Mikis Theodorakis

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Mikis Theodorakis (2004)
Mikis Theodorakis signature.svg

Mikis Theodorakis ( Greek Μίκης Θεοδωράκης , born July 29, 1925 in Chios ; † September 2, 2021 in Athens ) was a Greek composer , writer and politician . In his homeland he is revered as a folk hero. Theodorakis was one of the most famous Greek composers of the 20th century. Especially his film music to Zorba the Greek (with Sirtaki ), Z and Serpico and the setting of the Canto General byVerses by Pablo Neruda made him known worldwide. His more than 1000 works include symphonic compositions and a variety of songs. In addition, he became known for his political commitment.

During the Second World War he was a resistance fighter against National Socialism and fought on the left in the subsequent Greek Civil War , which is why he was later interned in a camp and severely tortured. He resisted the military dictatorship and was arrested and severely tortured again ; he was allowed to leave under international pressure and lived in exile in Paris until 1974 . In the early 1960s and 1980s, Theodorakis was elected to the Greek Parliament. Until the late 1980s, he was identified solely with the left. In 1989, however, he ran as a non-party for the list of the conservative party Nea Dimokratia ('New Democracy') to help Greece overcome a serious political crisis triggered by numerous scandals by the government of Andreas Papandreou and his PASOK party had been. Among other things, he helped to form a grand coalition between conservatives, socialists and leftists: for the first time since the Greek Civil War, communists of the KKE were again involved in power. In 1990 Theodorakis was re-elected to parliament and appointed minister without portfolio to the Prime Minister in the government of Konstantinos Mitsotakis . In this function he campaigned against drugs and terrorism, for culture and education as well as for improved relations between Greece and Turkey .

Since he had withdrawn from the day-to-day politics, Theodorakis has made very clear public statements about current politics, especially when in his eyes the peace was in danger (see his statements about the war in Kosovo, in favor of Palestine, against the war in Iraq or the relationship between Macedonia - Greece - Turkey - Cyprus). In the years of the military dictatorship from 1967 to 1974 he was seen as a symbol of resistance, who always clearly rejected any form of dictatorship.


Childhood and Adolescence (1925–1953)

The father Giorgos Theodorakis came from Galatas near Chania in Crete , the mother Aspasia Poulaki from Çeşme (Greek "Krini") in Asia Minor . Even as a child, Mikis Theodorakis was fascinated by music and wrote his first songs without having a musical instrument. In Patras and Pyrgos he received his first music lessons, later in Tripoli in the Peloponnese , where the family lived from 1940, from a Mr. Papastathopoulos. Theodorakis founded a church choir in Tripoli and gave his first concert at the age of 17.

During the occupation of Greece by the German, Italian and Bulgarian troops in World War II from 1941 to 1944, the young Theodorakis joined the resistance. He was arrested and tortured for the first time when he was 18 years old. At this point in time he came into contact with Marxism , which had a decisive influence on his view of the world, even if he always testified to a critical attitude towards all ideologies. In the liberation struggle of Athens he joined the left and became a member of the National Liberation Front EAM in the ranks of the Greek People's Liberation Army .

In December 1944, after the withdrawal of the German Wehrmacht , Theodorakis and his partisan friends fought against the (including military) interference by the British in Greece and took part in the Battle of Athens . After the peace agreement of Varkiza , the People's Liberation Army was disbanded in February 1945th As a communist opponent of the regime, Theodorakis was arrested in July 1947 during the Greek Civil War and exiled to the island of Ikaria after Christos Raches . In mid-1948, after being temporarily released and arrested again , he was deported to the island of Ikaria, this time to Evdilos , and then in December to the concentration camp set up on the island of Makronisos , in which thousands perished. Theodorakis was subjected to the most severe torture here , was buried alive twice and was close to death. His father Giorgos Theodorakis sold his property in Crete to help his son.

When Theodorakis was released from prison in 1949, he was physically exhausted. Only after a long stay in Crete, where he was also tortured and had to watch the execution of comrades, did he recover from the consequences of the inhuman abuse. He got a job as "Head of the Music School of Chania " and founded his first orchestra. In the early 1950s he successfully passed his exams ("with flying colors") at the Athens Conservatory , under the direction of Filoctitis Oikonomidis.

Studied music in Paris (1954–1959)

In March 1953 he married his fiancée Myrto Altinoglou and in November 1954 the young couple was able to travel to Paris thanks to two scholarships . At the Conservatoire there , Theodorakis continued his studies under Eugène Bigot (orchestral direction) and Olivier Messiaen (music analysis), which he graduated with honors in 1959.

Success for the young composer had already set in at an early stage. His “Song of Captain Zacharias” (1939) had become the official resistance song of the Navy during the war. In 1950 his first symphonic work "The Feast of Assi-Gonia" was conducted by Oikonomidis in Athens, his ballet music "Greek Carnival" premiered in Rome, and his sonatinas and symphonic works were performed in Athens, where the famous Greek conductor Dimitri Mitropoulos was also performed became aware of the young composer. However, Mitropoulos was forbidden to perform a work by Theodorakis in the USA because he was a "communist". His Suite  No. 1 for piano and orchestra received a gold medal in Moscow in 1957 from a jury whose members included Dmitri Shostakovich and Hanns Eisler . His First Symphony (1948–1953) became the expression of one of his most important concerns: the reconciliation of the Greeks and the healing of the wounds of the civil war. The work is dedicated to two friends who fought in opposing camps and died in the process. His ballet music "Les Amants de Téruel", "Le Feu aux Poudres" and "Antigone" have been successfully performed in Rome, Paris and London. This success prompted the French composer Darius Milhaud to nominate Theodorakis as “Best European Composer of the Year” for the American Copley Music Prize - an award from the “ William and Noma Copley Foundation ”, which later changed its name to the “Cassandra Foundation”.

Theodorakis had also become known to a wide audience with film music . In 1958 his daughter Margarita and 1960 his son George were born in Paris , who later also became a musician and composer.

Most important works up to 1960:

  1. Chamber music: four string quartets; Trio for piano, violin and violoncello; Small suite for piano; Sonatina for piano; Sextet; Sonatinas No. 1 and No. 2 for violin and piano.
  2. Symphonic Music: The Feast of Assi-Gonia; First Symphony (Proti Simfonia); Suites No. 1, 2 and 3 for orchestra; Eros and Thanatos (for voice and strings); Oedipus Tyrannos (first for strings, then for string quartet and symphony orchestra), Helikon piano concerto ; Piano Concerto (1958).
  3. Ballet Music: Greek Carnival; The lovers of Teruel ; Le Feu aux Poudres; Antigone.
  4. Score: The Barefoot Battalion ( Greg Tallas ); Ill Met by Moonlight and Honeymoon ( Michael Powell ); Faces in the Dark ( David Eady ).

The young composer in Athens (1960–1967)

Mikis Theodorakis, 1961

Just as he was beginning to gain a foothold on the international music scene with his symphonic music, Theodorakis returned from Paris to Athens, turned to the roots of Greek music and thus began the “third period” of his musical creativity.

The publication of his song cycle Epitaphios on poetry texts by Giannis Ritsos in two different versions (one with Nana Mouskouri and a second with Grigoris Bithikotsis ) sparked a heated debate about the meaning and future of folk music. In this cycle, Theodorakis combines both traditions of Greek music, demotic and rembet music. The demotic music comes from the rural regions of Greece, the rembetiko , the "dance of loneliness", became the musical form of expression of the urban population, the refugees, the outsiders. Manos Hadjidakis made him “socially acceptable” for the first time at the end of the 1940s. Theodorakis intervened with an offensive performance practice and theoretical statements as well as interviews in the cultural war that flared up as a result of this controversy in Greece, which became an expression of the political antagonism between left and right. He quickly advanced to become a leading figure in the renewal of Greece, especially after the assassination of MP Grigoris Lambrakis ( Z ) in May 1963. In response, Theodorakis founded the Lambrakis Youth (Lambrakides), whose chairman he became and which, with 50,000 members, became the largest political organization in Greece advanced. In 1964 Theodorakis was elected to the Greek parliament as a member of the EDA party.

Theodorakis systematically and consistently developed his folk music concept in the sixties, from the “contemporary folk song” (always embedded in a cycle of texts by important Greek poets) to increasingly complex works, to contemporary music theater - his ballad vom Toten Bruder on his own texts deals with this Taboo subject of the Greek civil war - and finally metasymphonic music, perfectly embodied in the setting of Axion esti , based on the poetry of Odysseas Elytis , Nobel Prize winner in literature in 1979. In his metasymphonic music, Theodorakis combines the western symphony orchestra with Greek folk instruments and beyond the spirit of the symphonic with the Hellenic musical tradition.

The singer Grigoris Bithikotsis must be emphasized as the most important interpreter of Theodorakis songs in the sixties . His LP Epitaph , recorded in 1960 under the direction of Theodorakis, is considered to be one of the most important publications in Theodorakis' oeuvre, among other things because here the bouzouki as a traditional instrument of the lower classes of the population and the socially critical texts by Ritsos for the first time play a central role in an art-musical context . Only three years later, Theodorakis discovered Maria Farantouri, then 16 years old . With her as a singer, he published one of his most famous song cycles in 1964: Mauthausen based on poems by Iakovos Kambanellis . Maria Farantouri has since sung in over 30 Theodorakis albums and is considered the “ideal interpreter” of the Greek composer.

Most important works of this era:

  1. Song cycles: Archipelagos (songs of the islands), Politia A & B (songs of the cities), Epiphania ( Giorgos Seferis , Nobel Prize for Literature 1963), Mauthausen (Iakovos Kambanellis), Romiossini ( Giannis Ritsos ).
  2. Incidental music: The Hostage (Die Geisel, Brendan Behan ); Dead Brother's Ballad (Theodorakis); Omorphi Poli (Beautiful Cities); Maghiki Poli (Magical Cities); I Gitonia ton Angelon (Quarter of Angels, Kambanellis).
  3. Film music: Phaedra ( Jules Dassin ), The Lovers of Teruel (Die Liebenden von Teruel Raymond Rouleau), Five Miles to Midnight (The third dimension Anatole Litvak ), Elektra (Theodorakis) and Alexis Sorbas (Zorba the Greek Michael Cacoyannis ).
  4. Oratorio: Axion Esti .

Life underground during the Greek dictatorship (1967-1970)

On April 21, 1967, there was a coup by the fascist colonels in Greece . Theodorakis immediately went underground and published a first call for resistance just two days later. His music was banned, possession of his records, even singing and listening to his songs was punished with imprisonment: Army order No. 13 of June 1, 1967. As the founder of the Patriotic Front PAM , Theodorakis fought underground against the junta for four months . On August 21st, he was arrested and tortured physically and mentally at the Security Police Headquarters. In response, he wrote his cycle of poems: Sun and Time , which he later set to music for the most part. He was only released from the Averoff prison at the end of January 1968, but already exiled to the Arcadian mountain village of Zatouna in August of the same year and finally transferred to the Oropos concentration camp from October 1969 , where he became very seriously ill with tuberculosis. An international solidarity movement, led by celebrities such as Dmitri Shostakovich , Leonard Bernstein , Arthur Miller , Yves Montand , Sir Laurence Olivier and Harry Belafonte , campaigned for his release. The French central politician Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber then succeeded on April 13, 1970 in convincing the junta leader Georgios Papadopoulos to release Theodorakis into exile in France.

Most important works during the dictatorship until the liberation in 1970:

  1. Song cycles: PAM songs (songs of the Patriotic Front, Mikis Theodorakis); O Ilios ke o Chronos (sun and time , Mikis Theodorakis); Songs for Andreas (Mikis Theodorakis); Nichta Thanatou (Night of Death, Manos Elefteriou); Arcadies IX; Tria Negrika Tragoudia (Three Negro songs, Léopold Sédar Senghor ).
  2. Oratorios & "rivers of songs" (chansons fleuves): Epiphania Averoff ( Giorgos Seferis ), state of siege (Marina = Rena Chatzidaki ), The March of the Spirit ( Angelos Sikelianos ), Raven (Giorgos Seferis, after Edgar Allan Poe ).
  3. Film music: " Z " ( Z - anatomy of a political murder ) based on the novel by Vasilis Vasilikos , director: Constantin Costa-Gavras .

Exile in France (1970–1974)

Mikis Theodorakis, 1971

On April 13, 1970, Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber's plane landed in Paris . Enthusiastic celebrations on his arrival, among others by Melina Mercouri and Costa-Gavras , Theodorakis was immediately taken to the hospital for examinations, but took a few weeks later when his wife Myrto and his children Margarita and George were still hostages of the colonels (they became "kidnapped" from Greece in May), the fight against the junta started again. He founded the National Council of Resistance (EAS) and began his world tours (around 500 concerts within four years), continuing this struggle with undiminished energy until the dictatorship was overthrown on July 23, 1974. In 1972 Theodorakis resigned from the (Euro) Communist Party of Greece (Inland), never to become a member of any party again. In 1972 he met Pablo Neruda and Salvador Allende and promised them to compose his version of Neruda's Canto General . He was received by Gamal Abdel Nasser and Josip Broz Tito , Jigal Allon and Jassir Arafat , François Mitterrand , Olof Palme and Willy Brandt . For millions of people, Theodorakis was the symbol of the unbroken resistance against the Greek dictatorship during these years.

Main works of exile:

  1. Song cycles: Lianotragouda (18 little songs of bitter homeland , Giannis Ritsos); Ballads (Manolis Anagnostakis); Stin Anatoli ( In the East , Cacoyannis, Stiliatis, Theodorakis).
  2. Oratorio: Canto General ( Pablo Neruda ).
  3. Film music: The Trojan Women (M. Cacoyannis); Etat de Siège ( The Invisible Uprising ) ( Costa-Gavras ); Serpico ( Sidney Lumet ); Biribi (Daniel Moosmann); Tito ( Sutjeska , Stipe Delić).

Political and artistic activity after returning to Greece (from 1974)

Theodorakis (2nd from left) in 1989 in the GDR

In 1974, after the overthrow of the dictatorship, Mikis Theodorakis was celebrated as a folk hero on his return to Greece, but soon ordinary political life with its intrigues regained the upper hand. In the years that followed, the composer wavered between resignation and constant renewed commitment. He called for the left-wing parties to join forces around the KKE and was their candidate for the Athens mayoral elections - between serving in parliament and voluntary retreat into inner exile in Paris. There he resumed work on his symphonic works from 1980 - after twenty years - rewriting earlier works and creating new ones. This is the "fourth period" of his musical career. He composed his second, third, fourth and seventh symphonies, the symphonic cantata : Sadducee Passion , church music in the tradition of Greek Orthodox music (Missa Greca , Requiem) , completed the large-scale oratorio Canto General and finally ventured into the “fifth Period ”of his musical work successfully approached the genre of opera , mainly dealing with female figures from mythology: Medea (premiered in Bilbao , October 1, 1981), Elektra (premiered in Luxembourg , May 2, 1995), Antigone (World premiere in Athens, October 7, 1999), Lysistrata (World premiere in Athens, April 14, 2002).

In 1983 Theodorakis was honored with the Lenin Peace Prize.

In the meantime, after the end of the era of Andreas Papandreou , burdened by corruption , he had campaigned for a renewal of Greece - a " catharsis " (purification), as he said - through the conservative politician Konstantinos Mitsotakis and was made Minister of State without by him as an independent leftist Division appointed. In this capacity, between 1990 and 1992 he was particularly committed to reforming the educational system and cultural policy, against drug use and terrorism and, together with the famous Turkish musician and singer Zülfü Livaneli , for a reconciliation between Greeks and Turks, which he already did a few years earlier, after the founding of the "Greek-Turkish Friendship Society", had brought in many animosities. Theodorakis later described his participation in government as a mistake. In 1993 and 1994 the composer took over the post of general music director of the symphony orchestra and choir of the Greek Radio and Television ( ERT ) for two more years before retiring entirely from public life.

After that he only worked as a composer, but was also a sought-after conductor of his compositions. After the death of his brother Yannis in 1996 and acute breathing difficulties in 1997, he had to struggle with severe depression for several months. It was not until the winter of 1997–1998 that his health improved and he was able to resume his activities as a conductor and composer.

In 1997 Theodorakis donated his private archive to the Lilian Voudouri Music Library of the Megaron in Athens. In the following years he composed his last works: the opera Lysistrata 1999–2001, the incidental music for Medea (dedicated to Guy Wagner) in 2001, a rhapsody for trumpet and orchestra ( dedicated to Otto Sauter ) in 2008 and East of the Aegean for cello and piano ( Dedicated to Jens Naumilkat and Henning Schmiedt ). Theodorakis lived secluded in Athens and worked to make his compositions and writings accessible to an ever wider audience. The last song cycles were created in 2005: Erimia (loneliness) and 2006: Odysseia .

Theodorakis became politically active again and again when, in his opinion, the circumstances required him to do so: Protest against the NATO bombings in Yugoslavia in 1999, against the treatment of the kidnapped Kurdish leader Abdullah Öcalan , against the US government under George W. Bush and the 2003 Iraq War .

In 2003, among others, the Central Council of Jews in Greece condemned certain statements made by Theodorakis as anti-Semitic . Theodorakis himself denied these allegations and alleged that he only criticized Israel's policy towards the Palestinians . In February 2011, in a television interview with the Greek broadcaster “High”, he commented on questions of anti-Semitism and Zionism and was quoted as saying that he was an anti-Semite, which sparked some criticism. Shortly afterwards, Theodorakis published a statement on his website in which he distanced himself from anti-Semitic ideas and pointed out his lifelong commitment to the persecution of Jews. At the same time he stressed that he was an anti-Zionist . He stated that he believed, among other things, US foreign policy and the international music industry to be controlled by Zionists, and claimed that the victims of National Socialism used the same methods today. In a letter to the Central Council of Greek Jewish Communities in May 2011, Theodorakis stated that his statement that he was an anti-Semite was a slip of the tongue. The Council accepted the apology on this point.

Mikis Theodorakis was an honorary doctor of the Universities of Montreal, Saloniki, Volos, Crete, Tel Aviv, Istanbul and Salzburg (2018). In 2002 he was awarded the Erich Wolfgang Korngold Prize for Film Music at the International Film Music Biennale in Bonn .

In 2005 he received the Russian International Andrew the First Called Prize for his “self-sacrificing work and the example of creative service to the homeland, as well as the creation of outstanding musical works that sing about peace between peoples, the spirit and national self-confidence of the people strengthen". The IMC-UNESCO Music Prize , one of the highest musical awards of all, was also awarded to him in 2005, just as he was awarded the Order of Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and honorary membership in the European Left Party in the same year . An 80th birthday symposium on his theory of "universal harmony" was held in Crete. Numerous other honors and awards in Greece and outside of his home country continued to confirm his unique position as a “voice of freedom and peace” that resonates worldwide. He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000 by over 200 Greek personalities.

Theodorakis campaigned for the Greek-Turkish understanding. The picture shows him in Athens in May 2010 between the (then) Prime Minister Recep Erdoğan (Turkey, left in the picture) and Giorgos Papandreou (Greece).

Theodorakis was the originator of the independent citizens' movement Spitha ( Greek σπίθα spítha : "spark") , which emerged in Greece at the end of December 2010 . The Spitha movement should not inform the Greek population as a political party but as an independent citizens' movement and create ideas to focus the Greek reaction to the national and international crisis. In 2012, while sitting in a wheelchair, he took part in a demonstration against the Troika in Athens . He was seriously injured in the face from a tear gas charge, which he suffered from for a long time.

In 2013 Theodorakis was made an honorary member of the Academy of Athens.

Mikis Theodorakis died in Athens on September 2, 2021 at the age of 96.

Most important works after 1974:

  1. Song cycles: Epivatis (The Passenger , K. Tripolitis); Radar (K. Tripolitis); Ta Lyrika (The Lyric Songs , T. Livaditis ); Dionysus (M. Theodorakis); Phaedra (Angeliki Eleftheriou); Ta Prosopa tou Iliou (Faces of the Sun , D. Karatzas); Beatrice on Street Zero (D. Karatzas, M. Theodorakis); Mia Thalassa gemati moussiki (A sea of ​​music , Dimitra Manda); Os archeos Anemos (Like an Ancient Wind , D. Karatzas); Lyrikotera (The More Lyric Songs , D. Karatzas); Lyrikotata (The most lyrical songs , Yannis Theodorakis); Erimia (Solitude , Lefteris Papadopoulos); Odysseia (Kostas Kartelias).
  2. Chamber music: Choros Asikikos for solo cello ; Melos , for piano (arrangement: Tatiana Papageorgiou); East of the Aegean , for piano and cello.
  3. Incidental music: Orestia (Direction: Spyros Evangelatos); Antigone (Director: Minos Volanakis); Medea (Director: Spyros Evangelatos).
  4. Film music: Iphigenie (Director: M. Cacoyannis); The Man with the Carnation (Director: Nikos Tzimas).
  5. Oratorios: Liturgia 2 (for children killed in wars); Missa Greca ; Requiem .
  6. Symphonic works and cantatas: Symphonies No. 2, 3, 4, 7, Sadducee Passion (text: Michalis Katsaros); Canto Olympico (texts: Dimitra Manda and Mikis Theodorakis); Rhapsody for guitar and orchestra; Rhapsody for violoncello and orchestra; Rhapsody for trumpet and orchestra.
  7. Operas: Kostas Karyotakis , Medea , Elektra , Antigone , Lysistrata .


Chart placements
Explanation of the data
Zorba Le Grec / Zorba's Dance
  DE 7th 08/15/1965 (14 weeks)
  AT 1Template: Infobox chart placements / maintenance / NR1 link 07/15/1965 (24 weeks)

Songs and song cycles

Greek folklore was a source of Theodorakis' musical work. He said in an interview that his musical development would be inconceivable without his mother's songs, the Byzantine chants in his church and all the folk wealth of his homeland. Theodorakis wrote over a thousand songs. Most of them are based on poems by the most important Greek poets and are now part of the Greek folklore, especially those from the sixties ( Epitaphios , Archipelagos , Politia , Epiphania , Little Cyclades , Mauthausen , Romiosini ), but also later written such as the 18 songs the bitter homeland and Ta Lyrika (The lyrical songs) . Theodorakis also set texts by Federico García Lorca , Brendan Behan , Nâzım Hikmet , Léopold Sédar Senghor, translated into Greek, as well as original language texts by Paul Éluard , Martin Walser and Pablo Neruda .

Symphonic music

  • 1950: The Festival of Asi-Gonia for symphony orchestra
  • 1952: Helikon piano concerto
  • 1953: First Symphony (Proti Simfonia)
  • 1955: Suite No. 1 for piano and orchestra (was used again in the 2nd symphony)
  • 1955–1956: Suite No. 2 for orchestra
  • 1956: Suite No. 3 (The Mother) for choir and orchestra (was used again in the 3rd symphony)
  • 1958: Piano Concerto
  • 1981: Symphony No. 2 ( Das Lied von der Erde ; Text: Mikis Theodorakis) for children's choir, concertante piano and orchestra
  • 1981: Symphony No. 3 (texts: D. Solomos; Konstantinos Kavafis ; Byzantine hymns) for soprano, choir and orchestra
  • 1983: Symphony No. 7 ( spring symphony ; texts: Giannis Ritsos ; Yorgos Kulukis ) for 4 soloists, choir and orchestra
  • 1986–1987: Symphony No. 4 (The Choirs) for soprano, mezzo, reciter, choir and symphony orchestra without strings
  • 1996: Rhapsody for guitar and orchestra
  • 1997: Rhapsody for cello and orchestra
  • 2008: Rhapsody for trumpet and orchestra (for piccolo trumpet, arrangement Robert Guya)
  • 2009: Rhapsody for alto and string orchestra

Chamber music

  • 1942: Sonatina for piano
  • 1945: Elegy No. 1, for cello and piano
  • 1945: Elegy No. 2, for violin and piano
  • 1946: To Kimitirio (The Cemetery) , for string quartet
  • 1946: String Quartet No. 1
  • 1946: Duetto, for two violins
  • 1947: Trio, for violin, cello and piano
  • 1947: 11 preludes, for piano
  • 1947: Sextet, for piano, flute and string quartet
  • 1949: Study, for two violins and cello
  • 1952: Syrtos Chaniotikos , for piano and percussion
  • 1952: Sonatina No. 1, for violin and piano
  • 1955: Small suite, for piano
  • 1955: Passacaglia, for two pianos
  • 1959: Sonatina No. 2, for violin and piano
  • 1989: Choros Asikikos for solo cello
  • 2007: East of the Aegean , suite for piano and cello

Cantatas and oratorios

  • 1960: Axion Esti (text: Odysseas Elytis ), folk oratorio .
  • 1967: Epiphania Averoff (text: Giorgos Seferis ).
  • 1969: The March of the Spirit (Text: Angelos Sikelianos ); “State of siege” (Text: Rena Chatzidaki ).
  • 1971–1982: Canto General (text: Pablo Neruda ).
  • 1981–1982: Kata Saddukaion Pathi (Sadducee Passion ; text: Michalis Katsaros) for tenor, baritone, bass, choir and orchestra.
  • 1982: Liturgy No. 2 ( The children, killed in wars , texts: Tasos Livaditis , Mikis Theodorakis) for a cappella choir.
  • 1982–1983: Lorca (based on poems by Federico García Lorca ) for alto voice, solo guitar, choir and orchestra (based on the “Romancero Gitan”); premiered in 1988.
  • 1992: Canto Olympico , for voice, solo piano, choir and orchestra (commissioned for the Olympic Games in Barcelona).


  • 1968: anthem of freedom
  • 1970: Hymn for Nasser
  • 1973: Anthem for the Venezuelan socialist movement
  • 1973: anthem for the students. Dedicated to the insurgents of the Athens Polytechnic
  • 1977: Changer la vie , anthem of the French Socialist Party (Text: Herbert Pagani)
  • 1978: Anthem for Malta
  • 1982: PLO anthem
  • 1991: Anthem of the Mediterranean competitions 1991
  • 1992: Hellenism (Greek hymn for the opening of the Barcelona Olympic Games, sung by Agnes Baltsa during the ceremony )

Stage works


  • 1953: Greek Carnival (Choreography: Rallou Manou)
  • 1958: Le Feu aux Poudres - commissioned composition for the Théâtre Sarah-Bernhardt, Paris (choreography: Paul Goubé, director: Jean Renoir )
  • 1958: Les Amants de Téruel - commissioned composition for the Théâtre Sarah-Bernhardt, Paris (choreography: Milko Sparembleck, director: Raymond Rouleau )
  • 1959: Antigone - commissioned composition for the Royal Opera House Covent Garden , London (Choreography: John Cranko )
  • 1979: Elektra (Choreography: Serge Kenten )
  • 1985: Sept Danses Grecques (Choreography: Maurice Béjart )
  • 1987–1988: Zorba il Greco - commissioned composition for the Arena in Verona, based on his film music for Alexis Sorbas (choreography: Lorca Massine )


  • 1984–1985: Kostas Karyotakis (The Metamorphoses of Dionysus)
  • 1988-1990: Medea
  • 1992-1993: Elektra
  • 1995-1997: Antigone
  • 1999-2001: Lysistrata

Drama music

Ancient theater

Modern Greek theater

  • 1960–1961 / 1992: To Tragoudi Tou Nekrou Adelfou (Ballad of the Dead Brother ), musical tragedy (text: Mikis Theodorakis)
  • 1961–1962: Omorphi Poli (Beautiful City ), Revue (Bost, Christodoulou, Christofelis etc.)
  • 1963: I Gitonia ton Angelon (The Quarter of Angels ), Musical ( Iakovos Kambanellis )
  • 1963: Magiki Poli (Enchanted City ), Revue (Theodorakis, Pergialis, Katsaros)
  • 1971: Antigoni stin Filaki (Antigone in prison ), drama (Ritsos)
  • 1974: Prodomenos Laos (People Betrayed ), Revue (Vangelis Goufas)
  • 1975: Echthros Laos (Hostile People ), Drama (Iakovos Kambanellis)
  • 1975: Christophorus Columbus , drama ( Nikos Kazantzakis )
  • 1976: Kapodistrias , drama ( Nikos Kazantzakis )
  • 1977: O Allos Alexandros (The Other Alexander ), Drama (Margarita Limberaki)
  • 1979: Papaflessas , game (Spyros Melas)

International theater

Film music (selection)

A detailed list can be found at Guy Wagner . International Foundation Mikis Theodorakis FILIKI. Catalog raisonné based on the research of Asteris Koutoulas .

Quotes about Theodorakis

  • I have traveled twice to hear and speak to him. To Böblingen and Annecy. In Böblingen I belonged to the enthusiastic audience. His music fulfilled every wish one could have. She was not damaged by clearly wanting something. It was dedicated music, so to speak, but it remained Greek. This is always a kind of guarantee of beauty when a piece of music lives out of folklore without being lost in it. ( Martin Walser : Foreword to the book: "Mikis Theodorakis - A life in pictures" by Asteris Koutoulas , Schott, Berlin 2010)
  • Theodorakis writes in such a different way that we can no longer do justice to this phenomenon with our conventional evaluation models. He tries to take responsibility for people into account right from the start of writing. Of course, this also has consequences for syntax and morphology. He tries to put himself in the shoes of the person opposite. He does not calculate the listener with cold mind, but he takes him into account in the perception of a responsibility. That’s something you can learn from him. None of his pieces can be denied immediacy, spontaneity and enormous impact. That is considered (and he does not deny it at all), but it is not ingenious in the sense of musical impact research ... We are generally not required to find new refractions or structuring, but should be on the lookout for new proportions. The fact that Theodorakis can often keep an audience in suspense for more than an hour is also due to these proportions. Thematic and motivic material returns and makes the composition more manageable, ensures recognizability. And Theodorakis has achieved such amazing things that we may not really understand it until later. ( Udo Zimmermann in conversation with Peter Zacher , from the book: Mikis Theodorakis, My position in the music scene , Reclam, Leipzig 1984)
  • “Europe did not have a Che Guevara, it had Mikis Theodorakis, who would later write:“ I belong to a generation that was committed to extreme idealism. My whole life has been an endless struggle between the ideal and the real, the everyday and the vision ”. We were with him. It is well known that anyone who has never dreamed of the overthrow of the dictatorships will never grow up. "( Roger Willemsen , From his book: Gute Tage , Fischer, Frankfurt 2006)
  • “Mikis Theodorakis is an incredible man who fought a lifelong struggle in Greece for music, and at the same time for the freedom that evidently has to accompany this music. I doubt whether there has been another life that shows so strongly the connections between revolutionary art and political freedom. ( Arthur Miller , from: Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. A life for Greece . “Phi, Echternach (Lux.) 1995)
  • Mikis played the piano. From time to time he accompanied himself in a low voice. The emotions that had seized us transformed our small group into a single body, enlivened by the soul of the moment. We were the sun and the river and the lost valley, the steps of the high city, lined with flowers and blood. O Greece, o freedom, double and single fatherland. ( François Mitterrand : Foreword to Les Fiancés de Pénélope , Grasset 1976)
  • The cultural revolution in Europe has a face that of Mikis Theodorakis. (Roger Garaudy: Foreword to Culture et Dimensions politiques , Flammarion 1972)
  • "Yes, he is an important person, yes, I love this vain asshole - it is unbearable any other way. I love his songs and I'm happy when I don't have to hear them, that's it: I'm angry about his ambivalence. "( Wolf Biermann : specifically , July 1985)
  • Look at the word “tragoudi”, the Greek word for “song”. This word is a direct derivation of the term “tragodia”, ie tragedy. What does "tragodia" mean? Originally this referred to the odes to the “goat”, the “tragos” - which meant Dionysus, the god of intoxication and drunkenness. Such a kind of song comes from the midst of the people, and there it stays - holy, intoxicating, always reborn. The word “tragoudi” cannot therefore be translated. The words “folk” or “pop”, which one would like to use to help, do not express it correctly, least of all the German “Schlager”. It is true that I was the first to dare to set the works of great poets to music and turn them into "everyday songs" so that all Greeks can sing them, without exception and by breaking free of their individual fate, which may separate them from one another. In order for a stranger to understand what that really means, he would have to imagine that one would sing Goethe every day in Germany, perhaps TS Eliot in England and Paul Éluard in France - at home, in the tavern, at work, at school or during a demonstration. (Mikis Theodorakis in conversation with Hansgeorg Hermann, 2006. Biography Mikis Theodorakis - The Rhythm of Freedom , Verlag Neues Leben , Berlin)
  • “I am a person of the islands, my parents came to Athens from the Ionian Islands. The father of Kephalonia, the mother from the small island of Kythira between Crete and the Peloponnese. These people love light and water. I am like one of those islands, and I believe Mikis is such an island too - he embodies that special light that seems to float over the water. It can only be seen in Greece, it is unique. ”(Maria Farantouri in conversation with Hansgeorg Hermann, Athens 2008. Biography Mikis Theodorakis - Der Rhythmus der Freiheit , Verlag Neues Leben, Berlin).
  • “Mikis Theodorakis is particularly important to me, not only as a musician, but also as a personality with high ethical standards who made a big impression on my generation. Theodorakis fought against the fascist right, politically and with his powerful music. He was imprisoned, tortured and exiled. In his homeland he was a hero to many people because of his resistance to the dictators, and we all loved his music. Theodorakis is a great composer, but people are only now getting around to hearing his concertante works. Years after we first met in the 1970s, I met Theodorakis in Montreal and I offered to conduct a concert of his works. This concert with excerpts from one of his most famous works, the ballet "Zorba the Greek", was a huge success. “Zorba” is unforgettable music, especially the finale. It is music that will always be remembered by people. "(Charles Dutoit)
  • “Seldom has a person fascinated me so often, so often moved me to tears. Mikis, the person who has suffered so much calamity, but whose vitality and creativity are unbroken. Mikis, the musician, the composer, whose music touches millions, inspires, makes happy and captivates them - makes him immortal. While working on his new work, I breathe the scent of cypress, I hear the sound of the Aegean, I feel in every single note Mikis Theodorakis. "( Otto Sauter , statement on his ring-premieres of Rhapsody for Trumpet and Symphony 2008)

Performers of his songs (selection)


Literature (selection)

Works by Theodorakis

  • My life for freedom. Scherz, Bern 1972.
  • Anatomy of music. Translated and commented by Asteris Koutoulas . Editions Phi (Luxembourg), Echternach (Lux.) 1985, ISBN 3-88865-031-3 .
  • My position in the music scene. Edited and translated by Asteris Kutulas and Peter Zacher. Reclam, Leipzig 1986, ISBN 3-379-00034-5 .
  • The Archangel's Ways. Autobiography, Vols. 1-3. Translated and commented by Asteris Kutulas. Editions Phi, Echternach (Lux.) 1987–1992.
  • The Archangel's Ways. Autobiography 1925–1949. Edited and translated by Asteris Kutulas. Insel , Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-458-16689-0 .
  • The metamorphoses of Dionysus. Libretto . With nine collages and a text by Ina Kutulas . Edited, translated and with an essay by Asteris Koutoulas . Romiosini Verlag, Cologne 1995, ISBN 3-929889-11-0 .
  • The sea, God and the mule. (German-Greek). With nine original screen prints by AR Penck . Translated and with an afterword by Asteris Kutulas. Published by Asteris Kutulas and Gottfried Bräunling , GB edition - Asti Music, Hohenöllen 1995 - limited to 100 copies.
  • Siao and Other Early Poems. Illustrations by Gottfried Bräunling. Translated by Asteris Kutulas. Published by Asteris Kutulas and Gottfried Bräunling, GB edition, Hohenöllen 1996.
  • Until he dances again. Autobiography 1949–1952. Edited and translated by Asteris Kutulas. Insel, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-458-17091-X .
  • Poems - In the paradise gardens of my skull. Bilingual edition: French - German. French translation: Héraclès Galanakis and Guy Wagner. German translation: Ina and Asteris Kutulas. With drawings by Theodorakis, comments, interview and timetable. Phi, Echternach (Lux.) 2001, ISBN 3-88865-208-1 .
  • The cosmos of Mikis Theodorakis. Articles, speeches, interviews. Edited by Stefania Canali. Nittardi, Frankfurt am Main 2019, ISBN 978-3-925782-93-0 .

Works about Theodorakis

The catalog raisonné was published in Greek by Livanis-Verlag, Athens 1998:

  • Αστέρης Κούτουλας: Ο μουσικός Θεοδωράκης. Κείμενα, εργογραφία, κριτικές: 1937-1996.
    Asteris Koutoulas: O mousikos Theodorakis: Keimena, ergografia, kritikes (1937-1996).

    (Asteris Kutulas: The composer Mikis Theodorakis. Texts - catalog
    raisonné - reviews [1937–1996]. ) Εκδοτικός Οίκος Α. Α. Λιβάνη , 1998, 507 pages, ISBN 960-236-916-7 .



  • The time is for the songs and against the tanks - Mikis Theodorakis . Concert recording and interviews, Federal Republic of Germany, 1974, 44 min., Script and direction: Klaus Salge and Dietrich Schubert , production: WDR Cologne, Polytel International.
  • Mikis Theodorakis - Sonne und Zeit , documentary film, Germany, 1999, 53 min., Script and director: Klaus Salge and Asteris Kutulas , production: ZDF , first broadcast: ERT (Greek television), April 21, 2000 and arte , May 27, 2000 .
  • Mikis Theodorakis. Composer , documentary, Germany, 2010, 53 min., Script and director: Asteris Kutulas and Klaus Salge, production: ZDF , first broadcast: arte , May 9, 2011.
  • Recycling Medea . Documentary, 2013/14, 75 min., Book: Asteris & Ina Kutulas, director: Asteris Kutulas.
  • Dance Fight Love Die - With Mikis on the Road . Documentary, 2017/18, 87 min., Book: Asteris & Ina Kutulas, director: Asteris Kutulas.

Web links

Commons : Mikis Theodorakis  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. n-tv NEWS: Composer Mikis Theodorakis is dead. Accessed September 2, 2021 .
  2. ^ Süddeutsche Zeitung: Mikis Theodorakis died in Athens at the age of 96. Retrieved September 2, 2021 .
  3. Theodorakis: Οι δρόμοι του αρχάγγελου V / The Ways of the Archangel, Autobiography, Volume V, p. 331 f; not yet published in German.
  4. ^ Declaration of war in Kosovo ( memento of February 7, 2006 in the Internet Archive ), which Theodorakis signed together with four other important personalities of Greek cultural life. Published on July 19, 2004 on mikis-theodorakis.net, the Theodorakis homepage, which is maintained by Theodorakis' biographer Guy Wagner.
  5. Palestine: Address by Mikis Theodorakis ( memento of January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) on Syntagma Square on April 10, 2002. Published on mikis-theodorakis.net.
  6. Mikis Theodorakis: Statements on the War against Iraq 2003 ( Memento from February 7, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Published on mikis-theodorakis.net.
  7. Declaration by Theodorakis: FYROM - Cyprus - Turkey ( Memento from February 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) from November 7, 2004 in a translation by Guy Wagner on mikis-theodorakis.net
  8. Mikis Theodorakis: My life for freedom.
  9. Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the archangel , vol. 1, p. 110 f
  10. Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the archangel, vol. 1, p. 133 f
  11. Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the archangel, vol. 1, p. 152 f
  12. Mikis Theodorakis: The Archangel's Paths , Vol. 2, pp. 15-30
  13. Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the archangel , vol. 2, p. 85 f
  14. Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the archangel , vol. 2, p. 187 f
  15. Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the archangel , Vol. 2, pp. 220-223
  16. Mikis Theodorakis: The Archangel's Paths , Vol. 3 (“The Nightmare”), pp. 27–32
  17. Mikis Theodorakis: The ways of the archangel , vol. 3, p. 190 f
  18. Mikis Theodorakis: Until he dances again. , Pp. 26-32
  19. Mikis Theodorakis: Until he dances again. , P. 206 f
  20. George Giannaris: Mikis Theodorakis. Music and Social Change , p. 81
  21. Mikis Theodorakis: My position in the music scene , p. 87f analysis of the first suite
  22. Mikis Theodorakis: op. Cit., P. 83f Analysis of the First Symphony
  23. ^ Correspondence archived in Inventory of the William and Noma Copley Foundation and Collection records, 1954–1980. Music awardee correspondence, 1954-1960 1962-1966. see oac.cdlib.org
  24. Mikis Theodorakis: My position in the music scene , p. 64 f
  25. Mikis Theodorakis: My position in the music scene , pp. 186–188; Theodorakis: Notes on Rembetiko
  26. Mikis Theodorakis: My position in the music scene , pp. 95-104; Theodorakis: My artistic credo
  27. Mikis Theodorakis: My position in the music scene, pp. 127–129
  28. Mikis Theodorakis: My position in the music scene , pp. 104–110 analysis of Axion Esti
  29. cf. Mauthausen song cycle ( Memento of March 7, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) on: chorwerkstatt-berlin.de
  30. Mikis Theodorakis: My life for freedom. Pp. 34-35.
  31. ↑ Off to the fight . In: Der Spiegel . No. 19 , 1968 ( online ).
  32. Mikis Theodorakis: My life for freedom. P. 91 f.
  33. Mikis Theodorakis: Poems - Poèmes , Dossier Sun and Time, pp. 145-219.
  34. Mikis Theodorakis: My life for freedom. Pp. 117-135.
  35. Mikis Theodorakis: My life for freedom. P. 168 f.
  36. Miki's time in Zatouna and the museum of the same name dedicated to him. At www.argolis.de, accessed on December 16, 2018.
  37. Mikis Theodorakis: My life for freedom. P. 229 f.
  38. Mikis Theodorakis: My life for freedom. Pp. 244-249.
  39. Book Mikis Theodorakis The Greek Soul. AGYRA Verlag, 2004, ISBN 978-960-422-132-5 .
  40. Mikis Theodorakis: My life for freedom. Pp. 250-254.
  41. Report on the "kidnapping" in: Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. A life for Greece. Pp. 420-425.
  42. Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. A life for Greece. Pp. 222-223.
  43. ^ François Mitterrand: Je peux me dire son ami. Foreword to: Mikis Theodorakis: Les Fiancés de Pénélope , pp. I – V.
  44. Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. A life for Greece. Pp. 272-275.
  45. Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. A life for Greece. P. 282 f.
  46. On the Second Symphony ( Memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  47. On the Third Symphony ( Memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  48. On the Fourth Symphony ( Memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  49. About the Seventh Symphony ( Memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  50. On the Sadducee Passion ( Memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  51. On the creation of the Canto General ( Memento from March 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  52. Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. A life for Greece. Pp. 333-342.
  53. Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. A life for Greece. Pp. 347-353; Mitsotaki's cabinet .
  54. Livanelis Homepage: Biography ( Memento from December 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) “Being one of the foremost defenders of Turkish-Greek friendship, in 1986, he founded the Greek-Turkish Friendship Committee together with the Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis. "Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  55. Mikis Theodorakis: "I have a word of life for you" ( Memento from March 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) on: loizidis.com.
  56. edimuster.ch
  57. mmb.org.gr
  58. ^ Henning Schmiedt : East of the Aegean. ( Memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  59. Mikis Theodorakis: Theodorakis and the Kurdendrama. ( Memento of January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Athens, February 1999, transl. Guy Wagner. Published on mikis-theodorakis.net, the Theodorakis homepage, which is maintained by Theodorakis' biographer Guy Wagner.)
  60. Declaration by Mikis Theodorakis ( memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) from January 30, 2003, published on mikis-theodorakis.net.
  61. Mikis Theodorakis: First statement on the war against Iraq. ( Memento of March 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Athens, March 21, 2003, published on mikis-theodorakis.net.
  62. Niels Kadritzke : The root of the stupid. In: the daily newspaper , November 15, 2003.
  63. Israeli oppression. ( Memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Statement by Mikis Theodorakis from April 1, 2002 in a translation by Guy Wagner on mikis-theodorakis.net.
  64. Theodorakis, an anti-Semite? ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Publications from 2003 on mikis-theodorakis.net
  65. Asteris Kutulas: November 29, 2003: On the anti-Semitism charge against Theodorakis. ( Memento of January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Letter to Guy Wagner, published on mikis-theodorakis.net.
  66. 'Zorba' Composer declares himself an anti-Semite. In: JTA , February 9, 2011 (English).
  67. ^ "I am an anti-Semite", famous Greek composer admits. ( Memento of February 17, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: World Jewish Congress , February 10, 2011 (English).
  68. Αντισημιτισμός και Σιωνισμός - Anti-Semitism and Zionism. : Κείμενο του Μίκη Θεοδωράκη - Απάντηση σε κατηγορίες που απηύθυναν εναντίον τοδω γ. Γιταοί κύλσοι γ. / Mikis Theodorakis answers to the usual circles accusing him of ... Anti-Semitism. Publication of February 11, 2011 (Greek / English), reproduced on his personal website, accessed November 30, 2014.
  69. Mikis Theodorakis' letter to the Central Board of Jewish Communities in Greece. In: kis.gr , May 16, 2011 (English).
  70. ^ The response of the Central Board of Jewish Communities in Greece. In: kis.gr , May 16, 2011 (English).
  71. orf.at: Honorary doctorate for sirtaki composers . Article dated May 29, 2018, accessed May 29, 2018.
  72. PLUS: Honorary doctorate for Mikis Theodorakis. Retrieved June 6, 2018 .
  73. Korngold Prize to Mikis Theodorakis. In: neue musikzeitung , July 2, 2002. Accessed November 30, 2014.
  74. The laudation was given by Jack Lang, former French Minister of Culture. D .: Laudation for Mikis Theodorakis ( Memento from December 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: Price announcement of the 4th International Film Music Biennale June 23-30, 2002, Bundeskunsthalle Bonn. (Press material from the Bundeskunsthalle Bonn.)
  75. Nikos Panajotopoulos: The Last Living Myth. In: Die Zeit , August 4, 2005.
  76. Mikis Theodorakis proposed for a Nobel Prize. In: Wiener Zeitung , August 31, 1999.
  77. spitha-kinima.org ( Memento from December 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  78. Hansgeorg Hermann: Where should we get hope from? In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , June 23, 2015 (interview).
  79. On the occasion of this appointment, he gave a speech that was printed on December 21, 2013 in the newspaper Junge Welt . It is documented on ag-friedensforschung.de: Mikis Theodorakis: The only solution. Translation by Theo Votsos.
  80. Chart sources: DE AT
  81. Friedhelm Kehmeier, blurb for the record album "Mikis Theodorakis - Portrait", Metronome, 1974
  82. A guitar concert by Mikis Theodorakis… (Gerhard-Michael Dausend spoke with Costas Cotsiolis). In: Guitar & Laute 10, 1988, issue 4, p. 45 f.
  83. June 18, 1977: Presentation of the hymn at the party congress in the Palais des Sports Nantes:
    • "Congrès du Parti Socialiste à Nantes durant le chant collectif du nouvel hymne composé par Mikis THEODORAKIS et Herbert PAGANI chantant tous deux l'hymne sur scène." Video (1:45 min)
    • “Au congrès du parti socialiste à Nantes, présentation du nouvel hymne socialiste intitulé“ Changer la vie ”. La chanson est interprétée par Herbert PAGANI accompagné par un orchester dirigé par Mikis THEODORAKIS “ Video (2:19 min) with a comment by Theodorakis (French)
    on ina.fr, the website of the Institut national de l'audiovisuel .
  84. Erik Daumann: Music as an experienced story. In: Klassik.com , December 20, 2003.
  85. mikis-theodorakis.net, the Theodorakis website by Guy Wagner: Soundtracks. ( Memento of December 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  86. ^ Charles Dutoit , Statement on his recording of Theodorakis' Zorbas Ballett & Carnival, DECCA
  87. ↑ First performance by Mikis Theodorakis in Cologne. ( Memento from November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Article from September 16, 2008 in the news archive of Schott Music
  88. Sur les interprètes de Theodorakis ( memento of November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) on mikis-theodorakis.net
    A detailed alphabetically sorted list of artists and ensembles who have performed works by Theodorakis can be found on Mikis Theodorakis' website at http://www.mikistheodorakis.gr/el/music/listen/byartist/
  89. Sun and Time. Film information from AGDOK ( Memento from April 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  90. Mikis Theodorakis - composer. Summary of arte ( memento from April 18, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
  91. Mikis Theodorakis. Composer. Film information from AGDOK ( Memento from April 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive )