The Paris Conservatory (French: "le Conservatoire de Paris", official name: Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Paris , CNSMDP) belongs to the two conservatoires nationalaux supérieurs de musique et de danse (Eng. State Higher Music and Dance Conservatories ”) in France. The status and objectives are comparable to those of a German music college. After an admission competition (French: “concours d'entrée”), the conservatory accepts around 1,300 students, the teaching staff comprises 400 people.
The Paris Conservatory was founded as Conservatoire de musique on the basis of a law of August 3, 1795 . It replaced two independent institutions:
- the École royale de chant et de déclamation (Eng. "Royal School for Singing and Declamation") founded on January 3, 1783 , which trained the youngsters for the Paris Opera (French: "l'Opéra de Paris"). The director was the composer François-Joseph Gossec , the Italian opera composer Niccolò Piccinni taught singing.
- the École de musique municipale (dt. "Municipal Music School") founded in 1792 , which trained the instrumentalists of the Musique de la Garde nationale (dt. "Music Corps of the National Guard"). Due to a decree of the National Convention (fr. "Convention nationale") of November 8, 1793, the school was officially recognized as Institut national de Musique (Eng. "National Institute for Music").
On October 22, 1796, the Conservatory moved into the rue Bergère (today: rue du Conservatoire ), in the buildings of the former École royale de chant et de déclamation . The teaching staff of this house subsequently included the best musicians in France. Initially, training in the instrumental field, especially for strings and harpsichord players, was favored. In this way, the Conservatory has gained an international reputation for being a special violin school, which is associated with the name of its violin professor Rodolphe Kreutzer . Beethoven wrote his famous Kreutzer Sonata for him .
From 1800 Bernard Sarrette was the director of the school. The range of courses was expanded to include the training of future artists in the Opéra-Comique (German: "Comical Opera"), the Théâtre-Italy (German: "Italian Theater") and the Comédie-Française (German: "French Comedy"). In 1808, François-Antoine habeneck started the student orchestra, with which he performed Beethoven symphonies for the first time in France .
A coveted award from the institute is the Grand Prix de Rome , a three-year study visit to Italy at state expense with the obligation to create compositions. The award-winning compositions submitted for this purpose are kept in the library of the Conservatory. The Rome price was only approved for women from 1908.
Students were given equal rights in the choice of subjects and there were no restrictions for female students. As early as 1795 - an absolute exception at the time - two professors were appointed: Hélène de Montgeroult for piano and Louise Rey for solfège (vocal technique).
In 1806 the Conservatoire de musique became the Conservatoire de musique et de déclamation through the establishment of classes for lyrical and dramatic recitation .
During the restoration period , the Conservatoire de musique et de déclamation was officially closed and replaced by an École royale de musique et de déclamation . With the appointment of Luigi Cherubini as director on April 22, 1822, the old designation Conservatoire de musique et de déclamation was reintroduced. Cherubini, who headed the school until 1842, tried to improve the quality of teaching by introducing entry and final competitions (French: "concours d'entrée et de sortie"). He promoted vocal training, set up numerous courses for new instruments and revived the concerts of the school orchestra, which led to the establishment of the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire .
Outstanding among the directors of the following period were: Daniel Aubert (1842–1871), Ambroise Thomas (1871–1896), Gabriel Fauré (1905–1920). Famous professors such as César Franck , Charles-Marie Widor , Alexandre Guilmant , Louis Diémer , Raoul Pugno , Marcel Dupré , Alfred Cortot and Marguerite Long consolidated the institution's European reputation.
Under the directorate of Gabriel Fauré, who also brought in external personalities such as Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel to collaborate and set up new classes, the Conservatoire de musique et de déclamation moved to the former Collège de jésuites at 14 rue de Madrid in 1911 .
In 1934 the name was again changed to Conservatoire national de musique et d'art dramatique .
In 1946 the acting department of the Conservatory was spun off and moved to the rue du Conservatoire (formerly rue Bergère) as Conservatoire national supérieur d'art dramatique , the music department was named Conservatoire national supérieur de musique .
Under the directors Marcel Dupré (1954–1956), Raymond Loucheur (1956–1962) and Raymond Gallois-Montbrun (1962–1983), new subjects are introduced and, through the establishment of master classes, great instrumental soloists such as Mstislav Rostropovitch , Christa Ludwig and Wilhelm Kempff committed.
Since the premises in rue Madrid were no longer sufficient for the expanding operation of the conservatory since the 1940s, it was decided to build a new building as part of the Cité de la musique project .
On December 7, 1990, after six years of construction, the new rooms of the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique de Paris were inaugurated in the Cité de la musique in the Parc de la Villette , which was then under construction .
The former building at 14 rue de Madrid now houses the Conservatoire à rayonnement régional de Paris . The building at 2 bis rue du Conservatoire is still the seat of the Conservatoire national supérieur d'art dramatique (CNSAD).
Chronology of people working there
|Duration||people||Activities and characteristics|
|1795-1826||Rodolphe Kreutzer||Professor of Violin|
|1795–?||Pierre Rode||Professor of Violin|
|1795–?||Pierre Baillot||Professor (?) For violin|
|1795–?||Georg Friedrich Fuchs||Professor of Clarinet|
|1795-1797||Hélène de Montgeroult||Professor in the men's class for piano|
|1795–?||Hyacinthe Jadin||Professor of the ladies class for piano|
|1795-1797||Louise Rey||Professor of Solfège|
|1817 to?||François-Adrien Boieldieu||Professor of Composition|
|1821-1832||François-Joseph Fétis||Professor of composition and harmony|
|1853-1854||Ernest Guiraud||Student of Jacques Fromental Halévy and Antoine François Marmontel|
|1868 to?||Martin Marsick||Student of Lambert Massart|
|1871-1905||Théodore Dubois||Professor of Harmony|
|1872-1890||César Franck||Organ professor|
|1876 to?||Ernest Guiraud||Professor of harmony, from 1880 composition|
|1878 to?||Paul Vidal||Student of Jules Massenet and César Franck|
|1878-1893||Jules Massenet||Professor of Composition|
|1880 to?||Léo Delibes||Professor of Composition|
|1884–1930?||Paul Vidal||Professor of Composition|
|1890-1894||Carl Flesch||Student of Eugène Sauzay and Martin Marsick|
|1890-1896||Charles-Marie Widor||Professor for Organ and Composition (from 1896)|
|1892-1900||Martin Marsick||Professor for violin|
|1893-1896||Jacques Thibaud||Student of Martin Marsick|
|1894 to?||Charles Lenepveu||Professor of Composition|
|1895-1899||George Enescu||Student of André Gedalge, Jules Massenet, Gabriel Fauré and Martin Marsick|
|1896-1911||Alexandre Guilmant||Professorship for organ|
|1896 to?||Xavier Leroux||Professorship for harmony|
|1896-1900||André Caplet||Student of Charles Lenepveu , Xavier Leroux and Paul Vidal|
|1902 to?||Marcel Dupré||Student of Louis Diémer , Alexandre Guilmant , Charles-Marie Widor|
|1905–1925?||André Gedalge||Professorship for counterpoint and fugue|
|1907 to?||Camille Chevillard||Professorship for chamber music|
|1908 / 09-1936||Maurice Emmanuel||Professor of Music History|
|~ 1910||Lili Boulanger||Student of Georges Caussade and Paul Vidal|
|1910-1914||Jacques Ibert||Pupil of Paul Vidal|
|1911-1925||Eugène Gigout||Organ professorship|
|1911||Arthur Honegger||Student of Lucien Capet and André Gédalge|
|1913||Enrique Mario Casella||Student of Paul Vidal and Foucher|
|1913||Georges Auric||Pupil of Georges Caussade|
|1919-1939||Charles Tournemire||Professorship for chamber music|
|1919-1949||Jean Gallon||Professorship for harmony|
|1919-1930||Olivier Messiaen||Student of Maurice Emmanuel , Marcel Dupré , Paul Dukas|
|~ 1919-1925||Pierre Fournier||Students of Paul Bazelaire , Anton Hekking , Camille Chevillard , Lucien Capet|
|1920s||André Fleury||Student of Eugène Gigout , Marcel Dupré , Paul Vidal|
|~ 1920-1940||Henri Rabaud||Professorship for orchestral conducting|
|1920 to?||Noël Gallon||Professorship for solfège and counterpoint (since 1926)|
|1921–1928?||Henri Büsser||Professor of Composition|
|1926-1954||Marcel Dupré||Organ professorship|
|1927-1929||Szymon Laks||Disciple of Pierre (Paul?) Vidal, Henri Rabaud|
|1933-1938||Henri Dutilleux||Students of Jean Gallon and Noël Gallon, Henri Büsser, Maurice Emmanuel|
|1939||Gabriel Grovlez||Professor of Chamber Music|
|1939-1941||Charles Munch||Professor of orchestral direction|
|1941 / 42–1977 / 78||Olivier Messiaen||Professor of Analysis and Composition|
|1944 to?||Maurice Duruflé||Professor of Harmony|
|1955-1986||Rolande Falcinelli||Organ professor|
|1956-1985||Pierre Sancan||Professor of piano|
|1966-1970||André Jolivet||Professor of Composition|
|1986-1998||Gérard Grisey||Professor of Composition|
|1991-2000||François Jeanneau||(first) head of the jazz department|
|1999-2006||Marco Stroppa||Professor of Composition|
|Francisco Salvador-Daniel||May 1871|
|Bruno Mantovani||since 2010|
Other well-known teachers and students
- Coupling : II / I, III / I, III / II, I / P, II / P, III / P.
- Extras: Memory Card System
- Website of the «Conservatoire de Paris» (French)
- Project description - website of the Rieger Orgelbau company
- The tasks and the rank of the conservatoires nationaux supérieurs are laid down in Décret no. 2009-201 of February 18, 2009, s. www.conservatoiredeparis.fr> missions
- The explanations follow the presentation on the website of the Paris Conservatory www.conservatoiredeparis.fr> l'école> histoire.
- Conservatory. In: Friedrich Blume (Ed.): Music in the past and present. Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel u. a. 1949, vol. 7 (1958).
- Eva Weissweiler: Female composers from the Middle Ages to the present. 1999, p. 247.
- Eva Weissweiler: Composers from the Middle Ages to the Present 1999, p. 247/48.
- Claudia Schweitzer: "... is highly recommendable as a teacher, by the way." Cultural history of the piano teacher . P. 74 ff.