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Ephesus (Turkey)
Ephesus, location in Turkey

Ephesus ( ancient Greek Ἔφεσος , Hittite probably Apaša , Latin Ephesus ), located in the Ionia region, was one of the oldest, largest and most important cities in Asia Minor in ancient times and housed one of the seven wonders of the world with the temple of Artemis (Artemision) . In ancient times the city was located directly on the sea; Due to sedimentation as well as climatic and seismic changes, the coastline shifted to the west in the course of time, so that the remains of the city are now several kilometers inland.

The ruins of Ephesus are now near Selçuk , about 70 km south of İzmir on the Turkish west coast ( Aegean Sea ). The Turkish name of the current excavation site is Efes .

In 2015 Ephesus was included in the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage .


Historical map of Ephesus from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888
View from the theater to the harbor street in Ephesus
Map of the present-day area of ​​Ephesus

Copper and Bronze Ages

Both the name Ephesus and the original settlement date from pre-Greek times. The oldest evidence of the presence of people in the area of ​​the later city of Ephesus goes back to the late Chalcolithic around 5000 BC. BC back. These finds were made on the slope of Ayasoluk hill in the area of ​​the citadel of Selçuk . From the middle of the 2nd millennium BC The settlement Apaša (also Abaša), known from Hittite texts and probably to be identified with the later Ephesus, located in the country of Arzawa , was an important center in the sphere of influence of the Hittite and Mycenaean cultures . Apaša was at times the capital of the Arzawa empire. Remains of a defensive wall from the 2nd millennium BC were found on the southern and western slopes of Ayasoluk. Discovered. From the 2nd half of the 2nd millennium BC Among other things, there are Minoan and Mycenaean finds that were discovered in Ephesus and testify to intensive trade with Crete and Mycenaean Greece. Compared to Mycenaean ceramics - which comes from Miletus and mainland Greece - native, typically western Anatolian ceramic styles predominate, which indicates that there was an important indigenous rulership on the Ayasoluk hill and which speaks for an identification of the settlement with the Arzawa capital Apaša .

Early Iron Age to Hellenistic Period

According to legend, Androclus , King of Attica, founded the forerunner settlement of the city of Ephesus, but this myth probably reflects the later claims of the Athenians on Ionia. The earliest Iron Age Greek pottery discovered dates back to the late 11th century BC. BC (early protogeometric pottery ). Since they outnumber the hand-made indigenous goods at the same time, it is assumed that Ephesus was built in the late 11th century BC. Was a Greek settlement.

Local Lydians and Karians lived northeast of today's urban area, according to tradition, the immigrant Greeks founded their own settlement called Koressos. Around the middle of the 7th century BC BC Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians . It is not clear from ancient sources whether the city was plundered and possibly destroyed or whether the attack could be withstood. Arrowheads, which date approximately from that time, are assigned to the Kimmerians by some researchers. Devastating the consequences can be in any case hardly have been for Ephesus, because a few years later, Ephesus verleibte the territory of the Cimmerians of and / or Trerern completely destroyed Magnesia one. After the conquest by the Lydian king Kroisos in 560 BC. There was a synoicism , that is, several small settlements were merged and a new settlement was built in an area near the Temple of Artemis. In the following period, first the Persians, then the Athenians, then the Spartans and finally the Persians again controlled the city. The Artemision burned in 356 BC. BC, but was later rebuilt.

334 BC Chr. Was Alexander the Great from the city. It wasn't until 296 BC. Ephesus was moved from Thrace to its present location by the Diadoch king Lysimachus and temporarily renamed Arsinoeia after his wife . Since that time, Ephesus was a large port city of almost 350 hectares, which existed from 189 to 133 BC. Belonged to the kingdom of Pergamon after 133 BC. To the Roman Empire .

Roman metropolis

The first decades of Roman sovereignty over the Ephesian polis were marked by growing tensions, which ultimately escalated in the bloodbath of Vespers in Ephesus when the city's Greek citizens were in 88 BC. Numerous Romans and Italians killed. The situation calmed down during the imperial era, and from then on Roman rule was felt to be less oppressive.

Ephesus was one of the most important and with perhaps more than 200,000 inhabitants also one of the great cities of the Roman Empire, and also the seat of the governor ( proconsul ) of the province of Asia . Numerous public buildings were built, financed by both the city and wealthy citizens. These included a market basilica in honor of Augustus and temples for the emperors Vespasian and Hadrian , who were venerated as part of the imperial cult . The Parther monument erected around 170 for Lucius Verus (today in Vienna) is remarkable . In 262 Ephesus was hit by a severe earthquake, and a little later Gothic warriors plundered the place. Around 230 the devastation was so severe "that a more or less extensive destruction of the city can be assumed".

The city recovered, albeit on a more modest level, and retained its prominent position well into late antiquity , on the one hand as a place of pilgrimage and bishopric , on the other hand as the capital of the (secular) diocese of Asiana .

Christianity in Ephesus

Also in connection with the development of Christianity is Ephesus important: Barely 20 years after the work of Jesus was his teaching by Apollo to Ephesus on the Asia Minor west coast passes ( Acts 18.24 to 28  EU ). The church of Ephesus was one of the oldest Christian churches ever. The apostle Paul was able to build on the preaching of Apollos , who had already made a short stop there on the way back from his second mission trip (approx. 52 AD) ( Acts 18:19  EU ). Among other things, he aroused the indignation of the devotional merchants who feared for their good business with the " Diana of the Ephesians ". But Paul was legally tolerated in the city. About a year later he returned to Ephesus ( Acts 19  EU ) and probably stayed for three years, some of which he had to spend in prison. During this imprisonment he wrote the letters to the Philippians and Philemon . More of his letters were most likely written in Ephesus (such as the letter to the Romans , the first and second letters to the Corinthians and the letter to the Galatians ). An important letter was addressed to the Ephesians themselves. The Christian community in Ephesus is then the recipient of the first letter of the Apocalypse of John ( Rev 2,1–7  EU ) to the seven churches in Asia Minor ( Rev 1,11  EU ).

According to a later, extra-biblical legend, Mary is said to have settled after the ascension of Jesus with the circle of women around Jesus and with the apostle John in a house near Ephesus (the house of Mother Mary ) and many people until her own ascension have taught medicine and the doctrine of Christianity. Accordingly, John is said to have died in Ephesus. Also here, probably around 157, the dialogue between the Christian Justinus and the Jew Tryphon, based on the model of the Platonic dialogues, is said to have taken place, one of the earliest surviving Christian discussions with Judaism .

Since the 1st century there were bishops of Ephesus (Timotheus), 325 the metropolitan Ephesus was formed. In 431 the 3rd Ecumenical Council , also called Council of Ephesus , convened by Emperor Theodosius II , met in Ephesus , and in 449 the so-called Synod of Robbers , whose resolutions had already been rejected in 451. The so-called Marienkirche was mentioned several times as the place of the council; however, this is controversial in research. Late antique life flourished in Ephesus well into the 6th century ; Emperor Justinian had the magnificent St. John's basilica built, supposedly over the apostle's tomb.

Byzantine provincial city

The Justinian plague is likely to have caused a population decline in Ephesus around 542 as well, but it was not until the invasions of the Sassanids - the city was possibly conquered by the Persians in 615/616, as indicated by a fire horizon - and the subsequent Arab incursions (see Islamic expansion ) ended in 7th century the ancient phase of the city. Added to this was the increasing silting up of the port.

In 867 an army of the Paulikians under John Chrysocheir conquered the city. In 1090 - shortly before the First Crusade - Ephesus was conquered by the Turkish Seljuks ; Ayasoluk or Ayasluğ, which was later renamed Selçuk , was built nearby .

The city ​​played a central role in the defense of the meander area under the Komnenes and palaeologists , who once again won the area for Byzantium. In 1295, Alexios Philatropenus achieved greater successes against the Turks, but he got into a dispute with Constantinople. He initially rebelled successfully against the emperor and took Theodor, the emperor's brother, prisoner, whom he sent to Ephesus. But the rebellion soon collapsed.

In 1304 Byzantium made one last attempt to secure the region around Ephesus. The Catalan Company , a mercenary force, defeated the Turks at Thyraea, but was recalled to put down a rebellion for the emperor. Their leader Roger had paid dearly for his successes by extorting payments from several cities, including Ephesus. A little later the city finally fell to the Turks, the population was either killed or deported.


Nevertheless, it soon revived as the port of the Emirate of Aydın , whereby the long dispute over rival Smyrna (Turkish Izmir ) was of great benefit. Now the city became an important center for Turkish seafaring and piracy, but also for trade with Venice and Genoa . On July 23, 1319 a Turkish fleet with a crew of 2,600 lifted anchor to attack Chios , but was defeated by the Knights of Rhodes (see History of the Order of St. John ). Around 1325 Emir Mehmet divided his rule among his sons, whereby he reserved the supremacy until 1334. Hızır received Ephesus and had to submit to his father's successor and younger brother Umur. When Umur was killed in battle against a crusade league in front of Smyrna in 1348 , Hızır became the overlord of Aydın. He continued to reside in Ayasoluk , which shifted the focus from the previous capital Birgi here to Ephesus. In 1333 Ibn Battuta visited the city, who reported how the Johanneskirche had been converted into the main mosque of the city and that the city had 15 gates. Wilhelm von Boldensele visited the city in 1335, Ludolf von Suchem in 1336 or 1341. Ludolf took over the description of the church from his predecessor and added that the emir had withdrawn his land from the last inhabitant of the old city area, but that his widow was still in the city at the time of his visit decaying city lived.

The Italians, who called the capital Altoluogo , conducted an intensive trade with the local population, for example in alum , grain, and wax. The port was now neither in Ephesus nor in Ayusuluk, but 6 km west of the city, in old Panormos . Lombards who had fled Italy lived there and often joined the Turks on pirate trips, as Ludolf von Suchem reports. In order to promote this trade, especially in grain, Ephesus even issued its own coins for the first time in a millennium.

Hızır negotiated with the European powers from 1348, but by 1350 his emirate had recovered to such an extent that pirates were again exporting from Ephesus. He came to an agreement with Venice in 1358, so that around 1360 he could leave his successor Isa to rule on the basis of flourishing trade. However, this did not prevent Isa from putting counterfeit Venetian ducats into circulation or from continuing to hijack Italian ships. As a result, the Venetian fleet forced him to stop minting coins in 1370.

Although the following decades saw considerable prosperity, the emirate soon fell into the shadow of the aspiring Ottomans , who still supported them in Kosovo in 1389 . The Ottomans subjugated the Emirates of the west coast of Asia Minor in a large-scale campaign in 1390, Isa had to submit. Ephesus was occupied before March 1390.

But in 1402 the Sultan was defeated in the Battle of Ankara , the victor Timur moved to Ephesus in the autumn to destroy Smyrna in December. After that, his huge army returned to Ephesus, from where they sacked the surrounding areas. Only in the spring of 1403 did she leave the area again.

Musa, a son of the late Isa, ruled for a short time in Ephesus, followed by his brother Umur in 1403. Junayd , Isa’s nephew, rebelled with a small force and occupied Ephesus. He allied himself with Süleyman, one of the sons of the Ottoman who died near Ankara. Umur, however, did not accept this and besieged Ephesus, whose four quarters went up in flames. Now Junayd, for his part, plundered the surrounding area, and Umur found himself ready to compensate. However, Junayd had him murdered. In 1407 he faced a siege of Suleyman, with whom he had broken the alliance. He had to submit. The city had to support the army for four months. After Süleyman's death in 1410, Junayd returned and once again seized control, which he was able to hold until 1425, when the Ottomans finally took over the remains of the city.



Celsus library, on the right the south gate of the agora
Great Theater of Ephesus
Toilet facility
Ionic capitals depicting a bull's head
Ruin of Hadrian's Temple, part of the portal
The portico of the Justinian basilica below the Turkish citadel

Archaeological exploration of Ephesus began in the 19th century with the search for the remains of the Temple of Artemis . The first parts of the actual city became known. The British railway engineer John Turtle Wood (between 1863 and 1874) and the archaeologist David George Hogarth (1904/05) undertook the first excavations on behalf of the British Museum . The Austrian Archaeological Institute has been carrying out scheduled excavations since 1895 . They uncovered large areas of the city, in addition to public buildings, also some large residential buildings (" hillside houses "), which, with their wall paintings and mosaics, are among the best-preserved private residential buildings in the eastern Mediterranean.

Today Ephesus is one of the main tourist attractions of Turkey with several hundreds of thousands of visitors annually. Taking this fact into account, attempts were made to break new ground in the presentation of the ancient ruins in the sense of a restoration according to modern criteria. This is particularly true of the reconstruction ( anastilosis ) of the so-called Celsus library from the early 2nd century AD. It is not just a library building, but also the grave of the founder Tiberius Iulius Celsus Polemaeanus .

The public buildings that have been uncovered in the city area include the Bouleuterion , the assembly room of the city council, and the Prytaneion , the offices of the city's leading representatives. In addition to private residential buildings (of which the hillside houses represent an example of luxurious living culture), the ancient streets, such as Kuretenstrasse , were lined with other public buildings. These include monumental fountains ( Nymphaeum Traiani ) as well as temples, such as the small Hadrian temple in front of the Scholastikia baths .

Evidence for the bathing culture of the Ephesians are the large bath-gymnasium complexes, including the Vediusgymnasium , the theater, the east and the harbor high school as well as the Variusbad . In addition to personal hygiene and exercise, they also represented an important social and societal center of public life.

In the great theater of Ephesus, the apostle Paul is said to have experienced the scene described in the Acts of the Apostles with the devotional merchants at the Temple of Artemis.

Only small remains of the temples for the imperial cult , namely those for Domitian and Hadrian, are preserved today.

Several thousand Greek and Latin inscriptions found in Ephesus allow insights into the political, social, economic and religious life of the city, especially during the Hellenistic, Roman and late ancient times.

Important finds from the beginning of the excavations, which were brought out of the country with the permission of the Ottoman ruler, are now in the Ephesus Museum of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna in the Neue Burg , part of the Vienna Hofburg . Today the finds from the more recent excavations are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum in neighboring Selçuk , some older finds are also in the archaeological museums of Istanbul and Izmir as well as in the British Museum .

Against the background of political tensions between Vienna and Ankara, the Turkish Foreign Ministry asked the team of the Austrian Archaeological Institute (ÖAI) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences to immediately stop its archaeological work in Ephesus. Most recently, up to 200 scientists from 23 countries, including 55 Turkish employees, worked together on the excavation under the direction of Sabine Ladstätter . The excavations of the OeAI in Limyra had to be stopped at the end of August 2016. At the end of July 2018, however, the Turkish authorities issued another excavation permit and work can be resumed in both Ephesus and Limyra.




  • Reinhardt Harreither, Michael Huber, Renate Pillinger: Bibliography on late antiquity and early Christian archeology in Austria (with an appendix to Christian Ephesus) . In: Mitteilungen zur Christian Aräologie Volume 7, 2001, ISSN  1025-6555 .
  • Wolfgang Kosack : The Coptic Acts of the Councils of Nikaia and Ephesus. Text fragments and manuscripts in Paris, Turin, Naples, Vienna and Cairo. Edited, edited and translated in parallel lines. Coptic - German. Verlag Christoph Brunner, Basel 2015, ISBN 978-3-906206-07-3 .
  • Richard E. Oster: A bibliography of ancient Ephesus . American Theological Library Association, Metuchen NJ 1987, ISBN 0-8108-1996-1 .

Ephesus in general

  • Winfried Elliger : Ephesos - History of an ancient cosmopolitan city (= Urban Pocket Books Volume 375), Kohlhammer, Stuttgart a. a. 1985.
  • Clive Foss: Ephesus after Antiquity. A Late Antique, Byzantine and Turkish City , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1979, ISBN 0-521-22086-6 .
  • Helmut Halfmann: Urban planning and builders in Roman Asia Minor. A comparison between Pergamon and Ephesus . Wasmuth, Tübingen 2001, ISBN 3-8030-1742-4 .
  • Friedmund Hueber : Ephesus - built history . Zabern, Mainz 1997, ISBN 3-8053-1814-6 .
  • Stefan Groh: New research on urban planning in Ephesus. In: Annual Issues of the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Vienna Volume 75, Vienna 2005, ISSN  0078-3579 , pp. 47–116.
  • Stefan Karwiese : Artemis of Ephesus is large - the story of one of the great cities of antiquity . Phoibos, Vienna 1995, ISBN 3-901232-05-2 .
  • Michael Kerschner, Ireen Kowalleck, Martin Steskal: Archaeological research on the settlement history of Ephesus in geometric, archaic and classical times . Supplementary books to the annual books of the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Vienna 9, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-900305-49-9 .
  • Dieter Knibbe : Ephesus - history of an important ancient city and portrait of a modern large excavation in the 102nd year of the return of the beginning of Austrian research (1895–1997) . Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-631-32152-X .
  • Helmut Köster (Ed.): Ephesos - metropolis of Asia. An interdisciplinary approach to its archeology, religion and culture . Harvard theological studies 41, 2nd print Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge Mass. 2004, ISBN 0-674-01349-2 .
  • Peter Scherrer (Ed.): Ephesos - the new leader - 100 years of Austrian excavations 1895–1995 . Austrian Archäologisches Inst., Vienna 1995, ISBN 3-900305-19-6 .
  • Traute Wohlers-Scharf: The Research History of Ephesus. Discoveries, digs and personalities. 2nd edition Lang, Frankfurt a. M. 1996, ISBN 3-631-30577-X .
  • Lili Zabrana: Tourism in the Ephesus World Heritage Site - Risks and Opportunities for Monument Preservation . In: German Association for Archeology : Focus on Archeology 4/2015. ISSN 2364-4796, pp. 307-313.

Individual structures

  • Anton Bammer : The sanctuary of Artemis from Ephesus. Graz 1984, ISBN 3-201-01260-2 .
  • Sabine Ladstätter: The hillside house 2 in Ephesus. An archaeological guide. Istanbul 2012, ISBN 978-605-5607-94-4 .
  • Claudia Lang-Auinger (Ed.): Hillside house 1 in Ephesus. Finds and equipment . Research in Ephesos 8,4, publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-7001-3205-0 .
  • Friedrich Krinzinger (Ed.): The hillside house 2 of Ephesus. Studies on building history and chronology . Archaeological Research 7, Publishing House of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-7001-3050-3 .
  • Ulrike Muss (ed.): The archeology of the Ephesian Artemis. Shape and ritual of a sanctuary . Phoibos-Verlag, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-901232-91-6 .
  • Peter Scherrer, Elisabeth Trinkl: The Tetragonos Agora in Ephesus. Excavation results from archaic to Byzantine times - an overview. Findings and finds from the classical period . Research in Ephesos 13.2, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7001-3632-3 .
  • Wilfried Seipel (Ed.): The Artemision of Ephesus. Holy place of a goddess. An exhibition of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien in cooperation with the Archaeological Museum Istanbul and the Ephesus Museum Selçuk . KHM, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-85497-137-5 .
  • Wilfried Seipel (Ed.): The Parthian Monument of Ephesus . Writings of the Kunsthistorisches Museum 10, KHM, Vienna 2006, ISBN 978-3-85497-107-8 .
  • Martin Steskal, Martino La Torre: The Vediusgymnasium in Ephesus . Research in Ephesos 14,1, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-7001-3950-8 .
  • Andreas Thiel: The Johanneskirche in Ephesus . (Late Antiquity - Early Christianity - Byzantium. Art in the First Millennium. Series B: Studies and Perspectives; Vol. 16.) Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-89500-354-9 .
  • Hilke Thür (Ed.): Hillside house 2 in Ephesos. The residential unit 4. Building findings, equipment, finds . Research in Ephesus 8,6, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3322-7 .
  • Angelica Degasperi: The Marienkirche in Ephesus. The architectural sculpture from early Christian and Byzantine times . Supplementary booklet to the annual booklet of the Austrian Archaeological Institute 14, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-900305-66-6 .
  • Elisabeth Rathmayr: Hillside house 2 in Ephesus. The housing unit 7. Building findings, equipment, finds. Research in Ephesus 8,10, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2016, ISBN 978-3-7001-7630-5 .
  • Friedrich Krinzinger, Peter Ruggendorfer: The theater of Ephesus. Archaeological evidence, finds and chronology. Research in Ephesos 2.1, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2017, ISBN 978-3-7001-7590-2 .

Fund categories

Ancient inscriptions

  • Hermann Wankel : The inscriptions from Ephesus. Part 1.a: Nos. 1-47. Habelt, Bonn, 1979 ( inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor , vol. 11), ISBN 3-7749-1635-7 . (Sample edition; the other volumes on Ephesus only reproduce the inscriptions in a repertory version)
  • Christoph Börker , Reinhold Merkelbach : The inscriptions from Ephesus. Part 2: Nos. 101-599 (Repertory). With the collaboration of Helmut Engelmann, Dieter Knibbe. Habelt, Bonn, 1979 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, Vol. 12), ISBN 3-7749-1688-8 .
  • Helmut Engelmann , Dieter Knibbe, Reinhold Merkelbach: The inscriptions from Ephesus. Part 3: Nos. 600-1000 (repertory). Habelt, Bonn, 1980 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, vol. 13), ISBN 3-7749-1689-6 .
  • Helmut Engelmann, Dieter Knibbe, Reinhold Merkelbach: The inscriptions from Ephesus. Part 4: Nos. 1001-1445 (Repertory). Habelt, Bonn, 1980 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, vol. 14), ISBN 3-7749-1692-6 .
  • Christoph Börker: The inscriptions from Ephesus. Part 5: Nos. 1446-2000 (Repertory). Habelt, Bonn, 1980 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, vol. 15), ISBN 3-7749-1693-4 .
  • Reinhold Merkelbach , Johannes Nollé : The inscriptions from Ephesus. Part 6: No. 2001-2958 (Repertory). With the collaboration of Helmut Engelmann, Bülent Iplikcioglu, Dieter Knibbe. Habelt, Bonn, 1980 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, vol. 16), ISBN 3-7749-1694-2 .
  • Recep Meric, Reinhold Merkelbach, Johannes Nollé, Sencer Sahin: The inscriptions of Ephesus. Part 7.1: Nos. 3001-3500 (repertory). Habelt, Bonn, 1981 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, vol. 17.1), ISBN 3-7749-1855-4 .
  • Recep Meric, Reinhold Merkelbach, Johannes Nollé, Sencer Sahin: The inscriptions of Ephesus. Part 7.2: Nos. 3501-5115 (repertory). Enclosure : Addenda et corrigenda to the inscriptions from Ephesus 1–7.1. Habelt, Bonn, 1981 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, vol. 17.2), ISBN 3-7749-2116-4 .
  • Helmut Engelmann: The inscriptions from Ephesus. Part 8.1: Word index. Supplement by Johannes Nollé: Concordances. Habelt, Bonn, 1984 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, vol. 17.3), ISBN 3-7749-1807-4 .
  • Johannes Nollé: The inscriptions from Ephesus. Part 8.2: Directory of proper names. Habelt, Bonn, 1984 (inscriptions of Greek cities from Asia Minor, vol. 17.4), ISBN 3-7749-2116-4 .

Christianity in Ephesus

  • Werner Thiessen: Christians in Ephesus. The historical and theological situation in the pre-Pauline and Pauline times and at the time of the Acts of the Apostles and the pastoral letters . Texts and works on the New Testament age 12. Francke, Tübingen a. a. 1995, ISBN 3-7720-1863-7 .
  • Stephan Witetschek: Ephesian Revelations 1. Early Christians in an ancient city. At the same time a contribution to the question of the contexts of the John Apocalypse . Peeters, Leuven 2008, ISBN 978-90-429-2108-5 .

Web links

Commons : Ephesus  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Ephesus  Travel Guide

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Turkey - Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List (15)
  2. Alexander Herda, Karkiša-Karien and the so-called Ionian Migration , in: Frank Rumscheid (ed.), The Karer and the Others. International Colloquium at the Free University of Berlin October 13-15, 2005 (2009), p. 48 with references in note 117.
  3. Michael Kerschner: The Ionian Migration in the Light of New Archaeological Research in Ephesus. In: Eckart Olshausen , Holger Sonnabend (ed.): "We were Troians" - migrations in the ancient world. Stuttgart Colloquium on the Historical Geography of Antiquity, 8, 2002. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2006, p. 366 f.
  4. Michael Kerschner: The Ionian Migration in the Light of New Archaeological Research in Ephesus. In: Eckart Olshausen, Holger Sonnabend (ed.): "We were Troians" - migrations in the ancient world. Stuttgart Colloquium on the Historical Geography of Antiquity, 8, 2002. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2006, pp. 367–369.
  5. Michael Kerschner: The Ionian Migration in the Light of New Archaeological Research in Ephesus. In: Eckart Olshausen, Holger Sonnabend (ed.): "We were Troians" - migrations in the ancient world. Stuttgart Colloquium on the Historical Geography of Antiquity, 8, 2002. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2006, p. 367 f., 371.
  6. ^ Jean-Claude Golvin, Metropolen der Antike , Theiss-Verlag, Stuttgart 2005, p. 70.
  7. Sabine Ladstätter: Ephesus in Byzantine times: The last chapter of the history of an ancient city , in Falko Daim, Sabine Ladstätter (Ed.): Ephesos in Byzantine Zeit , Verlag des Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseums, Mainz 2011, pp. 3-29.
  8. Stefan Meißner: Paulus in Ephesus , in: christen-und-juden.de, 2000 (= " Christoph Burchard for his 70th birthday")
  9. ^ Byzantine taproom in Ephesus , in: Archeology in Germany 1 (2016) 4.
  10. Clive Foss: Ephesus after Antiquity. A Late Antique, Byzantine and Turkish City , Cambridge University Press 1979, pp. 143 f.
  11. Clive Foss: Ephesus after Antiquity. A Late Antique, Byzantine and Turkish City , Cambridge University Press 2010, p. 147.
  12. Turkey: Archaeologists hope for excavation. orf.at, March 7, 2017, accessed on the same day.
  13. Ephesus excavations fully started after approval has been granted | Science.apa.at. Retrieved September 11, 2018 .

Coordinates: 37 ° 56 '  N , 27 ° 21'  E