Mother Mary's house
The house of Mother Mary (Turkish Meryemana evi ) near the ancient city of Ephesus is a restored Byzantine church or monastery building , which is considered by pilgrims as a temporary residence and possible death house of Mary , the mother of Jesus .
Name, location, inventory
Which since the 1890s, initially under the name Panaghia -Capouli (literally "gates of the Holy" - that is svw "House of the Virgin Mary"... Greek Παναγία-Καπούλη, Turkish Panayia Kapili , German and Panagia Kapuli ) became known Marian shrine is located about 7 km southwest of the modern city of Selçuk at altitude of on the western slope of Ala Dağı , a mountain called Solmissos in ancient times, south of the Nightingale Mountain ( Bülbül Dağı ), a few kilometers outside the Lysimachian city wall. It was also called Monastiri üç Kapu ("Monastery of the Three Gates"). A spring rises below the house. In the grove further below the complex there is also a rectangular space ("atrium") delimited by arcades with columns , with a medieval water reservoir discovered in 1964, the shape of which is reminiscent of an oversized full-body baptismal font and sometimes as an indication of an early Christian use of the location as a baptismal place was taken. The area is designed like a park and offers a "wonderful view" ( Scherrer ) of the Aegean Sea, which is just under 6 km away .
Today's pilgrimage site goes back to the writings of Clemens Brentano about alleged visions of Anna Katharina Emmerick , who is said to have described the last place of residence and the grave of the mother of Jesus in detail. Brentano's short story The Life of St. In the passages on Mary's death in Ephesus (from page 404), the Virgin Mary processes information from Emmerick, most of which were communicated to him in 1821. Here it is said that the apostle John moved with Mary to Ephesus and lived with her in a house from which one can see the sea. Mary was buried here and one day the grave will be found.
The spread of Edmond de Cazalès (1804–1876) published French translations of the Brentano writings on Anna Katharina Emmerick aroused since the 1870s in some French clergy, who were convinced of the reliability of the descriptions, the desire to see the death house of St. Mary locate in Ephesus. The unemployed Parisian priest Julien Gouyet († 1899) was the first to travel to the area and, according to his own reports, found the later Marienhaus on October 18, 1881. His information was not taken seriously by the church authorities and the expedition was forgotten. Ten years later, in August 1891, the superior of the Lazarists in Smyrna , Eugène Poulin (1843–1928), sent a five-person commission with two companions to the mountain near Ephesus. Two confreres, the Alsatian Henri Jung (184? –1929) and the later Madagascar missionary Benjamin Vervault (1843–1912), both former soldiers , had a ruined house two weeks earlier with the help of local guides (who may have already accompanied Gouyet) found which, according to Poulins and Jung, corresponded to the description in the visionary records. This time the initiative for the search came from the French nobleman and Vincentine Adele Marie de Mandat-Grancey (1837–1915), who was working as matron at the French naval hospital in Smyrna at the time, and her confessor Jung after reading the Emmerick stories the expedition had pushed. After negotiations with the Turkish government, she bought the site in November 1892 with the property inherited from her family and had the house rebuilt by the Lazarist Fathers and local employees of the order under the direction of Father Jung.
Annual pilgrimages to the house of Mother Mary have been organized since 1896 . In the years that followed, extensive clean-up, restoration and excavation work took place on the house and in the area, where the main attempt was to find the tomb of the Virgin Mary. Several graves from the Byzantine era were discovered near the rectangular forecourt west of the church. With the support of local helpers, the forest above the facility was also searched for traces of a Stations of the Cross suspected there based on the information provided by Emmerick . Between 1898 and 1902, the provisional reconstruction of the dilapidated church was completed, which received a temporary protective roof. In 1903 a house for guests and a few sisters was built on the forecourt. Until her death, the donor often stayed on the site, took care of the design, management and planting of the complex, devoted herself to prayer and welcomed visitors and pilgrims.
In 1910 the founder signed the property over to the Lazarist superior, Father Poulin. During the First World War , the area was declared a restricted military area and the abandoned property was confiscated by the Turkish authorities in 1917. When the Lazarists returned to Ephesus during the Greco-Turkish War in 1920 , they found the area in an overgrown and demolished state. From 1926, religious operations could be resumed to a limited extent, but came to a halt again after 1936. It was not until 1947 that the ownership structure was finally recognized by the Turkish state. From 1949 the annual pilgrimages were again organized regularly; after 1950 the Turkish tourism authority built an asphalt access road to the sanctuary. At the same time the Marienhaus itself was renovated. In 1952 the property was transferred to a group of co-owners led by the local Catholic bishop. Since 1955, the sanctuary has belonged to a private association from the USA ( The American Society of Ephesus ), which the American telecommunications entrepreneur George B. Quatman (1890–1964) from Cincinnati , Ohio , shortly before as a foundation for the purpose of maintaining the House of Mary and other Ephesinians Had erected memorials. Since then, the pilgrimage leadership has been associated with the American Knights of Columbus .
The current building is a largely reconstructed building erected over the remains that have been found, which is based on the descriptions of Emmerick. The last structural interventions took place in 1951 together with the renovations of the entire complex, with which the pilgrimage site received its present form.
According to archaeologists who inspected the site in the first decades after the discovery and z. T. have visited, the historical components of the building are said to date from the 5th to 7th centuries AD; in any case, they are not to be placed before the Byzantine epoch. Older foundations of the building, which could possibly also come from the 1st century after the birth of Jesus, are basically conceivable and are assumed by proponents of authenticity to this day, but could not be proven when the foundation walls were uncovered in 1961. The bodies in the clay plate graves found west of the church were buried with their heads facing the church and were holding Byzantine coins from the 7th and 8th centuries in their hands.
Systematic archaeological investigations did not take place until 1965 and 1967 under the direction of the Italian archaeologist Adriano Prandi (1900–1979), who in 1957 also examined the alleged St. Peter's tomb in Rome . According to Prandi, the remains of the sacred structure are a late Byzantine chapel from the 13th century, which was originally covered with a dome . Structural asymmetries suggest an older predecessor building, which was taken into account when the building was erected, which can be seen particularly clearly in the southern side chapel (“sleeping cell”, today's “Koran room”), on which Prandi's excavations focused. Although no clear dating information could be found there either, Prandi considered a previous building from the 2nd or 3rd century to be likely. Including the documented by the laity excavators discovering time archaeological findings from around the entire facility was interpreted as a late Byzantine monastery, on the remains of an on terraces scale Roman villa has been the 2nd to 3rd century. BC built.. The Capuchin Egidio Picucci contradicted this in 2002 , assuming the 4th century as the period of the original building.
The latest archaeological investigation was not carried out on the chapel itself, but in the garden of the complex about 80 meters west of the house. The Austrian excavation team from Ephesus carried out two exploratory excavations there in 2003 on behalf of the Turkish heritage authorities , after rumors had spread about a glass coffin with the body of Our Lady buried there, which was briefly visible during a wall repair in the 1950s should. While these rumors were not confirmed, the analysis of the ceramic finds from the undisturbed layers of the excavation allows the conclusion that the ancient villa was not built in the 2nd to 4th century AD, as previously assumed, but at least the atrium of the House as early as the 1st century BC Existed.
Since archaeological research to date has not given any confirmation of a Christian use of the square in apostolic times, a grave from this time was never found and the function and appearance of the presumed ancient buildings cannot yet be reconstructed before the Byzantine church was built the followers of the Marian tradition express their opinion on indirect evidence in local traditions, which in their opinion suggest a connection between Mary and Ephesus.
As with Brentano, modern proponents of the Ephesinian thesis also use the tomb of the apostle John venerated in Ephesus as an indication, since the mother of Jesus according to the biblical phrase "See, your mother!" ( Jn 19 : 26-27 EU ) after the I lived with Johannes during Easter events . According to this view, Mary spent the last years of her life in Ephesus, where she is said to have fled together with the disciple John from the persecution of Christians under Herod Agrippa I from Jerusalem.
In the ruins of Ephesus there are well-preserved remains of the first known St. Mary's Church , which dates back to a Roman hall complex from the 2nd century AD and, according to older research, was built in the 4th century during the reign of Emperor Constantine . In this church that found in 431 the Council of Ephesus held that the theological Marientitulatur as "Theotokos" ( " Mother of God confirmed"). Since it was customary at this time to name churches only after those holy persons who actually lived in the place in question, proponents see this as an indication of the old age or the authenticity of a tradition about Mary's place of residence that was later forgotten. However, this conclusion is contradicted by scholars of antiquity. More recent excavation findings also suggest that the church could not have received its Marian title before the year 500. According to known historical sources, the holding of the council in Ephesus had purely practical reasons and was not related to a special relationship between Mary and the place. Pilgrims visited Ephesus in the early Byzantine period mainly because of the tomb of John , while pilgrims reports do not speak of a Marian shrine before and after 431. It was not until the Middle Byzantine period that various representatives in the Syrian-Eastern Church area could be named who affirmed Mary's old age residence in Ephesus, including Moses bar Kepha († 903), Dionysius bar Salibi († 1171) and Michael the Syrian († 1199). In contrast, this assumption could never gain a foothold in the West and only emerged here in later modern times.
Furthermore, reference is made to a local tradition of the Christian population who lived in the neighboring town of Çirkince (now Şirince ), who “took over the belief from their ancestors since time immemorial” that Mary “fell asleep” on the mountain south of Ephesus. The name Panaghia-Capouli for the sanctuary was also adopted by these Greek-speaking Christians . In August 1897, over 200 local Orthodox Christians from the Çirkince area made a pilgrimage to the newly opened church of their own accord. The traditional views of these Christians, by which the discoverers of the Marienhaus were already impressed and felt strengthened in their conviction of the authenticity of the house where they died, come from modern times and can first be proven in the 19th century.
Traditions about the death of Mary
The older ecclesiastical tradition speaks against Mary's death in Ephesus, which apparently knew nothing of her stay in Asia Minor and had venerated Mary's grave in the Kidron Valley in the east of Jerusalem since the 4th century at the latest . The legend there is often traced back to the testimony of Melitons of Sardis († around 180), but this is also very questionable. The idea of Mary's death in the circle of the apostles in Jerusalem spread particularly since the 6th century through the description of the pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita , who called himself an eyewitness to this event, and was the only common tradition in the Middle Ages, even in the West. It became popular not least because of its inclusion in the Legenda aurea . The Marian tomb in Jerusalem is venerated by Orthodoxy to this day and considered authentic. It was also long propagated and promoted by the Franciscan Order and its Custody of the Holy Land .
The existence of divergent traditions to the place where Mary died is first attested to around 375 by Epiphanios von Salamis , who already comes to the conclusion that nothing reliable is known about it. At least Epiphanios confirms that even in his time some took the view that Mary had lived with John in Asia and had died there or was raptured . Such a conviction is also indicated by a passage in a letter from the Council Fathers of Ephesus from 431 to the clergy , the text of which has been passed down unclearly due to transcription errors. The church historian Gregory of Tours mentions in the 6th century “four walls without a roof”, which have been preserved “on a mountain top near Ephesus” and in which John lived; but he does not speak of Maria in this context.
It is very likely that Brentano was aware of these discussions and references and included them when writing his Life of the Virgin Mary, in which he used extensive additional material in addition to his notes on Emmerick's visions. In any case, the hypothesis of the death of Mary in Ephesus was widespread among representatives of early biblical criticism in the 18th century. In the Roman Catholic Church , Pope Benedict XIV († 1758) tended towards this hypothesis. In today's research, the Ephesus hypothesis has been practically abandoned because there is no reliable evidence for it and the archaeologically unprovable assumptions about the house on Ala Dağı based on Brentano's romantic understanding of religion and reality have no scientific evidence.
A study carried out on behalf of the Archdiocese of Smyrna came to the conclusion in December 1892 that the assumption that the Blessed Mother Mary may have died in the house is scientifically and theologically justifiable. In the following years theologians and scientists developed a z. Sometimes very passionate controversy about the admissibility of this hypothesis, in the course of which Eugène Poulin and, after his death, other Vincentine authors such as Joseph Euzet (1873–1961) vehemently defended the correctness of the assumptions.
In 1895 Pope Leo XIII. report on the discovery and in the following year forbade the plenary indulgence, which had been connected with the visit to the traditional Marian tomb in Jerusalem, for all time. In 1903, the year of his death, he was still planning to send a papal commission to Turkey to investigate the site.
His successor, Pius X. , received the founder of the sanctuary in 1912 and asked whether Mary's tomb had been found in the meantime. Although not the case, he granted a group of visitors to the pilgrimage site a full indulgence in 1914. In February 1921 a conference of the Pontifical Roman Seminary took place in the Lateran with the participation of numerous representatives of the Curia on the question of the admissibility of pilgrimages to the "House of Mary". As a result of the specialist discussions, the Austrian Capuchin and Bible scholar Michael Hetzenauer (1860–1928) coined the officially preferred language regulation to this day, according to which the assumption of a temporary stay of Mary in Ephesus is possible regardless of the answer to the question of where the saint died.
Finally, Pope Pius XII declared. Mary's house became a Catholic pilgrimage site in August 1951 ( Sanctuarium , " shrine "). When dogmatizing Mary's bodily acceptance into heaven in the previous year, the Pope had refrained from specifying the place of death and ascension of the Blessed Mother.
Pope John XXIII , who was an apostolic delegate in Turkey in the 1930s and is said to have visited the place of worship on the occasion of the 1500th anniversary of the Council of Ephesus in 1931, sent a special candle to the house for the feast of the Presentation of the Lord in 1960 . Such candles are donated only to important Marian shrines. In 1961 he granted a plenary indulgence for all time to Catholic pilgrims who visit the house with religious intent.
Pope Paul VI visited the house on July 26, 1967 and reiterated the admissibility of the veneration. Pope John Paul II visited it on November 30, 1979, Pope Benedict XVI. on November 29, 2006 (shortly after his Regensburg speech ); all three popes celebrated a mass each at the pilgrimage site. Every year on the Assumption of Mary there is a festive service on August 15th.
Interreligious pilgrimage site
Even Muslims - especially women - visit the sanctuary and worship there Maryam the mother of Prophet Isa . In the early years, the number of Muslim visitors far exceeded that of Christian pilgrims. The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Smyrna , Joseph Descuffi CM (a. 1937-1965), who was responsible for the pilgrimage site at the start of the official pilgrimage in the 1950s , also reported in 1958 and 1964 that there was a large Muslim participation in the pilgrimage. Accordingly, the distribution between Christian and Muslim visitors at that time was around 60:40. The founder of the shrine, who died in 1915, maintained good relationships with the local population and looked after visitors of all faiths with the same kindness and concern, which is taken by today's supporters of the cult as an encouragement to give Mary and her house in Ephesus as an integrative symbol for Christian-Muslim understanding interpret.
Many pilgrims drink the spring water or take it home; there are also reports of the healing of the sick . The greatest attention of Muslim visitors, who are arriving from all parts of Turkey today, finds next to the source the so-called Koran room, allegedly Mary's bedroom, whose interior walls have been adorned with Koran verses and Islamic symbols since the 1980s, while Christian symbolism predominates in the rest of the building . In the understanding of many, including Turkish Muslims, the Koranic figure of Maryam is a sublime and sincere woman who can intercede with God, which will be heard with great certainty. Traditionally, in some areas of Turkey it is customary for the poor and women who cannot make a pilgrimage to Mecca themselves to fulfill their duty of pilgrimage ( Hajj ) by visiting the Marienhaus as an alternative.
Western visitors sometimes react with surprise or incomprehension to the Muslim interest in the Marian pilgrimage site; Certain radical religious groups also condemn visits to Catholic Marian shrines within Islam. For a few years the pilgrimage site has been guarded around the clock by the Turkish military out of fear of incidents. But even with numerous Orthodox and Protestant pilgrims, whose conceptions of faith often differ significantly from Roman Catholic positions, dogmatic-religious considerations about the position of the Virgin Mary in Christian doctrine usually only play a subordinate role. The main reasons for the veneration of the site are piety, hope for help in personal matters, interest in the person and religious figure of Mary and historical curiosity for religiously motivated visitors of all religious traditions.
Similar to other Marian houses - such as the Birth and Annunciation Houses in Loreto (Italy) or Walsingham (Norfolk) - in use for a long time, since the turn of the last millennium, various replicas of the Marian House in Ephesus have been made in other places, especially on the American continent, such as below in Jamaica (Vermont) (2002), Buenos Aires and Natividade (Rio de Janeiro) ; also (in highly unfamiliar form) in Eindhoven (Netherlands) and in the alleged since the 1980 apparitions of Mary known location Medjugorje in Bosnia (only facade replica).
- Peter Bamm : Early Christian sites. 143-146. Tsd., Knaur Verlag, Munich / Zurich 1979 (first edition 1955), pp. 91–102 (appealing, scientifically outdated travel report about a visit in 1952).
- Werner Vordtriede : Clemens Brentano's share in the cult site in Ephesus. In: German quarterly for literary studies and intellectual history. Vol. 34, 1960, , pp. 384-401.
- Else Remy Thierry: The Mystery of the House of the Blessed Virgin at Ephesus. In: Theologisches (special supplement Mariological . Edited by the Mariological Institute Kevelaer) vol. 21 (1991), Sp. M189–194 (No. 4) and M418 f. (No. 8).
- Ali İhsan Yitik: The Virgin Mary and Her House at Ephesus. A comparative religious mariological study. (PDF file; 315 kB) In: Journal for Religious Culture No. 56 (2002).
- Andreas Pülz , Sabine Ladstätter : Meryemana at Ephesus. On the archaeological investigation of 2003. In: Anzeiger der philosophisch-historical class of the Vienna Academy of Sciences , vol. 141 (2006), Vienna, pp. 71-104.
- Heather Abraham: The Shrine of our Lady of Ephesus: A Study of the Personas of Mary as Lived Religion. Thesis, Georgia State University, 2008.
- Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. Ed. from Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey Foundation , TAN Books, Charlotte (North Carolina) 2014.
- Peter Bamm: Early Places of Christianity. 143-146. Tsd., Knaur Verlag, Munich 1979, p. 82 f .; Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, p. 74; Wilhelm Alzinger: The city of the seventh wonder of the world. The rediscovery of Ephesus. Vienna 1962, p. 250.
- Johannes Niessen : Panagia Kapuli, the newly discovered home and death house of the Holy Virgin Mary near Ephesus. Duelmen 1905.
- Wilhelm Alzinger : The city of the seventh wonder of the world. The rediscovery of Ephesus. Vienna 1962, p. 250.
- Achim Bourmer: Turkish Mediterranean coast. Baedeker travel guide , Ostfildern 2014, p. 233.
- Peter Scherrer (Ed.): Ephesos. The new leader. Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut, Vienna 1995 (unchanged in terms of content: Ephesus. The New Guide. Revised edition, Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut / Ege Yayınları, Istanbul 2000), p. 232.
- Andreas Pülz, Sabine Ladstätter: Meryemana near Ephesus. On the archaeological investigation of 2003. Vienna 2006, pp. 71–104 (here: 77).
- Oskar Katann: The credibility of Clemens Brentano's Emmerick reports. On the current state of sources and research. In: Literary Studies Yearbook, New Series, Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1967, p. 164 f.
- Annales de la Congrégation de la Mission (Lazaristes) et de la Compagnie des Filles de la Charité. Volume 126, year 1961, Paris 1961, p. 50.
- Else Remy Thierry: The Mystery of the House of the Blessed Virgin in Ephesus. In: Theologisches 21 (1991), No. 8, Col. M419.
- Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, p. 159.
For the entire section cf. the abstract by Lorraine F. Fusaro: Sister Marie de Mandat-Grancey. Mary's House & Sister Marie (Meryem Ana Evi). The Sister Marie de Mandat-Grancey Foundation, New York 2009, pp. 6-13.
In detail: Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte (North Carolina) , 2014.
- See text on the information board in front of the sanctuary, photographed in 2008 ( image 4 of the series , accessed on June 12, 2016) and 2013 (new sign with the same text, commons image source ).
- Peter Bamm: Early Places of Christianity. 143-146. Tsd., Knaur Verlag, Munich 1979 (first edition 1955), p. 101.
- Joseph Euzet: Historique de la Maison de la Sainte Vierge pres d'Ephese. Istanbul 1961; in engl. Transl. New ed. by Carl G. Schulte, in: ders .: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, pp. 201–331. On pp. 241–244, Euzet reports the assessments of several well-known archaeologists and Byzantinists, including Otto Benndorf (Vienna), Marie-Joseph Lagrange (Paris) and Georgios Lambakis (1854–1914, Athens) who built the building between 1892 and 1907 examined and - sometimes several times - inspected.
So Rudolf Grulich : The House of Mary in Ephesus. Pilgrims worship the icon of a Sudeten German sister ( memento from July 20, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). Magazine article for Church in Need , 2012 (accessed November 17, 2015).
Like Else Remy Thierry: The Mystery of the House of the Blessed Virgin at Ephesus. In: Theologisches 21 (1991), No. 8, Col. M418. There she claims, contrary to her better judgment, that it has meanwhile been “proven that the substructure of the chapel dates from the first century”, and is wrongly referring to the investigations by “Professor Prandi in 1966”.
- Pietro Zander: Iuxta corpus Beati Petri in Vaticano: Pio XII e le esplorazioni archeologiche sotto la basilica di San Pietro. In: I Papi della Memoria: La storia di alcuni grandi Pontefici che hanno segnato il cammino della Chiesa e dell'Umanità (exhibition catalog, presented by Centro Europeo per il Turismo ). Gangemi Editore, Rome 2012, pp. 101–106 (here: p. 105 and note 25).
- this and for the other information in this section that is not individually documented: Andreas Pülz, Sabine Ladstätter: Meryemana bei Ephesos. On the archaeological investigation of 2003. Vienna 2006, pp. 71–104 (esp. Pp. 76–80).
- The Turkish Marienhaus. In: Der Spiegel 36/1958, September 3, 1958, p. 54.
- Wilhelm Alzinger: The city of the seventh wonder of the world. Vienna 1962, p. 138 f.
- Donald Carroll: Mary's House, in: Cornucopia. The Magazine for Connoisseurs of Turkey. Issue 29 (2003), online edition (accessed June 10, 2016).
- Stefan Karwiese : The Church of Mary in Ephesos . Research report (online publication, April 2008), s. u. Paragraph heading "Phase 3".
- Andreas Pülz, Sabine Ladstätter: Meryemana near Ephesus. On the archaeological investigation of 2003. Vienna 2006, pp. 71–104 (here: 73 f.).
- Joseph Euzet: Historique de la Maison de la Sainte Vierge pres d'Ephese. Istanbul 1961; in Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, pp. 225-227.
- Andreas Pülz, Sabine Ladstätter: Meryemana near Ephesus. On the archaeological investigation of 2003. Vienna 2006, pp. 71–104 (here: 71–73).
- Max Küchler : Jerusalem: A handbook and study travel guide to the Holy City (Places and Landscapes of the Bible, Volume IV.2). 2nd, completely revised edition, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2014, pp. 466–469.
- Else Remy Thierry: The Mystery of the House of the Blessed Virgin in Ephesus. In: Theologisches 21 (1991), No. 21, Col. M193.
- Else Remy Thierry: The Mystery of the House of the Blessed Virgin in Ephesus. In: Theologisches 21 (1991), No. 21, Col. M191 f.
- Oskar Katann: The credibility of Clemens Brentano Emmerich reports. On the current state of sources and research. In: Literary Studies Yearbook, New Series, Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1967, p. 162 f.
- addition: Ulrike Landfester : Half wonder animal, half Cinderella. On the aesthetic program of Clemens Brentano's biography of the stigmatized nun Anna Emmerick. In: Alexander von Bormann (ed.): Romantic religiosity. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, pp. 163–183.
- Andrea Policarpo Timoni, Archbishop of Smyrna and Apostolic Vicar of Asia Minor, was responsible for the investigation; a detailed investigation report in French was published on March 25, 1896: Panaghia-Capouli ou Maison de la Sainte Vierge près d'Éphèse (PDF; 4.8 MB). Librairie Religieuse H. Odin, Paris 1896 (96 pages, with 12 drawings).
- Annales de la Congrégation de la Mission (Lazaristes) et de la Compagnie des Filles de la Charité. Volume 126, vol. 1961, Paris 1961, pp. 49-55.
- For this and all of the following, not individually documented information on the recognition history cf. Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, pp. 193–196.
- Joseph Euzet: Historique de la Maison de la Sainte Vierge pres d'Ephese. Istanbul 1961; in Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, p. 313.
- So Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, p. 154; Euzet, on the other hand, only speaks of a “short visit” by Roncallis to the council basilica on the ruins of Ephesus (which is also documented photographically), without mentioning a further journey to the sanctuary (ibid. P. 308).
- Visit of the Pope in Ephesus on November 29, 2006 and wording of the sermon at kath.net , accessed on November 18, 2015.
- St. Nicholas Church Antalya: Celebration of the feast of the Assumption of Mary in Ephesus 2015 , accessed on November 17, 2015.
- Meryem Ana'dan BMW dilediler . Report in Milliyet of August 19, 2014, accessed June 12, 2016.
- Willy Jansen, Meike Kühl: Shared Symbols . In: European Journal of Women's Studies, SAGE Publications, 15 (3), 2008, pp. 295-311.
- Rudolf Grulich: The House of Mary in Ephesus. Pilgrims worship the icon of a Sudeten German sister. Magazine article for Church in Need , Munich 2012.
- Orith Tempelman: Short vacation in Ephesus. What not to miss ( memento of November 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: Wendezeit Heft 4/2007, pp. 17–20 (here p. 19).
- Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, p. 136.
- Ali İhsan Yitik: The Virgin Mary and Her House at Ephesus. A comparative religious mariological study. In: Journal für Religionskultur 56 (2002), p. 4.
- Willy Jansen, Meike Kühl: Shared Symbols . In: European Journal of Women's Studies, SAGE Publications, 15 (3), 2008, p. 300.
- Travel report Turkey - Aegean coast by Detlev von Bienenstamm, Diana Travel, Bruchsal 2011, Fig. 17 (accessed on June 13, 2016).
- For all information in this section that is not individually documented, cf. Heather Abraham: The Shrine of our Lady of Ephesus: A Study of the Personas of Mary as Lived Religion. Georgia State University, Atlanta 2008, pp. 37-44.
- Message from the Religious Information Service of Ukraine dated May 2, 2012 about a planned Loreto replica in Zarvanytsia with reference to the older tradition; accessed on June 13, 2016.
- J. Gordon Melton : Art. Mary's House (England) , in ders .: The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena. Visible Ink Press, Detroit 2008, p. 214.
- Photographs of the construction of the Marienhaus in Jamaica (2002) , accessed on June 13, 2016.
- Benedict Groeschel : Preface , in: Carl G. Schulte: The Life of Sr. Marie de Mandat-Grancey and Mary's House in Ephesus. TAN Books, Charlotte, 2014, pp. Xiii f .; see. ibid. Fig.p. xix .