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Municipality of Chios
Δήμος Χίου
Chios (Greece)
Basic data
State : GreeceGreece Greece
Region : North Aegean
Regional District : Chios
Geographic coordinates : 38 ° 24 '  N , 26 ° 10'  E Coordinates: 38 ° 24 '  N , 26 ° 10'  E
Area : 844.673 km²
Residents : 51,390 (2011)
Population density : 60.8 inhabitants / km²
Seat: Chios (city)
LAU-1 code no .: f11
Parishes : 8 parishes
Local self-government : f128 city districts
50 local communities
Location in the North Aegean region
File: 2019 Dimos Chiou.png
f9 f10 f8 f3

The Greek island of Chios ( Greek Χίος ( f. Sg. )) Has formed the municipality of Chios (Δήμος Χίου) since 2011 and, together with the Inousses archipelago , Psara and Andipsara as well as some smaller uninhabited islands, the regional district of Chios (Περιφερειακή Ενότητα der .Χίουτ) in North Aegean region . With an area of ​​842.796 km², Chios is the fifth largest island in Greece and the tenth largest in the Mediterranean . According to the 2011 census, the island had a total of 51,390 inhabitants. The administrative and economic center of the island is the city of Chios with a population of 26,850.



The island of Chios is located in the East Aegean and is off the coast of Asia Minor . The distance to the Çeşme Peninsula ( Turkish Çeşme Yarımadası ), also Erythrea Peninsula (Χερσόνησο της Ερυθραίας) is between 7 km and 13 km. The Inousses archipelago is about two kilometers off the northeast coast. Psara is about 20 km west of the northwest coast. The island of Lesbos is 48 km north and Ikaria 58 km south.

The maximum extension is from Cape Masticho (Ακρωτήριο Μάστιχο) in the south to Cape Epanochoro (Ακρωτήριο Επανωχώρω) in the north 51 km. The width varies between about 29 km in the north of the island and almost 13 km in the center of the island.

The north of the island is dominated by two mountain ranges. Several peaks of the Pelinneo (Πελινναίο) are over 1000 meters, the Profitis Ilias (Προφήτης Ηλίας) is the highest mountain on the island with 1297 m. The smaller massif of the Amani (Αμανή) in the northwest reaches 809 m. South of the Pelinneo is the treeless Epos plateau (Οροπέδιο Αίπος), on the southwestern edge of which the Kochlias (Κοχλίας) rises to 929 m. In the middle of the island the heights decrease significantly, towards the south the relief becomes hilly and then rarely exceeds 400 m. The largest plains are in the middle of the island, south of the city of Chios and in the southeast.

The coastline of Chios is characterized by a few large and open bays. The north coast is steep, the northeast coast offers two protected harbors with the Bay of Marmoro (Όρμος Μάρμορου) and the Bay of Kolokythia (Όρμος Κολοκυθίας) near Langada . The main port and most of the anchorages on the island are located along the east coast and are protected by the coast of Asia Minor. The bay of Megas Limionas (Όρμος Μέγα Λιμιώνα) and the bay of Kalamoti (Όρμος Καλαμοτής) follow in the southeast. West of Cape Masticho (Ακρωτήριο Μάστιχο) also Cape Oura (Ακρωτήριο Ουρά), the southern tip of the island, the coastline is more structured by numerous small harbor bays and capes.


The subtropical winter rainy climate of Greece is characterized by mild, rainy winters and warm, dry summers and can therefore be assigned to the Csa climate , and at higher altitudes to the Csb climate. This also applies to the location of Chios in the eastern Aegean, but the climate is also influenced by its proximity to the coast of Asia Minor. Winters have lower temperatures and higher rainfall, but the climate is generally warmer.

A cool and rainy season from mid-October to the end of March and a dry and warm season from April to mid-October. Seen over the course of the year, extreme weather phenomena such as snow, hail or heat waves tend to occur rarely. Snow falls an average of two days a year.

The annual average temperature on Chios is 17.5 ° C. The maritime character of the island can be recognized by the slow warming from January to March and the average summer temperatures of around 26.0 ° C in July and August. The warmest days in summer are from the end of July to mid-August with maximum daily temperatures between 29 ° C and 35 ° C.

The precipitation is distributed unevenly over the year. In the period from mid-October to the end of March, almost all of the precipitation falls. Nevertheless, the sky does not remain cloudy for days and from January to mid-February a weather phenomenon with sunny days can occur. The months May to September are determined by drought.

On Chios, winds from north to northeast prevail at around 75%. The Meltemi blows constantly from the north in July and August and provides cooling. The winds in November and December can definitely have the character of a storm.

Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Chios
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 12th 12th 15th 19th 24 29 31 31 27 22nd 17th 13th O 21
Min. Temperature (° C) 7th 7th 8th 12th 15th 20th 22nd 22nd 19th 15th 11 9 O 14th
Precipitation ( mm ) 100 78 61 44 24 4th 1 0 8th 23 55 122 Σ 520
Water temperature (° C) 14.5 14.5 15th 17th 21.5 24.5 26th 25th 23.5 19.5 17th 15th O 19.4
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


“Scènes des massacres de Scio” Scenes from the massacres of Chios by
Eugène Delacroix
Oil on panel, 419 × 354 cm, Louvre

The island of Chios has been inhabited for five millennia. Archaeological finds in the caves of Agios Gala were dated 3000 BC. Dated. Finds from the period 2600–2000 BC were found near the city of Emborio. An early mention of the island can be found on linear B tablets from the Mycenaean Pylos . The female ethnicon ???? ki-si-wi-ja is listed there. The first recorded king of Chios was called Amphialos or Amphiklos . He was sent to Chios by an oracle. Ionians from Asia Minor later colonized the island. Around 700 BC Chr. Chios became a sea power and a center of culture and trade. This was a heyday for the island, whose inhabitants were among the richest in the Aegean Sea. The island's prosperity was also based on the slave trade that had been going on there from ancient times to modern times. According to Theopompos , it was the Greeks in Chios who opened the first slave market.

Around 512 BC Chr. Chios was determined by the extent of the Persian Empire conquered. After the Persians were defeated in the battles of Salamis and Platea , the Persian governor of Chios was also driven out. The island experienced a second heyday during the time of the Attic League . This period ended with the Peloponnesian War , where it broke away from Athens and joined Sparta . A period of instability followed. Chios entered into various alliances with the Athenians, Alexander the Great and the Romans . During this period the center of power shifted from the Aegean Sea to the mainland. The early years of the first millennium were marked by many earthquakes. Chios was a Genoese colony from 1304 to 1329 and from 1346 to 1566 , after which it was conquered by the Ottomans and belonged to the Ottoman Empire from 1566 to 1912.

View of the island of Chios, wood engraving (1880)

In the early modern period, Chios was a prosperous and populous island that lived mainly from the cultivation of mastic . As the personal fief of the sultana, it enjoyed special privileges. At that time the island belonged administratively to the province of İzmir .

Although the inhabitants were loyal to the Ottoman Empire , the majority of the population (around 40,000) was murdered by the Ottomans on April 11, 1822 during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829). By order of the sultan, only the mastic farmers were spared for the time being. When the Greek freedom fighter Konstantinos Kanaris set the Turkish admiral's ship on fire a little later, the mastic farmers were also killed. These "Turkish atrocities" outraged all of Europe at the time. The painting The Massacre of Chios by Eugène Delacroix became famous . An earthquake on April 3, 1881 destroyed much of what was left, especially the island's capital. In November 1912, Greek naval and army units captured the island of Chios in a landing operation. The Ottoman Empire signed the London Treaty on May 30, 1913 , thereby recognizing that the island would remain in the Kingdom of Greece .

During the refugee crisis in Europe from 2015 , a reception camp was set up on Chios. As of April 2017, more than 3000 people who had previously crossed from Turkey were accommodated there.

Administrative structure

With the implementation of the municipal reform according to the Kapodistrias program in 1997, the island of Chios was divided into eight municipalities with a total of 58 municipal districts. On January 1, 2011, the Kallikratis program merged the former municipalities of the island into the newly created municipality of Chios ( Dimos Chiou Δήμος Χίου), the administrative center is the city of Chios. The previous municipalities form municipal districts.

Surname Greek name code Area (km²) Population 2001 Residents 2011 City districts / local communities
(Δημοτική / Τοπική Κοινότητα)
Chios (city) Δημοτική Ενότητα Χίου 570101 022.618 23,779 26,850 Chios
DE Chiou.svg
Agios Minas Δημοτική Ενότητα Αγίου Μηνά 570102 013,410 02,686 03,271 Thyme, neochori
DE Agiou Mina.svg
Amani (Chios) Δημοτική Ενότητα Αμανής 570103 158.160 02,668 00983 Volissos, Agio Galas, Diefcha, Keramos, Kourounia, Leptopoda, Melanios, Nea Potamia, Nenitouria, Parparia, Pirama, Pispilounda, Trype, Fyta, Chalandra
DE Amanis Chiou.svg
Ionia Δημοτική Ενότητα Ιωνίας 570104 047.717 04,650 03,956 Kallimasia, Vouno, Exo Didyma, Tholopotami, Katarraktis, Kini, Mesa Didyma, Myrmingi, Nenita, Pagida, Flatsia
DE Ionias.svg
Kambochora Δημοτική Ενότητα Καμποχώρων 570105 050.629 03,154 02,897 Chalki, Agios Georgios Sykousis, Vavili, Vasileoniko, Ververato, Dafni, Zyfias
DE Kambochoron.svg
Kardamyla Δημοτική Ενότητα Καρδαμύλων 570106 184.068 02,920 02.234 Kardamyla, Amades, Viki, Kabia, Pityous, Spartounda
DE cardamylon.svg
Mastichochoria Δημοτική Ενότητα Μαστιχοχωρίων 570107 212.149 04,744 03,672 Pyrgi, Armolia, Vessa, Elata, Kalamoti, Lithi, Mesta, Olymbi, Patrika
DE Mastichochorion.svg
Omiroupoli Δημοτική Ενότητα Ομηρούπολης 570108 155.922 07,335 07,527 Vrandados, Anavatos, Avgonyma, Karyes, Langada, Sidirounda, Sykiada
DE Omiroupolis.svg
total 5701 844.673 53,408 51,390

List of cities and larger towns

Over 70% of the population lives in the east of the island. 50% of the island's inhabitants live in the city of Chios.

Residents 2011 Parish Area (km²)
Chios Χίος 26,850 Chios 22.82
Thyme Θυμιανά 1,566 Agios Minas 7.67
Kallimasia Καλλιμασιά 958 Ionia 7.27
Nenita Νένητα 903 Ionia 9.47
Marmaro Μάρμαρο 875 Kardamyla 74.79
Pyrgi Πυργί 755 Mastichochoria 59.55
Vrontados Βροντάδος 5,323 Omiroupoli 40.86
Langada Λαγκάδα 760 Omiroupoli 11.71

Tourist Attractions

Alley in Pyrgi
  • The Nea Moni Monastery is one of the most important Greek sacred buildings of the 11th century and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Sykias stalactite cave
  • The island is one of the best diving areas in Europe. Clear warm water, small underwater caves, imposing rocky landscapes and steep walls, interspersed with species-rich corals , invite you to dive .
  • The medieval "Mastixdörfer" (Mastichochoria) Mesta, Olymbi, Vessa (among others) and Pyrgi, the townscape of which is strongly characterized by the house facades designed using the sgraffito technique ("Xysta").
  • The watchtowers of Chios


Air travel

The Chios Island National Airport Omiros (Κρατικός Αερολιμένας Χίου, Όμηρος) is located about 3 km south of the city center. Scheduled flights from Athens are operated by the Greek national airline Olympic Airways and Aegean Airlines . Olympic Airlines also offers direct flights from Lesbos , Samos , Rhodes and Thessaloniki . The Cretan Sky Express also flies to Chios (from Rhodes, Samos, Lesbos and Limnos). In the summer months, charter flights from Austria, the Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and Norway are on offer.

Ferry traffic

By far the most important port on the island is in Chios . Several times a week there are direct connections from Piraeus with Blue Star Ferries . NEL Lines calls at the port of Limenas Mesta from Lavrio (Attica). There are regular connections to the neighboring islands of Psara and Inousses and also to Çeşme in Turkey. In addition, connections are possible from Thessaloniki and Kavala in the north via Mytilini and Samos to Rhodes in the south.

Bus transport

The bus terminal of KTEL Chios SA, founded in 1952, is housed in the same building as the port's passenger terminal. Seven bus routes open up the island, the bus connections are good. Buses run several times a day, especially in the south. In addition, the city has its own network of routes.


In addition to olive oil and wine , Chios is best known for its mastic production, especially in the southern district of Mastichochoria . Here, and especially in the vicinity of the “mastic villages” Pyrgi, Mestá and Olympia, grow those evergreen mastic trees that secrete the valuable natural resin. The harvest is from August to the end of October. The resin , which is obtained by scratching the mastic trees, is cleaned of flies and bits of bark by the women of the island with tweezers and used, among other things, to make ouzo , chewing gum and sweets.


On Chios are born:

The following died on Chios:

In Chios in exile:

Other personalities:

  • Andrea Bianco (15th century), Genoese cartographer, inhabitant of Chios
  • Adamantios Korais (1748–1833), Greek scholar and writer; his father came from Chios and A. Korais felt close to the island; named after him the Korais library (Δημόσια Κεντρική οστορική Βιβλιοθήκη Κου ήοραή) in Chios city




  • Elke Werry: Like sisters - matrilineality on the Greek island of Chios. (30 min.) ZDF, Germany 1985.
  • The village of Tholopotami on Chios is the setting for the film The Spring Meeting of the Field Rangers (I earini synaxis ton agrofylakon) by Dimos Avdeliodis .


  • Illustration as a wood engraving, in: De Huisvriend. Geillustreerd Magazijn 1881, p. 145.
  • Fanny Aneroussi, Leonidas Mylonadis: The Kampos of Chios in its Heyday: Houses and Surroundings . Translated from Greek into English by Antonis Scotiniotis. (Aipos Series, no 12). Akritas Publications, Nea Smyrni 1992, ISBN 960-7006-87-9 .
  • Charalambos Th. Bouras: Chios . (Guides to Greece, no 4). National Bank of Greece, Athens 1974.
  • Charalambos Th. Bouras: Greek Traditional Architecture: Chios . Melissa, Athens 1984.
  • Athena Zacharou-Loutrari, Vaso Penna, Tasoula Mandala: Chios: History and Art. English translation by Athena Dallas-Damis… (The Monuments of Chios). The Chios Prefecture, Chios 1989. OCLC 31423355 .
  • Günther Ketterer: The example of Chios . In: Atlas on the history of Islam . Primus, Darmstadt 2001, ISBN 3-89678-194-4 .
  • Merian. Lesbos - Chios - Samos . Issue 12 / XXVII, Merian-Verlag, 1974.
  • Hubert Pernot : En Pays Turc: L'île de Chios . (Dijon, Imprimerie Darantière, Rue Chabot-Charny, 65). Avec 17 mélodies popular et 118 simili-gravures. J. Maisonneuve, Libraire-Éditeur, Paris 1903.
  • Arnold C. Smith: The Architecture of Chios: Subsidiary Buildings, Implements and Crafts . Published by Philip Pandely Argenti . Tison, London 1962.
  • Michales G. Tsankares, Alkes X. Xanthakes: Chios: hekato chronia photographies, 1850-1950. ( Chios: Hundred Years of Photographs, 1850–1950 ). Synolo, Athens 1996, ISBN 960-85416-4-6 .
  • Eleftherios Yalouris: The Archeology and Early History of Chios. (From the Neolithic Period to the End of the Sixth Century BC) . University of Oxford, Merton College, Diss., Oxford 1976.

Web links

Commons : Chios  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Results of the 2011 census at the National Statistical Service of Greece (ΕΛ.ΣΤΑΤ) (Excel document, 2.6 MB)
  2. Ελληνική Στατιστική Αρχή [ΕΛΣΤΑΤ] (Ed.): Στατιστική Επετηρίδα της Ελλάδος (Statistical Yearbook of Greece) 2009 & 2010 . Piraeus 2011, p. 47 .
  3. ^ Charles Arnold (ed.): The islands of the Mediterranean . A unique and complete overview. 2nd Edition. marebuchverlag, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 3-86648-096-2 .
  4. Chios map, 1: 60,000 . Road Editions, ISBN 960-8481-91-0 .
  5. ^ Sarah P. Morris: Potnia Aswiya: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion. (PDF) I. Potnia Aswiya at Pylos. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on March 6, 2009 ; accessed on May 1, 2015 .
  6. Rosemarie Noack: The expensive tears of Chios . In: Die Zeit , No. 42/1993.
  7. Doctors leave the hotspot after "night of horror". The aid organization Doctors of the World is withdrawing from the reception camp on the Greek island of Chios after new clashes. - n-tv, April 1, 2016.
  8. Interview with Mayor Manolis Vournous. Zeit Online , April 4, 2016.
  9. ^ Helena Smith: 'Europe's dirty secret': officials on Chios scramble to cope with rising tensions . The Guardian, April 28, 2017.
  10. ^ Ten Best Dive Sites in Europe ,, accessed May 31, 2011.
  11. Chios Airport ( Memento from December 7, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  12. KTEL Chios, route network map with timetable