Paris Conservatory

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The Paris Conservatory is now part of the Cité de la musique in the Parc de la Villette in north-east Paris (209 Avenue Jean-Jaurès.)
Formerly the Conservatory building (1796–1911) in rue du Conservatoire (formerly rue Bergère).
Today the Conservatoire national supérieur d'art dramatique (CNSAD) with the Théâtre du Conservatoire is housed there.

The Paris Conservatory (French: "le Conservatoire de Paris", official name: Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Paris , CNSMDP) belongs to the two conservatoires nationalaux supérieurs de musique et de danse (Eng. State Higher Music and Dance Conservatories ”) in France. The status and objectives are comparable to those of a German music college. After an admission competition (French: “concours d'entrée”), the conservatory accepts around 1,300 students, the teaching staff comprises 400 people.


The Paris Conservatory was founded as Conservatoire de musique on the basis of a law of August 3, 1795 . It replaced two independent institutions:

  • the École royale de chant et de déclamation (Eng. "Royal School for Singing and Declamation") founded on January 3, 1783 , which trained the youngsters for the Paris Opera (French: "l'Opéra de Paris"). The director was the composer François-Joseph Gossec , the Italian opera composer Niccolò Piccinni taught singing.
  • the École de musique municipale (dt. "Municipal Music School") founded in 1792 , which trained the instrumentalists of the Musique de la Garde nationale (dt. "Music Corps of the National Guard"). Due to a decree of the National Convention (fr. "Convention nationale") of November 8, 1793, the school was officially recognized as Institut national de Musique (Eng. "National Institute for Music").

The Conservatoire de musique was administered by a directorate (François-Joseph Gossec, Mehul and Cherubini ) under the direction of Bernard Sarrette .

On October 22, 1796, the Conservatory moved into the rue Bergère (today: rue du Conservatoire ), in the buildings of the former École royale de chant et de déclamation . The teaching staff of this house subsequently included the best musicians in France. Initially, training in the instrumental field, especially for strings and harpsichord players, was favored. In this way, the Conservatory has gained an international reputation for being a special violin school, which is associated with the name of its violin professor Rodolphe Kreutzer . Beethoven wrote his famous Kreutzer Sonata for him .

From 1800 Bernard Sarrette was the director of the school. The range of courses was expanded to include the training of future artists in the Opéra-Comique (German: "Comical Opera"), the Théâtre-Italy (German: "Italian Theater") and the Comédie-Française (German: "French Comedy"). In 1808, François-Antoine habeneck started the student orchestra, with which he performed Beethoven symphonies for the first time in France .

A coveted award from the institute is the Grand Prix ​​de Rome , a three-year study visit to Italy at state expense with the obligation to create compositions. The award-winning compositions submitted for this purpose are kept in the library of the Conservatory. The Rome price was only approved for women from 1908.

Students were given equal rights in the choice of subjects and there were no restrictions for female students. As early as 1795 - an absolute exception at the time - two professors were appointed: Hélène de Montgeroult for piano and Louise Rey for solfège (vocal technique).

In 1806 the Conservatoire de musique became the Conservatoire de musique et de déclamation through the establishment of classes for lyrical and dramatic recitation .

During the restoration period , the Conservatoire de musique et de déclamation was officially closed and replaced by an École royale de musique et de déclamation . With the appointment of Luigi Cherubini as director on April 22, 1822, the old designation Conservatoire de musique et de déclamation was reintroduced. Cherubini, who headed the school until 1842, tried to improve the quality of teaching by introducing entry and final competitions (French: "concours d'entrée et de sortie"). He promoted vocal training, set up numerous courses for new instruments and revived the concerts of the school orchestra, which led to the establishment of the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire .

Outstanding among the directors of the following period were: Daniel Aubert (1842–1871), Ambroise Thomas (1871–1896), Gabriel Fauré (1905–1920). Famous professors such as César Franck , Charles-Marie Widor , Alexandre Guilmant , Louis Diémer , Raoul Pugno , Marcel Dupré , Alfred Cortot and Marguerite Long consolidated the institution's European reputation.

Under the directorate of Gabriel Fauré, who also brought in external personalities such as Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel to collaborate and set up new classes, the Conservatoire de musique et de déclamation moved to the former Collège de jésuites at 14 rue de Madrid in 1911 .

In 1934 the name was again changed to Conservatoire national de musique et d'art dramatique .

In 1946 the acting department of the Conservatory was spun off and moved to the rue du Conservatoire (formerly rue Bergère) as Conservatoire national supérieur d'art dramatique , the music department was named Conservatoire national supérieur de musique .

Under the directors Marcel Dupré (1954–1956), Raymond Loucheur (1956–1962) and Raymond Gallois-Montbrun (1962–1983), new subjects are introduced and, through the establishment of master classes, great instrumental soloists such as Mstislav Rostropovitch , Christa Ludwig and Wilhelm Kempff committed.

Since the premises in rue Madrid were no longer sufficient for the expanding operation of the conservatory since the 1940s, it was decided to build a new building as part of the Cité de la musique project .

On December 7, 1990, after six years of construction, the new rooms of the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique de Paris were inaugurated in the Cité de la musique in the Parc de la Villette , which was then under construction .

The former building at 14 rue de Madrid now houses the Conservatoire à rayonnement régional de Paris . The building at 2 bis rue du Conservatoire is still the seat of the Conservatoire national supérieur d'art dramatique (CNSAD).


Chronology of people working there

Duration people Activities and characteristics
1795-1826 Rodolphe Kreutzer Professor of Violin
1795–? Pierre Rode Professor of Violin
1795–? Pierre Baillot Professor (?) For violin
1795–? Georg Friedrich Fuchs Professor of Clarinet
1795-1797 Hélène de Montgeroult Professor in the men's class for piano
1795–? Hyacinthe Jadin Professor of the ladies class for piano
1795-1797 Louise Rey Professor of Solfège
1817 to? François-Adrien Boieldieu Professor of Composition
1821-1832 François-Joseph Fétis Professor of composition and harmony
1853-1854 Ernest Guiraud Student of Jacques Fromental Halévy and Antoine François Marmontel
1868 to? Martin Marsick Student of Lambert Massart
1871-1905 Théodore Dubois Professor of Harmony
1872-1890 César Franck Organ professor
1876 ​​to? Ernest Guiraud Professor of harmony, from 1880 composition
1878 to? Paul Vidal Student of Jules Massenet and César Franck
1878-1893 Jules Massenet Professor of Composition
1880 to? Léo Delibes Professor of Composition
1884–1930? Paul Vidal Professor of Composition
1890-1894 Carl Flesch Student of Eugène Sauzay and Martin Marsick
1890-1896 Charles-Marie Widor Professor for Organ and Composition (from 1896)
1892-1900 Martin Marsick Professor for violin
1893-1896 Jacques Thibaud Student of Martin Marsick
1894 to? Charles Lenepveu Professor of Composition
1895-1899 George Enescu Student of André Gedalge, Jules Massenet, Gabriel Fauré and Martin Marsick
1896-1911 Alexandre Guilmant Professorship for organ
1896 to? Xavier Leroux Professorship for harmony
1896-1900 André Caplet Student of Charles Lenepveu , Xavier Leroux and Paul Vidal
1902 to? Marcel Dupré Student of Louis Diémer , Alexandre Guilmant , Charles-Marie Widor
1905–1925? André Gedalge Professorship for counterpoint and fugue
1907 to? Camille Chevillard Professorship for chamber music
1908 / 09-1936 Maurice Emmanuel Professor of Music History
~ 1910 Lili Boulanger Student of Georges Caussade and Paul Vidal
1910-1914 Jacques Ibert Pupil of Paul Vidal
1911-1925 Eugène Gigout Organ professorship
1911 Arthur Honegger Student of Lucien Capet and André Gédalge
1913 Enrique Mario Casella Student of Paul Vidal and Foucher
1913 Georges Auric Pupil of Georges Caussade
1919-1939 Charles Tournemire Professorship for chamber music
1919-1949 Jean Gallon Professorship for harmony
1919-1930 Olivier Messiaen Student of Maurice Emmanuel , Marcel Dupré , Paul Dukas
~ 1919-1925 Pierre Fournier Students of Paul Bazelaire , Anton Hekking , Camille Chevillard , Lucien Capet
1920s André Fleury Student of Eugène Gigout , Marcel Dupré , Paul Vidal
~ 1920-1940 Henri Rabaud Professorship for orchestral conducting
1920 to? Noël Gallon Professorship for solfège and counterpoint (since 1926)
1921–1928? Henri Büsser Professor of Composition
1926-1954 Marcel Dupré Organ professorship
1927-1929 Szymon Laks Disciple of Pierre (Paul?) Vidal, Henri Rabaud
1933-1938 Henri Dutilleux Students of Jean Gallon and Noël Gallon, Henri Büsser, Maurice Emmanuel
1939 Gabriel Grovlez Professor of Chamber Music
1939-1941 Charles Munch Professor of orchestral direction
1941 / 42–1977 / 78 Olivier Messiaen Professor of Analysis and Composition
1944 to? Maurice Duruflé Professor of Harmony
1955-1986 Rolande Falcinelli Organ professor
1956-1985 Pierre Sancan Professor of piano
1958-1975 Jeanne-Marie Darré piano
1966-1970 André Jolivet Professor of Composition
1986-1998 Gérard Grisey Professor of Composition
1991-2000 François Jeanneau (first) head of the jazz department
1999-2006 Marco Stroppa Professor of Composition
director Period
Bernard Sarrette 1795-1822
Luigi Cherubini 1822-1842
Daniel Auber 1842-1871
Francisco Salvador-Daniel May 1871
Ambroise Thomas 1871-1896
Théodore Dubois 1896-1905
Gabriel Fauré 1905-1920
Henri Rabaud 1921-1941
Claude Delvincourt 1941-1954
Marcel Dupré 1954-1956
Raymond Loucheur 1956-1952
Raymond Gallois-Montbrun 1962-1983
Marc Bleuse 1984-1986
Alain Louvier 1986-1991
Xavier Darasse 1991-1992
Marc-Olivier Dupin 1993-2000
Alain Poirier 2000-2009
Pascal Dumay 2009
Bruno Mantovani since 2010

Other well-known teachers and students

Teacher student


In the conservatory there is an organ from the Austrian company Rieger Orgelbau from 1991, which was overhauled and expanded in 2002.

I Grand-Orgue C-c 4
Montre 16 ′
Bourdon 16 ′
Montre 8th'
Bourdon 8th'
Viol 8th'
Flûte harmonique 8th'
Prestant 4 ′
Flute 4 ′
Duplicate 2 ′
Deuxième trompette 8th'
Fittings V. 1 13
Cymbals V 1'
Cornet V 8th'
Bombard 16 ′
Trumpets 8th'
Clairon 4 ′
II Positif (expr.) C-c 4
Bourdon 16 ′
Montre 8th'
Salicional 8th'
Bourdon 8th'
Prestant 4 ′
Flûte à cheminée 4 ′
Nazard 2 23
Duplicate 2 ′
Tierce 1 35
Larigot 1 13
Sifflet 1'
Plein Jeu IV 1'
Trumpets 8th'
Cromorne 8th'
III Récit C – c 4
Quintatön 16 ′
Viol 8th'
Voix céleste 8th'
Flûte harmonique 8th'
Viole 4 ′
Flûte octaviante 4 ′
Nazard 2 23
Octavine 2 ′
Cornet V 8th'
Plein Jeu V 2 ′
Basson 16 ′
Trumpets 8th'
Hautbois 8th'
Clairon 4 ′
Voix humaine 8th'
Pedale C – g 1
Soubasse 32 ′
Contrebasse 16 ′
Soubasse 16 ′
Flute 8th'
Violoncello 8th'
Bourdon 8th'
Flute 4 ′
Bombard 16 ′
Trumpets 8th'
  • Coupling : II / I, III / I, III / II, I / P, II / P, III / P.
  • Extras: Memory Card System

See also

Web links

Commons : Musée de la musique  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The tasks and the rank of the conservatoires nationaux supérieurs are laid down in Décret no. 2009-201 of February 18, 2009, s.> missions
  2. The explanations follow the presentation on the website of the Paris Conservatory> l'école> histoire.
  3. Conservatory. In: Friedrich Blume (Ed.): Music in the past and present. Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel u. a. 1949, vol. 7 (1958).
  4. ^ Eva Weissweiler: Female composers from the Middle Ages to the present. 1999, p. 247.
  5. ^ Eva Weissweiler: Composers from the Middle Ages to the Present 1999, p. 247/48.
  6. Claudia Schweitzer: "... is highly recommendable as a teacher, by the way." Cultural history of the piano teacher . P. 74 ff.

Coordinates: 48 ° 53 '20 "  N , 2 ° 23' 27"  E