such as was characteristic of his contemporary Galileo Galilei . This becomes particularly clear in Bruno's epistemology , illustrated for example in his interpretation of the Actaion myth in the Heroic Passions . According to Bruno, the seeker of truth is like the Greek hunter Aktaion . While hunting, he surprised the naked goddess Diana while bathing and is transformed into a deer that is hunted and torn apart by his own dogs. Diana is here a symbol for nature, whose knowledge wants to elude man. Bruno writes that it is "the ultimate goal and the end of this hunt [for the truth] [...] to come into possession of the fleeting and shy prey through which the prey maker becomes prey, the hunter becomes the hunted." The divine In Bruno's pantheism, it is not placed in nature , which would then be an objective research object independent of the subject of knowledge. Rather, the knowledge subject is also understood as part of the cosmos . It dissolves in its individuality as soon as it experiences the pantheistic unity, which in Bruno has a mystical, supersensible character. So it says in Bruno's interpretation of the Actaion myth:
“So the dogs, the thoughts of divine things, devour this act, so that he is now dead for the people, the multitude, released from the entanglement of the confused senses, free from the carnal prison of matter. That is why he no longer needs to look at his Diana through cracks and windows, but after the walls have been torn down, he has his full eye with the entire horizon in view. "
Infinity of space
Following the principles of his natural philosophy, Bruno believed not only that the universe is infinite, but that there are also an infinite number of living beings on other planets in the universe. He drew these conclusions from the idea that an almighty and infinite deity can correspond to even an infinite universe, for anything else would not be worthy of an infinite deity. Giordano Bruno cannot simply be classified “behind” Copernicus or Galileo in his philosophy . He did not share their considerations, which were primarily based on the observation of nature. He doubted the competence of mathematics and put his specific natural-philosophical approach in its place. In its entirety, Bruno's thinking can be classified in the Philosophia perennis , to which he added a new natural-philosophical approach as well as a revolutionary and combative aspect.
Rejection of the concept of the world being divided into two parts
Although Bruno initially took over from Aristotle the idea that the huge spaces between the infinitely many solar systems were filled with ether because empty space could not exist, he finally developed the concept of a vacuum in De immenso . In addition, he broke with the prevailing view of Aristotle of the two-part world in the translunar and sublunar realms . The area above the lunar sphere was considered the sacred area, from which a reliable measure of time could be taken. However, this did not apply to the area below the lunar sphere, the sublunar area in which the earth was located, so that before Giordano Bruno it was unthinkable to specify an earthly time measure. With the abolition of this boundary between sublunar and translunar area by Giordano Bruno, the earth was included in the divine area, so that valid time standards also became conceivable on earth.
Virtual space travel
In De immenso , Bruno developed his first space travel idea. "With the wings of the mind" he undertook journeys to the moon and other stars, carried out thought experiments on the planetary perspective and asked about the reasons for the ability of humans to overcome limited horizons.
Influences on Giordano Bruno
His thinking was influenced by Plato , Epicurus , Lucretius , Thomas Aquinas , Johannes Scotus Eriugena , Nikolaus von Kues and Ramon Llull . He was a strong critic of the teachings of Aristotle . According to research by the cultural historian Frances Yates , Bruno was also influenced by Marsilio Ficino and hermetic literature . In England, the early Copernican Thomas Digges had advocated the thesis of the infinity of space before him and published what might have influenced Bruno.
- Candelaio . 1582 (Bruno's first writing). German: The candle puller. Edited by Sergius Kodera (= Philosophical Library. Volume 544). Meiner, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-7873-1795-3 ; further edition: Candelaio - candles, gold and language lights. Comedy in five acts. Translated from Italian and provided with an afterword by Johannes Gerber (= materials of the ITW Bern. No. 4). Editions Theaterkultur, Basel 1995.
- Spaccio de la bestia trionfante. 1584. German: The expulsion of the triumphant beast. Berlin / Leipzig 1904.
- La cena de le ceneri. 1584. German: The Ash Wednesday meal (= Insel-Taschenbuch. 548). Edited by Hans Blumenberg . Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1981, ISBN 3-458-32248-5 .
- De l'infinito, universo e mondi. 1584. German: About the infinite, the universe and the worlds. Reclam, Ditzingen 1994, ISBN 3-15-005114-2 .
- The Kabbalah of Pegasus. 1584-1585. German: The Kabbalah of Pegasus (= Philosophical Library. Volume 528). Edited by Kai Neubauer Meiner, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-7873-1543-8 , urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-201708303299 .
- De gli eroici furori. 1585. German: From the heroic passions (= Philosophical Library. Volume 398). Transl. And ed. by Christiane Bacmeister Meiner, Hamburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-7873-1807-0 .
- De la causa, principio e uno. 1584. German: From the cause, principle and the one ( Memento of December 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 502 kB). Edited by Paul Richard Blum (= Philosophical Library. Volume 21). 7th edition. Meiner, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-7873-1147-5 ; further edition: About the cause, the principle and the one. Appendix: Files from the Inquisition trial against Giordano Bruno. Reclam, Ditzingen 1986, ISBN 3-15-005113-4 ; further edition: From the cause, the principle and the one. Edited by Bruno Kern. Wiesbaden 2015 (German).
- De magia / de vinculis in genere. 1586-1591. English: Die Magie / The different types of spell and charm. Peißenberg 1999. First published in 1891 in Florence. ISBN 9783743175693
- Lampas triginta statuarum. 1587. German: The torch of the thirty statues. Peißenberg 1999. ISBN 9783750408326 .
- De monade numero et figura… Frankfurt 1591. German: About the monas, the number and the figure as elements of a very secret physics, mathematics and metaphysics. Edited by Elisabeth von Samsonow (= Philosophical Library. Volume 436). Meiner, Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-7873-1008-8 , urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-201706079905 ; further edition: Giordano Bruno, The book about the monad, the number and the figure. Introduction, translation, commentary, ed. by Wolfgang Neuser , Michael Spang, Erhard Wicke. Bautz, Nordhausen 2010, ISBN 978-3-88309-558-5 , urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-2014092719084 .
- Il triplici minimo et la misura ad trium speculativarum scientiarum et multarum activarum. Frankfurt 1591. German: The three times the minimum and the measure. Peißenberg 2002. ISBN 9783741228476 .
- De Immenso et Innumerabilibus Liber I – VI. 1591. German: The immeasurable universe and the countless worlds. ISBN 9783746027647 Peißenberg 1999.
- Sigillus Sigillorum 1583. German: Das Siegel der Siegel, ISBN 9783744813044 .
- Works. Edited by Thomas Leinkauf u. a. Meiner, Hamburg 2007 ff. (7 volumes, Italian-German with detailed introduction, commentary, bibliography, index of names and subject matter and glossary).
- Opera Latine Conscripta [Latin Scriptures]. Edited by F. Fiorentino and F. Tocco. Naples / Florence 1879–1891. Reprint in 8 volumes: Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1962, .
- Paul Richard Blum : Giordano Bruno. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-41951-8 .
- Hans Blumenberg : Aspects of the epoch threshold: Cusaner and Nolaner. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1976, ISBN 3-518-07774-0 .
- Angelika Bönker-Vallon: Metaphysics and Mathematics with Giordano Bruno. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-05-002679-0 .
- Jens Brockmeier: Giordano Bruno's natural theory. Epistemological and natural-philosophical prerequisites of early bourgeois materialism. Campus, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 1980, ISBN 3-593-32674-4 .
- Emilian Buza: Bruno, Giordano Phillipo. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 22, Bautz, Nordhausen 2003, ISBN 3-88309-133-2 , Sp. 149-156. (last change: November 16, 2008).
- Gisela Dischner : Giordano Bruno. Thinker - poet - magician. Francke, Tübingen u. a. 2004, ISBN 3-7720-8022-7 .
- Anne Eusterschulte: Giordano Bruno - An introduction. Panorama, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-926642-53-X .
- Beate Hentschel: Giordano Bruno's philosophy - chaos or cosmos? An investigation into the structural logic and systematicity of the Nolan work. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1988, ISBN 3-631-40399-2 .
- Marie-Luise Heuser : Georg Cantor's transfinite numbers and Giordano Bruno's idea of infinity. In: self-organization. Yearbook for Complexity in the Natural, Social and Human Sciences. Edited by Uwe Niedersen, Volume 2: Man in order and chaos. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-428-07251-0 , pp. 222-244.
- Marie-Luise Heuser: Maximum and Minimum. Bruno's foundation of geometry in the “Articuli adversus mathematicos” and its further application in Kepler's “Vom hexagonal Schnee”. In: Klaus Heipcke, W. Neuser, E. Wicke (eds.): Giordano Bruno's Frankfurt writings and their requirements. VCH / Acta Humaniora, Weinheim 1991, pp. 181-197.
- Marie-Luise Heuser: Transterrestrik in the Renaissance: Nikolaus von Kues, Giordano Bruno and Johannes Kepler. In: M. Schetsche, M. Engelbrecht (Ed.): From humans and extraterrestrials. Transterrestrial encounters as reflected in cultural studies. Transcript, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 978-3-89942-855-1 , pp. 55-79.
- Thomas Sören Hoffmann : Philosophy in Italy. An introduction to 20 portraits. Marix, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-86539-127-8 .
- Jochen Kirchhoff : Giordano Bruno. In personal testimonies and picture documents (= Rowohlt's monographs. 285). Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 1980, ISBN 3-499-50285-2 ; 7th edition, 2003.
- Andrea König: Giordano Bruno - On the threshold of modernity. Tectum, Marburg 2003, ISBN 3-8288-8558-6 .
- Gerhard Lechner: Transcendence and Immanence of God with Giordano Bruno. Grin Publishing, Frankfurt 2012, ISBN 3-656-71322-7 , urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-2014080810434 .
- Elisabeth von Samsonow (Ed.): Giordano Bruno, selected and presented. Munich 1995, ISBN 3-424-01275-0 .
- Guido Schmidlin: Giordano Bruno and the Zurich alchemists and Paracelsists. In: Nova Acta Paracelsica. New series 8. Bern 1994, ISBN 3-906752-91-7 .
- Hans Ulbrich, Michael Wolfram: Giordano Bruno - Dominican, heretic, scholar. Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 1994, ISBN 3-88479-901-0 .
- Anacleto Verrecchia : Giordano Bruno - Moth of the Spirit. Böhlau Verlag, Vienna / Cologne, 1999, ISBN 3-205-98881-7 .
- Gerhard Wehr : Giordano Bruno. dtv, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-423-31025-1 .
- Dorothea Waley Singer : Giordano Bruno: His Life and Thought. With Annotated Translation of His Work - On the Infinite Universe and Worlds. Henry Schuman, New York 1950, ISBN 1-117-31419-7 ( online ( memento of July 24, 2009 in the Internet Archive )).
- Wolfgang Wildgen : The cosmic memory - cosmology, semiotics and memory theory in the works of Giordano Brunos (1548–1600). Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1998, ISBN 3-631-32953-9 .
- Jochen Winter: Giordano Bruno - An introduction. Parerga, Düsseldorf 1999, ISBN 3-930450-37-2 .
- Frances A. Yates : Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago / London 1964, ISBN 0-226-95007-7 .
- Literature by and about Giordano Bruno in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Giordano Bruno in the German Digital Library
- Dilwyn Knox: Giordano Bruno. In: Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Works by Giordano Bruno at Zeno.org .
- Il portale di Giordano Bruno ( Memento of July 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) - Italian-language portal in connection with La biblioteca ideal di Giordano Bruno: L'opera e le fonti , the online edition of all Latin and Italian scripts based on the eponymous CD, ed. from the Comitato nazionale per le celebrazioni di Giordano Bruno nel quarto centenario della morte, under the direction of Michele Ciliberto.
- Translations of Latin works by Giordano Bruno by Erika Rojas
Information about Bruno
- Giordano Bruno - Website of the followers of the philosopher of Nola
- Al Van Helden: Giordano Bruno (1548–1600) , Rice University's Galileo project , 1995 (English)
- Information blog about Bruno's natural philosophy by students at the Georg-August University of Göttingen
- Frank Gaglioti: Giordano Bruno, philosopher and scientist, was burned at the stake 400 years ago. World Socialist Website, March 11, 2000
- Rolf Cantzen : God is everything that is. Radio broadcast on Bruno's life and work ( SWR2 Knowledge Aula, production 1997)
- See E. Samsonow: Giordano Bruno. Diederichs, Munich 1995, p. 51.
- Kurt Ohly, Vera Sack: Incunable catalog of the city and university library and other public collections in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt / M. 1967, p. 708.
- Evelyn Brockhof (Ed.): The Institute for City History. Frankfurt's memory since 1436. Kramer, Frankfurt, M./Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-86539-690-7 , p. 97.
- Editor of the Chronicorum Turcicorum Frankfurt 1584; Johann Wechel was the son of the publisher Andreas Wechel († 1581), who came from Paris in 1572, and continued the publishing tradition in Frankfurt am Main.
- Hans-Joachim Ulbrich, Michael Wolfram: Giordano Bruno: Dominican, heretic, scholar. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1994, ISBN 3-88479-901-0 , p. 175.
- In Nova Acta Paracelsica. New episode 8. Peter Lang, Bern 1994, pp. 57-87, new facts are communicated about Bruno's stay in Zurich, which made Bruno's return to Italy, ie. H. from Zurich to Venice and Padua, in a completely new light.
- Linus Hauser : The Giordano Bruno Foundation in a cultural-historical context. In: Journal for religious and ideological issues. 74 (2011), pp. 139-144.
- Website of the monument and Durs Grünbein : Flame and Wood. A Speech on the Occasion of the Unveiling of a Giordano Bruno Monument in Berlin. In: Henning Hufnagel, Anne Eusterschulte (ed.): Turning Traditions Upside Down. Rethinking Giordano Bruno's Enlightenment. Central European University Press, Budapest 2013, ISBN 978-615-5053-63-4 , pp. 251-255.
- See e.g. B. Giordano Bruno: "So when spirit, soul and life are found in all things ..." in Wikiquote .
- J. Kirchhoff: Giordano Bruno. 4th edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1993, p. 27.
- J. Kirchhoff: Giordano Bruno. 4th edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1993, pp. 7 ff, 16.
- W. Beierwaltes: Actaeon - On a mythological symbol of Giordano Brunos. In: Journal for Philosophical Research . 32, 1978, pp. 345-354.
- Giordano Bruno: Of the heroic passions. Felix Meiner Verlag, Hamburg 1989, p. 168.
- Marie-Luise Heuser: Spatial ontology and space travel around 1600 and 1900. University of Tübingen, accessed on October 11, 2016 .
- Stillman Drake : Copernicanism in Kepler, Bruno and Galilei. In: Vistas in Astronomy. Volume 17, 1975, , pp. 177-192, doi: 10.1016 / 0083-6656 (75) 90059-8 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Bruno, Fillipo (original name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Italian philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 1548|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Nola , Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||17th February 1600|
|Place of death||Rome|