Already in the 2nd century there were tendencies towards high esteem for martyrs and ascetics , and in isolated cases also for special veneration of Mary, the mother of Jesus . This can be seen in some apocrypha of the early Christian period, which the Church did not include in the Bible canon but which were popular. Among other things, these apocryphal texts (especially the Proto-Gospel of James ) also influenced the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Church .
In 391 AD Christianity became the state religion in the Roman Empire . Since then, the worship of Mary has become increasingly important. .. 431 AD Maria was prepared by the Council of Ephesus as Theotokos (gr. Theotokos or lat. Dei Genetrix ) denotes and dogmatized; it was originally less about the question of who Mary was, but rather about the question of whether Jesus of Nazareth was God. The term The Mother of God should make it clear that Jesus Christ is true man and true God . After this council, a more intensive devotion to Mary developed, which - as critics claim - resembles the veneration of the " Queen of Heaven " of the Old Testament .
Crucial for the development of a pronounced devotion to Mary were the christological disputes , at the end of which the divine nature of Christ was strongly emphasized, whereby the mediation of Christ was practically eliminated in the consciousness of the people. The believers then found much easier access to the human figure of Mary who was so close and spiritually appealing.
After the Reformation , the Counter- Reformation began in the Roman Catholic Church , in which the veneration of Mary experienced two opposing tendencies: On the one hand, attempts were made to forbid as many unbiblical texts as possible, which theoretically should have damaged the popular veneration of Mary; on the other hand, since the 1580s, the cult of Mary became an instrument of the Jesuit Counter-Reformation in particular . In Bavaria, for example, the veneration of Mary ( Patrona Bavariae ) was strongly promoted by the state and the Jesuits, and numerous pilgrimages to the Virgin Mary began here, for example to the pilgrimage church Maria im Sand in Dettelbach and the Chapel of Grace in Altötting.
During the Counter-Reformation, the attitude towards Mary was one of the most obvious criteria that distinguished Catholics from Lutherans on the one hand and Calvinists on the other . In interrogation, the question of whether one also addresses Mary and the saints to intercessions was one of the means of recognizing secret Protestants.
The veneration of Mary experienced a new bloom in the Romantic era .
According to some authors, elements can be recognized as early as centuries before Christianity that would later be incorporated into the cult of Mary, around the time of the Old Testament , when the Babylonians worshiped the goddess Ištar . Many properties of this " Queen of Heaven " ( Jeremiah 7:18) were taken over from other cultures, divided among many different goddesses and later combined again into one person. From time to time and from cultural area to cultural area, the type and number of names for the goddess changed, but not the traits and their worship. Examples are the ancient Egyptian Isis or the ancient Greek Artemis , Demeter and Athene as well as the originally Phrygian "Great Mother of God" Cybele , whose Magna Mater cult was first adapted in the Greek cultural area (worship on the Agora of Athens ), later in the Roman Empire was widespread and still found followers centuries after Christ. Artemis fits particularly well in her ambiguity : as a virgin and chaste goddess from Delos in European Greece including the Aegean on the one hand and as the Anatolian mother goddess of the Temple of Ephesus on the other. This was already venerated before the founding of the city of Ephesus in Perge in Pamphylia , which is why she was also called Artemis Pergaia and later Diana Pergensis by the Romans . She was venerated in Ephesus until the 5th century AD. Apparently her statue, which initially remained in front of the St. Mary's Church, which was built at the time, was "equated with Mary wearing a halo on her head".
Special position of Mary
Mother of jesus
Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ , who in Christianity is the Son of God . The third ecumenical council at Ephesus A.D. 431 declared, after a dispute with Bishop Nestorius , Maria zur Θεοτόκος ( theotokos ), the Theotokos (against the position of Ανθρωποτόκος, anthropotokos , the bearer of man ). This was not intended to emphasize Mary, but to emphasize that Jesus Christ was already born as God and was not later elevated to God.
The virginity is seen in two forms:
- According to the biblical tradition, the Virgin Mary received Jesus from the Holy Spirit .
- According to Catholic and Orthodox teaching, Mary remained a virgin during and after the birth of Jesus. In these churches, virginity for the sake of the kingdom of heaven is valued as a particularly praiseworthy virtue .
View of denominations and religions
Roman Catholic Church
The Roman Catholic Church teaches that a person is freed from original sin at baptism and from the consequences of this original sin at the second resurrection at the end of his life and can thus come to a perfect communion with God (biblical: heaven ). Already at the moment of her own conception Mary was freed from original sin in the womb of her mother Anna . This means that Mary, the woman who God gave birth to as a human being, did not participate in the original sin during her lifetime (so-called Immaculate Conception , the solemn festival is celebrated on December 8th ).
This topic is often confused with the way in which Mary was conceived: She had an ordinary human father, according to tradition, his name was Joachim . The dogma of the virgin birth is also sometimes confused with that of the Immaculate Conception.
The veneration of Mary plays an important role in the Roman Catholic Church; the dogmas of the incorporation of Mary into heaven and the immaculate conception exist exclusively in the Roman Catholic Church, even if the Orthodox and Syrian churches hold similar views. The core of the Marian dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church are statements about Jesus Christ . Mary is already perfected with God, as all human beings are to be perfected one day. Mary is thus the “prototype” of the human being redeemed through Jesus Christ.
Through the Virgin Mary, God came into the world in the form of Jesus Christ. Mary is therefore referred to in a Marian hymn as “the tabernacle of the godhead”.
"[The cult of Mary] is quite unique, but it differs significantly from the cult of adoration, which is offered to the incarnate God like the Father and the Holy Spirit, and it promotes this very much."
Within the Roman Catholic Church, especially in Germany , the views on this topic diverge considerably: In popular piety there were sometimes tendencies towards excessive, no longer Christ-centered, devotion to Mary. Contemporary considerations like to emphasize Maria's strength, as it is reflected above all in her jubilee song, the Magnificat ( Lk 1.46–55 EU ). One Jesuit even taught that Mary gave "the one who wrestled with the devil to taste the sweet contents of her breasts".
Mary is referred to as the mother and sister of believers, who has already walked man's path to God. Therefore she could also be a role model and be called upon for help on the way to God.
Expressions of devotion to Mary in the Catholic Church are Marian pilgrimages - for example to Lourdes , Fátima , Czestochowa , Kevelaer , Neviges or Moresnet-Chapelle - their veneration as patron saints as in Patrona Bavariae , their representation in painting and sculpture , numerous Marian festivals , the May devotions , Litanies (especially the Lauretanian litany ), the rosary or the Ave Maria .
Reports of Marian apparitions , even where they are recognized as genuine by the Church after a critical examination, are not an obligatory part of the Catholic good of faith, since according to Catholic doctrine the revelation with the apostles is concluded and such private revelations add nothing to the doctrine of this church. Every Catholic is therefore free to believe in Marian apparitions or not.
The veneration of Mary has experienced a revival in the last few decades, in particular through the new spiritual movements , but also through Pope John Paul II , who was a great devotee of Mary and visited numerous Marian shrines on his trips abroad.
In Christian iconography Mary is often - based on ( Rev 12, EU EU ) - as the "apocalyptic woman" or ruler with a star wreath, crown, scepter or standing on the moon (or a crescent moon) - with the (usually also equipped with crown and scepter) child on arm - depicted. This form of representation is known as the Crescent Madonna . Mary is represented as the “Queen of heaven and earth” (thus: perfect man with God), who can help the believers through her intercession before God. In predominantly Catholic areas, so-called Marian columns are set up in many places - often in the center of the village , for example in Munich on Marienplatz .
Some religious scholars are of the opinion that Mary has the function of a goddess . The Zurich-based Christoph Uehlinger considers the doctrine that Maria is not a goddess to be a mere "language rule". Under certain circumstances “the Mother of God would be worshiped more strongly than God Himself”, who appeared to the believers to be removed from the scene, rather than being able to communicate with him. The American Stephen Benko also writes in his book The Virgin Goddess that in the Catholic devotion to Mary Mary was placed in the place of many ancient goddesses, whose cult is continued in Christian form.
The Protestant theologian Jörg Lauster , on the other hand, sees the emphasis on bodily phenomena such as birth and breastfeeding ( Maria lactans ) as an emphasis on the humanity of Mary: She is represented “as a real woman and mother”, from which the divine, however, originated. In this respect, it represents the idea of incarnation in a softer, more accessible version.
The Orthodox churches venerate Mary as the Mother of God ( Gr. Θεοτόκος Theotókos ) and as a virgin. They see them as holy and sinless. However , they have different views on original sin and therefore do not represent the doctrine of the immaculate conception . The feast of the Assumption of Mary into heaven is celebrated in the Eastern Churches as the “Dormition of the Theotokos”.
Old Catholic Church
St. Mary is venerated in the Old Catholic Church as the Virgin Mother of God and as the first of the saints and is called upon for her intercession for the Church on earth. The ancient church beliefs about the Holy Virgin and Theotokos, i.e. the teaching about motherhood and eternal virginity, are fully recognized. Statues and images of St. Our Lady is customary, and she is also remembered in the Christian Catholic Church in every Eucharistic celebration.
In the Utrecht Declaration , on the other hand, the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Roman Catholic Church is rejected as contradicting the teaching of the ancient Church. The dogmatization of the bodily acceptance of Mary into heaven was also rejected by a declaration by the International Bishops' Conference of the Union of Utrecht . But only the dogmatization of this doctrine was rejected, belief in the Assumption of Mary is permitted, as is shown by the example of the Polish Catholic Church , which is characterized by a strong devotion to Mary. Usually, however, her passing asleep, not her physical ascension, is celebrated.
In the Western European Old Catholic Churches, the rosary is not common, but in Poland the tradition is upheld.
The Anglican churches exhibit a wide range of doctrines and practices relating to Mary, with some change through the centuries. During the Reformation in England, and under the influence of Puritans seeking to be effective within the Anglican Church, many aspects of the doctrines and practices relating to Mary were questioned or rejected. From the 19th century, with the rise of the Oxford movement , they became important again for some Anglicans, often in modified form, but remained frowned upon by others.
History of the Anglican Marian Worship
Marian worship in the Anglican tradition goes back to the beginnings of Christianity in England. Legend has it that Joseph of Arimathea brought Christianity to England and founded the first Celtic church at Glastonbury in AD 65, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Lady chapels have existed in most of England's cathedrals since the late 6th century , often as part of the apse . Traditionally, a Lady Chapel is the largest chapel in a cathedral. Often they were built east of the high altar as a prominent part of the building that breaks through the curve of the apse. Already in the Anglo-Saxon period, Marian piety was so widespread in the country that England was also referred to as Mary's dowry . As early as 1060, England was the first country in the Western Church to celebrate the Feast of the Assumption .
Many of the great English saints, such as Edmund of Canterbury , Richard of Chichester, and Thomas Becket , were Mary devotees and composed prayers to Mary. Arguably the saint most devoted to her was Anselm of Canterbury , who wrote many prayers and books on Marian devotion and dedicated it to the "immaculate, always virgin Mother of Christ."
Another aspect of the English Reformation was a widespread movement against the concept of Mary as a mediator . Such exaggerated considerations, inspired in part by depictions of Jesus Christ as an inaccessible judge, were criticized by Erasmus of Rotterdam and Saint Thomas More and rejected by the Church of England . Along with the ideas of the Reformation that Holy Scripture was the foundation of faith ( Sola scriptura ), the Reformers increasingly took the view that Jesus Christ was the only mediator between God and humanity. An explicit veneration of Mary was therefore rejected and led to a diminution of her importance in the life of the Anglican Church.
The English Reformers, however, retained the early Church doctrine regarding Mary. Their teaching on Mary was focused on her role in the incarnation : this is summed up in the acceptance of her status as Mother of God because they believed it to be both Scriptural and traditional. In keeping with the traditions of the early Church and with other reformers such as Martin Luther , English reformers such as Hugh Latimer , Thomas Cranmer, and John Jewel also accepted that Mary remained eternally virgin. They have neither confirmed nor denied the possibility that Mary was saved from sin by grace . In this regard, it is noteworthy that the Book of Common Prayer in the Proprium for Christmas ( Daily Prayer and Preface ) designates Mary as a pure virgin .
As of 1561, the Church of England calendar contained only five Marian feasts: the Conception , the Birth , the Annunciation , the Visitation, and the Purification . However, the feast day of the Assumption was canceled. The Scottish and Canadian editions of the Book of Common Prayer have made August 15th a feast day as the Dormition of Mary ; in the prayer book of the Episcopal Church of the United States of America , it is also celebrated as the feast day of "Holy Mary, the Virgin, Mother of our Lord Jesus Christ".
Despite the decline in devotion to the Virgin Mary since the 16th century, some things have been preserved: the use of the Magnificat in evening prayers and the corresponding naming of churches and chapels. In the 17th century, writers such as Lancelot Andrewes , Jeremy Taylor, and Thomas Ken took a fuller appreciation of Mary's place from the prayers of the Catholic tradition . So Andrewes leaned in his Preces privatae on Eastern church liturgies, since he cultivated the veneration of Mary. This affection continued into the next century and into the Oxford Movement of the 19th century.
The liturgical movement of the 19th and 20th centuries brought Mary a renewed popularity in the Anglican prayer practice. In most Anglican prayer books, Mary is mentioned again by name in liturgical prayers. Anglicans see Mary as an example of holiness , faith, and obedience for all Christians; she can also be seen as a prophetic figure. For these reasons, she is considered the most important member of the communion of saints , and many Anglo-Catholic Anglicans venerate her. In addition, August 15th is widely celebrated as a principal feast in honor of Mary with its own proprium . Other early church feasts related to Mary have also been renewed, and there are liturgical texts of their own for these days. Marian forms of devotion such as the angelus , regina coeli, and the rosary are most likely associated with the Anglo-Catholic movement within Anglicanism.
On May 16, 2005, the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches issued a joint 43-page statement Mary: Hope and Grace in Christ on the role of the Virgin Mary in Christianity, also known as the Seattle Statement. This declaration served the purpose of maintaining ecumenical cooperation. The document was published by then- Archbishop of Seattle , Alexander Joseph Brunett , and Peter Carnley , Anglican Archbishop of Perth , because they were co-chairs of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission ( ARCIC ).
Much is said about the supposed differences between Anglican and Roman Catholic Mariology . Since Anglicanism does not have a magisterium to comment on it, it is difficult to accurately reflect the Anglican position. In addition to worship ( latria ), which is due only to God, Marian veneration in the Catholic Church assumes that Mary deserves a special veneration ( hyperdulia ) among the saints . Anglicans, on the other hand, agree that only God is to be worshiped, but many believe that the Blessed Mother should not be given a higher degree of veneration than other saints. Many Anglicans, on the other hand, share the Orthodox view that Mary is the most important saint and should be venerated as such.
Anglicanism does not consider the Roman Catholic dogmas of the incorporation of Mary into heaven and the immaculate conception to be binding. Rather, many Anglicans agree with the Orthodox view that there was no immaculate conception even if Mary did not commit sin in her life.
In the Lutheran churches, Marian devotion hardly plays a role in practice. Luther resolutely opposed the Catholic idea of Mary as Queen of Heaven and against popular ideas of Mary as mediator, which Christ must first approve of. Luther, on the other hand, emphasized that through Christ's sacrificial death the work of redemption is complete and does not need to be supplemented. In doing so, he referred to the Bible. Christians did not need any intercession or mediation from humans, be it Mary or be they saints. But Luther himself gave sermons to Mary and in his interpretations (such as the Magnificat ) valued Mary as an example of human humility and purity. This is why some form of Marian devotion is practiced in some Lutheran churches. Mary is seen as a model of faith.
- Purification of Mary or Presentation of the Lord on February 2nd
- Annunciation or Annunciation of the Lord on March 25th
- Visitation of the Virgin Mary on July 2nd
These Christ feasts with a Marian aspect are also provided for in the Evangelical Church Service Book of the Evangelical Church in Germany ; In some cases it is provided there for the coincidence with certain Sundays that the proprium of the day of remembrance can or should replace the proprium of the corresponding Sunday.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod set August 15 as a separate day of remembrance for Mary , the date traditionally accepted as the date of death. Before the introduction of the Evangelical Name Calendar , this date was also found in regional Evangelical calendars in German-speaking countries under names such as “Mariä Verscheiden”. The idea of a bodily acceptance of Mary into heaven is rejected.
Reformed and Baptist Churches
In the Reformed Church , Zwingli accepted the veneration of Mary insofar as it is biblically founded. Calvin rejected any evangelical devotion to Mary, since she was always in danger of becoming idolatry . The Evangelical Free Church congregations ( Baptists and Brethren congregations ) also agree with him. Mary is - like many other biblical persons - a model of faith and devotion, but cannot and must not be invoked in prayer. She waits with all those who have fallen asleep in Christ ( 1 Thess 4:16 EU ) for the day of the visible return of Jesus , on which the deceased and the Christians living at this point in time will be “ led towards ” Jesus Christ together . In addition, from a free church perspective, according to Deuteronomy ( Dtn 18.11 EU ), making contact with the deceased is prohibited. This also applies to the deceased who have achieved extraordinary things in faith (see 1 Sam 28 EU ).
Other Christian denominations
Various denominations, including Evangelicals , Jehovah's Witnesses , Christadelphians, and Seventh-day Adventists , harshly criticize all forms of Marian devotion, reject them as unbiblical and view their practice as idolatry.
In Islam , too , Mary (Maryam, Meriem) is often venerated as the mother of the prophet Jesus (Isa) and is described extremely positively in the Koran . Mary is held in high esteem by Muslims and is portrayed as the purest and most righteous woman. One also believes in the virgin conception of Jesus, but not in the sense of an act of procreation, but of the creation of Jesus in Mary's womb. Mary is the only woman named in the Koran after whom a sura - the 19th - is named.
Forms of devotion to Mary
Prayers and invocations to the Mother of God
- Ave Maria
- Hymnos Akathistos
- Lauretan litany
- Marian antiphons
- Under your protection and shield
Marian festivals and customs
- Marian Festival - main article on the theme of religious festivals
- May devotion
- Marian shrine
- Coronation of an image of Mary
Marian devotion in art
The earliest images of Mary date from the 2nd to 3rd centuries. Mary can already be seen in the catacombs with the child on her lap. Since the Council of Ephesus , which dogmatized the motherhood of God in 431, the representations increased in frequency.
On Greek icons , Maria appears in strictly defined typologies, whereas in Western art the creation of images has become increasingly freer over the centuries. Nevertheless, certain types have also developed here, such as the protective cloak Madonna , the Crescent Moon Madonna , the Black Madonna or the Maria in the ear dress . These pictures often also contain Marian symbols , such as the Hortus conclusus , the closed garden from the Song of Songs as a symbol of virginity . Many scenes are not taken from the Bible, but rather from apocryphal writings or the Legenda aurea .
In terms of sculpture, Mary was represented primarily with the baby Jesus. In the Romanesque the depiction as the seat of wisdom ( Sedes sapientiae ) with the baby Jesus on the lap was widespread. Since the Counter-Reformation , statues of the Virgin Mary have been designed almost exclusively either as Queen of Heaven ( Regina Coeli ) or - without a child - as Immaculata . Representations depicting Mary stepping on a serpent refer to Gen 3:15 in the Old Testament , where the "enmity" between the woman and the serpent is foretold.
In music , Marian hymns are among the oldest Marian songs . Settings of the Ave Maria , litanies and numerous other songs were created for daily use, for pilgrimages and for Marian holidays . The motif of the Stella Maris - Latin for sea star, has enjoyed particular popularity since the late Middle Ages. The New Testament hymn of the Magnificat was performed musically by numerous composers from all eras.
Mary has often been seen under various symbols since the Middle Ages. Such symbols of Mary are for example:
- the sun, the moon, the star (of the sea), the cedar, the branch from the root of Jesse , the lily among thorns, the rose, the always full spring, the sealed well, the locked gate, the locked garden, that sealed the book, the immaculate mirror, the burning bush of Moses, the rod, Aaron's staff, Gideon's fleece, the tower of David, the city of David, the temple of Solomon and the gate of heaven.
These examples are borrowed above all from the Old Testament, preferably from the Song of Songs, which is rich in such poetic terms and which was sometimes referred to directly as the Holy Virgin. There are also some symbolic images that are not borrowed from the Bible, but rather from ideas that the Middle Ages had in the natural history field:
- the phoenix, the pelican, the lion and the unicorn.
In medieval science, the unicorn could only be caught by being chased into the lap of a virgin. Again, reference was made to Mary.
coat of arms
In the Middle Ages, when depicting people, it was common to add the corresponding coat of arms for better identification. So Maria also got her own coat of arms with different symbols such as B. the olive tree or branch, the star of the sea (Stella maris) and a rose.
The mother of Jesus also appears in the following community coats of arms:
- Marian life
- Portrait of Mary
- Holy ring
- Marian apparition
- Black Madonna
- Mother Mary's house
- Farewell Christ to Mary
- Coat of arms gallery "Santa Maria Assunta"
- Coat of arms gallery with representations of saints
- Maria-Kannon , as a projection onto the Buddhist deity Kannon
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- Wolfgang Beinert , Heinrich Petri (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Marienkunde. 2 volumes. 2nd, completely revised edition. Pustet, Regensburg 1996–1997, ISBN 3-7917-1525-9 .
- Wolfgang Beinert u. a .: Maria - an ecumenical challenge. Pustet, Regensburg 1984, ISBN 3-7917-0910-0 .
- Stefano de Fiores: On the same wavelength as Maria. Reflections on the spiritual life with Mary according to St. Ludwig-Maria Grignion of Montfort. Butzon & Bercker, Kevelaer 1988, ISBN 3-7666-9587-8 .
- Walter Delius : History of the Adoration of Mary. Basel 1963.
- Hilda Graef : Maria. A history of teaching and devotion. Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) a. a. 1964.
- Ludwig-Maria Grignion von Montfort : Treatise on the true devotion to Mary. Patris, Vallendar-Schoenstatt 1988, ISBN 3-87620-135-7 .
- Herbert Haag et al. a .: Maria. Art, customs and religion in pictures and text. Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) a. a. 1997, ISBN 3-451-26240-1 .
- Johannes Heil , Rainer Kampling (Ed.): Maria - Daughter Sion? Mariology, Marian piety and hostility to Jews. Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn u. a. 2001, ISBN 3-506-74254-X (review of the Fritz Bauer Institute fritz-bauer-institut.de ).
- Lothar Heiser : Maria in the proclamation of Christ in the Orthodox church year (= Sophia. Vol. 20). Paulinus-Verlag, Trier 1981, ISBN 3-7902-1404-3 .
- Hans-Eduard Hengstenberg : The veneration of Mary in the spiritual battle of our day. Echter, Würzburg 1948 (2nd edition as: Die Marienverehrung. Röll, Dettelbach 1996, ISBN 3-927522-59-7 ).
- Irmengard Jehle: Biblical foundations and development of the veneration of Mary. In: Irmengard Jehle: Man on the way to God. The pilgrimage as a religious need of human beings - shown in the Marian pilgrimage to Lourdes (= studies on theology and practice of pastoral care. Vol. 52). Echter, Würzburg 2002, ISBN 3-429-02475-7 , pp. 122-286 (at the same time: Munich, University, dissertation, 2002).
- John Paul II : Mary - God's yes to man. Encyclical "Mother of the Redeemer". Introduction by Joseph Ratzinger . Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) a. a. 1987, ISBN 3-451-21107-6 .
- John Paul II: mother of the Church. The Pope's Marian Message. Patris, Vallendar-Schoenstatt 1980, ISBN 3-87620-063-6 .
- Josef Kentenich : With Maria into the new millennium. Selected texts on the mission of the Blessed Mother. Schoenstatt, Vallendar-Schoenstatt 2000, ISBN 3-920849-99-X .
- Christa Mulack : Maria. The secret goddess in Christianity. 2nd Edition. Kreuz-Verlag, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-7831-0797-0 .
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- Rainer Scherschel: The rosary, the western Jesus prayer. 2nd Edition. Herder, Freiburg (Breisgau) a. a. 1982, ISBN 3-451-18396-X (also: Trier, University, dissertation, 1977/78).
- Thomas Schipflinger: Sophia - Maria. A holistic vision of creation. a contribution to the Marian Year and the Millennium of the "Baptism of Rus" (= Koinonia. Vol. 7). Verlag Neue Stadt, Munich u. a. 1988, ISBN 3-87996-227-8
- Klaus Schreiner : Maria. Virgin, mother, ruler. Hanser, Munich a. a. 1994, ISBN 3-446-17831-7 .
- Elvira Maria Slade: Maria. The unknown sides of the "Mother of God". Verlag für Reformatorische Erneuerung, Wuppertal 2003, ISBN 3-87857-318-9 .
- Emil Valasek: Small Lexicon of Mary. For the historical Bohemian lands and Slovakia. Bernardus-Verlag, Aachen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8107-9304-1 .
- Pope Paul VI : Apostolic Letter Marialis cultus (see also article Marialis cultus )
- Secretariat of the Dt. Bishops' Conference: Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy. Principles and Orientations (2001)
- Joseph Schumacher : Maria in recent Protestant communities (PDF; 60 kB)
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- Arno Herzig : The compulsion to true faith. Re-Catholicization policy from the 16th to the 18th century. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2000, ISBN 3-525-01384-1 .
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- Özgür, ME: Perge Istanbul (2nd edition) 1989, p. 14. Quoted from Haarmann, Harald: On the trail of the Indo-Europeans. From the Neolithic steppe nomads to the early advanced civilizations. CH Beck, Munich 2016, p. 273.
- Piet Smulders: Dogma-historical and Magisterial Development of Christology. In: Johannes Feiner, Magnus Löhrer (ed.): Mysterium Salutis. Outline of salvation-historical dogmatics. Volume 3: The Christ Event. Half volume 1. Benziger, Zurich a. a. 1970, pp. 451-457.
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- Kai Michel: God mother . In: Die Zeit , No. 13/2007, p. 31, on the exhibition
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- Jörg Lauster: The enchantment of the world. A cultural history of Christianity , CH Beck, Munich 2014, p. 511f.
- IBK: Declaration on the Assumption of Mary " alt-katholisch.de "
- Mary: Hope and Grace in Christ "Mary: Grace and Hope in Christ"
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- August 15 in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
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- Description of Various Loa of Voodoo , Webster University , 1990
- A systematic compilation of the literary use of these images of Mary and epithets is offered by Anselm Salzer's "The symbols and epithets of Mary in German literature and hymn poetry of the Middle Ages", Linz 1893 online .
- Friedrich Braun: The parish church to our women in Memmingen. A contribution to the history of Upper Swabian church construction . Köselsche Buchhandlung, Kempten u. a. 1914, p. 82 .
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- Bäumer, Scheffczyk (Ed.): Marienlexikon. 4th volume: Lajtha - orange tree. 1992, ISBN 3-88096-894-2 , pp. 548f.
- Bote von Fatima , June 2009, , p. 72f.