|english organ , italian organo , french orgue|
|Main organ in the Speyer Cathedral ( Romanus Seifert , 2011)|
Entire audible range , rarely also infrasound up to 8.2 Hz
|Sound sample||see under audio examples|
List of organists , List of organ composers
An organ (of ancient Greek ὄργανον Organon "Tool", "Instrument", "body") is a via keys playable musical instrument . The sound is produced by whistles blown by a stream of air called an organ wind . To distinguish it from electronic organs , it is therefore also called a pipe organ . She belongs to the aerophones . Most organs mostly contain labial pipes , in which the air column inside is made to vibrate by blowing a labium (cutting tones) and thus the tone is generated. They are supplemented by lingual pipes , in which the sound is generated by a vibrating reed .
From a console, the organist can switch individual rows of pipes with different pitches and timbres ( register ) on or off so that different timbres can be generated. The whistles are controlled by one or more manuals and, if necessary, the pedal , to which the registers are permanently assigned. The pressure on the key is mechanically, pneumatically, electrically and sometimes even by light waves (glass fiber) directed to the valves under the pipes via the action .
Organs have been known since ancient times and have developed into their present form, especially in the Baroque and Romantic periods . With around 50,000 organs, Germany has the highest density of pipe organs in the world.
Executions and structure
Organs can be found in different designs and sizes, mostly in churches , but also in concert halls , music colleges (practice organs), schools (school organs ) and even private houses ( house organs ). A small, single-manual organ without a pedal is called a positive or - with a correspondingly compact design - a chest organ . Portable miniature organs are called portative . A special form of this is the shelf, which is only arranged with tongue whistles .
Larger organs usually have a large number of registers; large organs are used from around a hundred registers. The organ of the Atlantic City Convention Hall is currently the largest organ in the world, with 314 registers and 33,114 pipes, but it has now had to relinquish its rank as the loudest organ in the world to the single-register Vox Maris open - air organ in Yeosu ( South Korea ), the 138.4 dBA reached.
Positioning and acoustics
The organ builder has the complex task of setting up the instrument acoustically, visually and functionally as optimally as possible, which is often only possible to a limited extent due to structural conditions. Ideally, the organ sound should be balanced and transparent at every point in the room. The reverberation should not obscure the sound too much.
The installation of an organ in churches often reveals a lot about its liturgical purpose and its possible uses. While the oldest instruments often appear near the choir or as swallow's nest organs, the organ on the west wall became common from the 17th century. Traditionally, the choir organ (or in Italy / Spain the Gospel / Epistle organ pair) was intended for a Catholic liturgy, most of which took place in the choir of the church. When congregational singing gained in importance after the Reformation, the organ moved to the west wall on the organ loft (more rarely behind or over the altar than the altar organ ) and also tended to become larger and louder, because now it had to be able to lead a congregation singing in a filled church . Depending on where they are installed, organs are also referred to as nave organs or transept organs. In small church rooms or those with special architectural peculiarities, the organ often has to be set up adapted to the architecture regardless of its liturgical significance.
The size of the organ loft says a lot about the purpose of the organ. In the large churches of Central Germany in the 18th century, for example, it was often customary to place the choir and instrumental ensemble on the organ loft, which meant that the main organ also came into its own as an accompanying instrument.
In concert halls, the organ is usually mounted on the wall above the orchestra podium.
Furthermore, at the beginning of the 20th century, so-called attic organs were set up above the nave in specially built organ chambers.
Large organs determine with the design of their housing and the front ( organ prospectus ) the effect of the room in which they are set up. In the Renaissance , and even more so in the Baroque period , the importance attached to the visual aspect was shown by the fact that the costs for the organ case (with sculptural decoration, ornamental carvings, paintings and gilding) often exceeded those of the actual organ work. The organ prospect often served together with the other sculptural and picturesque furnishings and design of the church to form an overall architectural concept.
The traditional material mainly used to build an organ is wood . The case, windchest, keys and part of the pipes are made of wood. In instruments with a mechanical control (action), wood is often used for the mechanical parts. Tin - lead alloys are mostly used for the metal pipes (so-called organ metal ), zinc has also been used since the 19th century and copper in the 20th century (occasionally also porcelain, plexiglass and other plastics). Cattle bones (rarely ivory ) and various types of wood (ebony, blackened pear tree, grenadilla ) are used for the coverings of the keyboard .
The pipe work of the organ consists of several rows of pipes, in each of which there are organ pipes of the same type and tone color . A row of pipes (sometimes several) is combined into a register that can be switched on and off from the console. The operation of the register is used in the mechanical action on organ stops or Manubrien called knobs that you pull for starting and switching off again push needs; this is where the old terms “pull” and “push” for switching registers on and off come from. In the case of the electric and pneumatic action, the registers are switched on and off using buttons or switches.
The arrangement of the registers of an organ including the playing aids (coupling etc.) is called the disposition of an organ. It is discussed by the organ builder with the client when creating the instrument and determines the possible uses of the organ.
By carefully combining different registers, the so-called registration , different timbres and volumes can be set. The art of the organist consists in finding a registration from the existing sound inventory that best corresponds to the music to be played. Each epoch preferred its own, special sound, which the well-trained organist is familiar with. It is therefore not possible to interpret every piece on every instrument in the historical sense in a true-to-style manner. Despite the possibility of a certain “typification”, there are seldom two organs of the same type, as each instrument is adapted in size and design to its installation space or depends on the taste at the time of its creation.
Differentiation according to pitch
The registers can have different pitches, the pitch being indicated by the so-called footnote number . For example, a register in the normal register (i.e., the c 1 key makes the c 1 sound) is called an 8 ′ (eight-foot) register, since the length of the deepest pipe, large C, of an open labial register is approximately 8 feet is (1 foot = approx. 30 cm). A register one octave lower is a 16 'register with pipes that are often twice as long, 4' denotes a register one octave higher and usually only has pipes half as long as an 8 'register. Fifths always have footnote numbers with thirds fractions (e.g. 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′ or 1 1 ⁄ 3 ′ - this is the 3rd partial tone of the natural overtone scale), thirds with fifths fractions (e.g. 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′ - 5th partial). There are also sevenths (e.g. 1 1 ⁄ 7 ′) with the 7th partial, ninths (e.g. 8 ⁄ 9 ′) with the 9th partial and other higher partial registers.
The different pitches form the overtone series . By combining a basic register (usually 8′-position) with one or more overtone registers (about 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′ or 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′), which are also called aliquots , existing overtones are amplified (or missing overtones are added) which changes the timbre.
Differentiation according to type
Depending on the type of tone generation, a distinction is made between lip whistles or labials (tone generation as with the recorder ) and reed whistles or linguals (tone generation as with a clarinet ). May flue pipes open or Gedackt be; the stopped pipes sound an octave lower at the same length. There are other differences in materials, pipe shape and the length (the proportions of the different pipe dimensions). There are also mixed voices . These are registers in which several whistles sound for each key. These include the sound crowns (or mixtures ) and color registers such as the sesquialtera and the cornet .
The physical explanations of the influence of the shape of the pipes on the timbre are detailed in the article organ pipe .
The tremulant is classified with the stops . It periodically changes the wind pressure and thus causes the tone to vibrate, usually as a combined tremolo and vibrato . In recent organs, the speed of the oscillation can sometimes be adjusted. The tremulant affects all registers of the work in which it is installed. With old organs there is sometimes a tremulant for the entire organ, with some organs there is also one that only affects a certain register (e.g. Hover Flute, Vox humana).
Special effect registers, such as carillon, cuckoo, bird song, thunder or timpani, complement the disposition of some organs.
In the case of the organ, a valve in a wind chest is opened from the console by pressing a button via an action . When the valve is opened, the wind generated by a bellows flows into the whistles on the wind chest, provided that they are in stop.
The compressed air supplied, the so-called wind, was generated by large bellows (scoop and wedge bellows) that were trodden with the feet or pulled up with ropes until the end of the 19th century. Depending on the organ size, up to twelve calcants (bellows treads) were required . After that, electric blowers (wind generators) were increasingly used. Since then, the regulation and stabilization of the wind pressure has usually been carried out by means of a magazine bellows . From this bellows the wind is directed through mostly wooden wind tunnels into the wind chests. A magazine bellows can sometimes be dispensed with for organs with bellows or wedge bellows (when retrofitting with an electric wind generator), or if (for smaller organs) the play wind is stabilized by loading bellows under the wind chests .
Electric fans are normally used in current organ building. When restoring premodern instruments and building new ones in a premodern organ style, bellows that correspond historically to the respective type of instrument are increasingly being used. There is also the option of installing an electric fan or moving the bellows using an electric motor instead of a bellows treadmill. For older music, the liveliness and calm (invertedness) of the organ wind achieved in this way - often described as the breathing of the organ - is valued, whereas for music since the late 19th century, absolute wind stability is appreciated.
The core of the technical system is the wind chest on which the pipes stand. The switching processes are carried out in it in order to sound the whistle desired by the player. From the console, the depression of the keys is transmitted via the action to the sound valves of the wind chest assigned to the individual keys. Depending on the previously drawn (switched on) stops, the wind can flow into the corresponding pipes and thus make them sound (or vice versa, to silence them). The number of wind chests in an organ depends on the type of organ and the number of built-in registers.
There are different types of windchest. A basic distinction is made - depending on the sequence of the valves for tone and register - between tone drawer drawers ( sliding drawer , spring drawer) and register drawer drawer (cone drawer, pocket drawer, membrane drawer) and box drawer (without chambers ). In the case of a tone drawer, all the pipes belonging to a key are on a pulpit, in the case of the register drawer all of the pipes that belong to one register, and in the case of the chest drawer, all pipes are on a wind chest that is not divided into chambers. The oldest wind chest design with individually registerable rows of pipes is the slider chest, which is now almost exclusively used again in modern organs due to its robustness and sonic advantages.
An organ is played from the console or play cabinet . Larger organs are made up of partial works, each of which is usually assigned its own keyboard . The organist operates the keyboards called manuals with his hands, while the pedal is played with his feet. In large organs and Iberian baroque organs there are often more parts than manuals. The sub-units that are not permanently equipped with their own manual are then switched on by means of shut-off valves or coupling to a manual. In the English-speaking world, such sub-works are referred to as floating divisions (short: floating ).
The manuals of today's organs usually have a range from C to g 3 (in new builds only rarely up to f 3 ), but occasionally also up to a 3 or c 4 . The pedal usually has a pitch range from C to f 1 , sometimes up to g 1 or a 1 . Organs of the past centuries often have a smaller pitch range. Until the second half of the 18th century, a range up to c 3 or d 3 in the manual and up to c 1 or d 1 in the pedal was the rule. In the 19th century, pedal sizes up to f 0 or g 0 were often built. In the bass range, organs up to around 1700 often found the short or broken octave . Until the beginning of the 19th century, the low C sharp was often dispensed with.
The manuals are usually abbreviated with Roman numerals and counted from bottom to top. Small organs have one or two manuals, medium organs two or three and large organs three to five (occasionally six or seven) manuals. Medium-sized Iberian baroque organs occasionally only have one manual. A pedal mechanism is not always present in very small organs. In historical organ building (e.g. the Netherlands, 17th and 18th centuries) there were also large, multi-manual instruments without an independent pedal.
Playing aids are additional functions that make playing easier for the organist, for example by enabling quick re-registration.
Coupling allows the simultaneous play of different works on one manual or the play of the manual registers in the pedal. So it is possible to play the registers of different manuals at the same time and to achieve a higher volume, but also additional combination options. By so-called sub - octave or super - octave coupling , the notes that are an octave below or above the played one are activated.
Coupling is described by first specifying the coupled manual and then the manual on which the coupling acts, e.g. B. II / I (the second manual is linked to the first) or HW / Ped (the main work is linked to the pedal). In the case of octave couplers, the offset can be specified in feet, e.g. B. III / I 4 ' (the third manual is coupled to the first one octave higher playing).
As registration assistance to institutions called on the organ, which offer the organist the opportunity to change registrations flexible. Even in organs from the Baroque period there were shut-off valves with which the air supply to entire works could be turned off. The first real registration aids were the Jeux de Combinaison , built by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll , with which you could switch on all the tongues and mixtures of a partial work with a foot lever (introductory step ) .
Since the middle of the 19th century, organs in Germany often have fixed combinations . This means that register combinations specified by the organ builder can be called up using the foot pedal or (with the start of the tube pneumatics) at the push of a button. Fixed combinations are usually graded according to volume levels , e.g. p, mf, f, ff .
The adjustable free combinations appeared around 1900 . Larger organs with pneumatic or electric stop action usually offer two or three free combinations. Modern organs often have electronic typesetters with which a large number of registrations can be programmed. The register shackle blocks the immediate change of the registration, so that the player can prepare a new registration during his game, which is then implemented at the push of a button. Also were deadbolt such. B. "Tongues ab" or "Crescendo ab" developed to disable individual register groups or playing aids. The crescendo (general crescendo , roller, roll sill) has made it possible since around 1860 on some organs to switch the registers on in sequence (in order of volume) until all registers sound ( tutti ). With large organs an almost stepless crescendo and decrescendo between pianopianissimo and fortefortissimo is possible.
Swell boxes can continuously mute the sound of the registers set up in them by closing blinds or flaps. During the Romantic era, this device was mainly installed in French organs in order to obtain a dynamic range adapted to the orchestral sound . Swell works were rather rare in Germany before 1890. The echo boxes of Spanish organs of the 18th century were a forerunner of the swell mechanism. Swell boxes are usually located inside the organ. Only in modern organs are they more often visible from the outside. Sills and swell boxes are usually made of wood. The complete organ is rarely housed in a swell box (such as the main organ of the Luther Church (Asseln) ).
The development of the organ is divided into the overall system of the organ (see disposition ), the artistic design of the organ case (see brochure ), the sound design and the technical system (see wind chest , action , wind mechanism and console ).
The first organ-like instrument was made around 246 BC. Constructed by Ktesibios , an engineer in Alexandria . The name of the instrument was "Wasser-Aulos" or Hydraulis (from ancient Greek ὕδωρ (hydor) "water" and (aulos) "pipe"), because with the help of water an even wind pressure was generated and metal tubes made of bronze form the chanter (tuned auloi , which was also used to designate oboe-like instruments). The generation of wind by bellows came up later. The Romans took over the organ from the Greeks as a purely profane instrument and accompanied performances in their arenas with organ music. Because of its use during the gruesome arena fights, in which Christians also died, the organ was not used by the early Christians.
During archaeological excavations near Budapest , the former Roman Aquincum , province of Pannonia , remains of an organ from the year 228 AD were found. In addition, parts of an organ from the late Roman period were discovered in Avenches (then Aventicum). Fragments unearthed in the Macedonian Dion even seem to come from an organ from the 1st century BC. To originate from.
In the Western Roman Empire during the Migration Period (around 400 AD), the use of organs is not documented. However, the Byzantine Empire made the organ an important instrument for imperial ceremonies. This also brought it closer to the church celebrations. In the Carolingian chronicles it is reported that in the years 757 and 812 an embassy came from the Byzantine imperial court to the Frankish court and brought an organ for King Pippin the Younger and for his son and successor Emperor Charlemagne . The son of Charlemagne, Emperor Ludwig the Pious , had an organ made for his Palatinate in Aachen in 826 by a priest named Georg from Venice , probably the first organ made in Western Europe for several centuries.
In the course of the 9th century the first (episcopal) churches in Western Europe began to buy organs, monastery churches probably not until the 11th century. The organ was initially a status symbol in churches, it was not until the Gothic period that it gradually developed into the main instrument of the Christian liturgy . In the 12th century, the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem had an organ in use that was probably imported by Crusaders . About 220 cylindrical pipes made of copper have survived, all of which have the same diameter and a range of about two octaves.
At first there were no keyboards or manuals. A tone was triggered by pulling out a wooden slat, the so-called loop , with the whole hand , thus releasing the wind to the pipes for this tone. The early and high medieval organs were block works , i. In other words, it was not yet possible to switch individual registers on and off: when you triggered a tone, all the whistles that were assigned to this tone sounded automatically. The portative , a small portable organ , was also created during this time .
The 14th and 15th centuries brought important innovations. With the invention of the sliding drawer and spring drawer , individually selectable registers, manual keyboards and individual (partial) works emerged. The expression “to beat the organ”, which was used at the time, later strengthened the assumption that these instruments were difficult to play and that the keys would have been pressed with great effort, sometimes even with fists, as in carillon . However, the organ music preserved from that time allows the conclusion that there were also relatively smooth-running organs that allowed fast playing. In fact, there are illustrations of the keys on these organs that were probably actually operated with the whole hand, but this does not necessarily indicate that the fists were hit hard. For example, the illustrations in the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius show the keyboards of the cathedral organ in Halberstadt from 1361 with such keys. Rather, the word "hitting" means "hitting" the keys. For example, the lute was also "struck".
The organ of St. Andreas (Ostönnen) (around 1425), the organ of the Basilique de Valère in Sion, Switzerland (around 1435), the organ of the Rysum Church (around 1440 ) are among the oldest still playable organs in the world (from late Gothic times) ), the Epistle organ (left instrument of the pair of organs) of the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna (1475). and the organ in St. Valentinus in Kiedrich (around 1500). However, they all contain only parts from the oldest epoch of their building history.
The organs of the early Renaissance are still reminiscent of the time the registers were introduced in the late Middle Ages (voting separation). The organs initially contain very few registers (e.g. prefix , octave , backseat and cymbal from the Gothic block , plus one or two flutes, trumpet and the shelf ) and often only have a manual and an attached pedal. An existing shelf register is often placed easily accessible above the gaming table, as its whistles often have to be readjusted. From this arrangement, the breastwork developed , in which the shelf pipes are still easily accessible at the front. During this time, the two small organ types, positive and shelf, were also created .
In the high renaissance, fully developed organs with several manuals and pedal were developed. The sound ideal was based on the ensemble music customary at the time on similar instruments. Principals , mixture and cymbals stand for the actual "organ sound", which was already heard earlier as a "block work". There were also numerous registers that were supposed to imitate the sound of the instruments commonly used at the time, especially flutes, reed and brass instruments. In the case of the lingual registers, these were e.g. B. trumpet , trombone , zinc , Schalmei , Dulzian , Ranckett , Krummhorn and Sordun , z at the Labialregistern. B. Recorder , transverse flute (mostly not as an overblown register) and Gemshorn . Between one and three manuals were built, each of which controls its own work. As a rule, there was also an independent pedal unit . In addition to sacred music, the secular music of the Renaissance can also be played very well on such organs. In the late Renaissance, the first regional differences in organ building began to emerge.
Examples: Lübeck (1515), Udine (Vincenzo Colombo, 1550), Saint-Savin (Hautes-Pyrénées) (1557), Innsbruck (Jörg Ebert, 1561), Mantua ( Graziadio Antegnati , 1565), Saint-Julien-du-Sault (1568), Schmalkalden (1590), Trofaiach (Hanns Kahnchuber, 1595).
Organ building flourished in some European countries in the 17th and 18th centuries. For organs from the Baroque period , the registers can be divided into three functional groups depending on the timbre and use, which are, however, equally distributed over the entire organ:
- The first group forms prominent voices with the typical "organ sound", which are designed for a powerful overall sound, the so-called plenum . These include principals , octaves , fifths in principal censorship and mixtures , but also full-cup reed voices that are drawn to the plenum or form an independent lingual plenum.
- The second group has rather soft, flute-like tones that can be mixed well. There are the wide open, the conical and the condensed voices in all their variations.
- The third group is the parts that are best used as a soloist, such as aliquots , reeds and single strings.
A typical feature of baroque organs in most cultural landscapes is the so-called work principle : each part of the organ (e.g. main work , Rückpositiv , upper work, breast work, pedal work) is usually designed as an independent organ unit. Often every part of the work has a plenum and allows solo and basic accompaniment registrations; the sub-works differ on the one hand in their sound characteristics, on the other hand often in their volume (e.g. echo work).
Due to the purely mechanical action mechanism , there are other special features:
- Manual arrangement: In a three-manual organ with a Rückpositiv, Hauptwerk and Brustwerk, the Hauptwerk is always the middle manual, as otherwise the key actions of the works would cross.
- Movement size: Each additional register on a wind chest increases the weight of the key in the mechanical action. As a result, natural maximum limits are set here, since an organ would otherwise not be playable. On North German baroque organs, for example, there are very few instruments with more than ten to twelve registers on a wind chest. In other regions (e.g. central Germany, France or Spain) up to fifteen (in individual cases even more) registers were placed on the main wind chest.
- Coupling: With a three-manual organ there is a maximum of manual coupling from the third to the second and from the first to the second manual. A coupling between the third and the first manual was technically not yet feasible, as sliding couplings were mostly used.
The transparency of the sound is in the foreground of the baroque organ. Therefore, high registers and aliquot registers were widely used as solo registers.
The Hanseatic-Dutch type of organ of the 17th and 18th centuries
Organs of this style can be found among others. in northern Germany, in Westphalia and in Saxony-Anhalt as well as in the Netherlands and Scandinavia.
A typical feature of the organ in the North German-Hanseatic region was the operating principle. Both the manual works and the pedal work had fully occupied principal choirs on different principal bases. In the main work there was often an expanded principal choir from 16 ′ to Scharf. In the Rückpositiv, solo aliquots and solo tongue parts were arranged in addition to higher principals. In the other manuals there were high-lying principals, cymbals and short-bellied reeds. The pedal had developed principal, long and reed choirs. Pedal couplers were therefore also unnecessary. The internal separation of the individual works was made clear by the design of the prospectus. In the so-called Hamburg prospectus , the consistent structure of the work was very clear. The pedal towers were attached to the side of the organ and thus framed the manual works. Each plant was characterized by a high degree of independence. In each part of the work there were now principal, flute and reed ensembles. The sound crowns consisted mainly of fifths and octaves, which underscored the “silver sheen” of the mixture plenum. However, the third or fourth sixth cymbals were typical solo registers. Sesquialtera and Tertian served mainly as ensemble registers and were already repeating in the bass. A quintadena 16 ′ was happily planned in the main plant . In contrast, even in larger organs, there were usually only one or two labial 8 'registers in each manaulwork. Crossing registers were almost never built. This architectural style was significantly influenced by Arp Schnitger .
Most organ builders did not proceed in a schematic way when it came to dispositions. It was about the greatest possible variety among the individual voices. The many reed voices of very different construction also served the tonal variety. The wooden feet were typical of the North German tongue registers. Principals and mixtures were mostly made of (almost) pure tin and had narrow lengths. The flutes, on the other hand, had a high proportion of lead. The strong basses and powerful mixes were less intended for polyphonic playing than for accompanying the congregation singing. The stylus phantasticus of the Hanseatic organ art with its changing affects could also be optimally realized on the instruments. Compared to the instruments in other regions (especially in central and southwest Germany) the organs were large and had many stops. Where one-manual organs would have been built elsewhere, they had two-manual instruments here. Even medium-sized churches already had three-manual organs with more than 30 registers.
The mid-tone mood lasted until around 1740 and was only then replaced by well-tempered moods . The instruments were mostly tuned about a semitone higher than today. Spring shops were built by individual organ builders well into the 18th century .
In the Netherlands, Calvinism forbade the use of the organ in worship for a long time, later it was only allowed to support psalm song . The representative organs in the main churches of Dutch cities were therefore mainly secular instruments of the city parishes, which were played for entertainment.
Examples: Tangermünde ( Hans Scherer the Younger , 1624), Hamburg, Katharinenkirche ( Gottfried Fritzsche , 1632, not preserved), Alkmaar (Galtus van Hagerbeer, 1646), Langwarden ( Hermann Kröger and Berendt Hus , 1650), Stralsund ( Friedrich Stellwagen , 1659), Lüdingworth ( Arp Schnitger , 1673), Oelinghausen ( Johann Berenhard Klausing , 1717), Zwolle ( Franz Caspar Schnitger , 1721), Bockhorn ( Christian Vater , 1722), Maassluis ( Rudolf Garrels , 1732), Haarlem ( Christian Müller , 1738), Marienmünster ( Johann Patroclus Möller , 1738), Kampen ( Albertus Antonius Hinsz , 1743), Altengamme ( Johann Dietrich Busch , 1752).
The baroque type of organ in East and Central Germany and in Poland
In Thuringia, Saxony, Brandenburg and Poland and z. In Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Franconia and Hesse you can find organs with many similarities.
The large number of labial 8 'registers is typical of this type of organ. In the case of two manual instruments, eight or more basic voices were often built together in the manuals, creating a dark, voluminous sound oriented towards gravity. Each register had its own, unmistakable sound characteristics. The balance of the basic voices played a major role. The different labial registers were primarily used as individual registers and enabled a wide range of colors. In addition to the traditional 8 'registers such as Prinzipal , Gedackt , Gemshorn , Spitzflöte and Reed flute , the following types of construction became widespread:
- Viola di Gamba (created in Central Germany since 1620) as an open, narrowly scaled, conical or cylindrical register;
- Salicional (originated in Poland around 1600) in an open, narrow, cylindrical or slightly funnel-shaped design;
- Piffaro / Biffara also called Unda maris (originated in Italy in the 16th century) as a floating principal register;
- Fugara (originated in the 17th century in the Slovak-Polish border area) as an open, narrowly gauged, cylindrical register
- Transverse flute (developed in Central Germany from 1700) as a wooden, overblowing register;
- Quintade, Quintatön or Quintadena (already known in Germany since the 16th century) as very narrow Gedackt with a large proportion of the fifth tone;
- Portun, portunal, drone flute, flaut major , sometimes also called viola , as a wooden principal (widespread since the 16th century).
In addition, there was a mostly complete principal choir (in the main work often with mixture and cymbal), mostly one or two reeds, sesquialtera and cornet as well as individual aliquot registers. The mixtures were usually built as third-octave mixtures. Only a few manual reeds were built, but there was a preference for the Vox humana 8 ′ in the upper work. In the main work, the lowest register was usually a quintade 16 ′, very often additionally reinforced by a fifth 5 1 ⁄ 3 ′. In the pedal, subbass 16 'was often amplified by violonbass 16'. Even in medium-sized two-manual organs there were 32 'registers such as saucer 32' or trombone 32 '. The deep pedal tongues usually had wooden cups. In addition, typical baroque gadgets such as glockenspiel, birdsong and cymbal stars were often incorporated.
The instruments usually had a main work and an upper work, with three-manual organs a chest work was added. From around 1690 onwards there were no more positive feedbacks. The organ builders were keen to experiment and accepted complicated action guides, which often led to a difficult playing style. In this way, transmissions from the main work to the pedal could be realized at an early stage. As early as 1700, the medium-tone mood was replaced by the well-tempered mood.
Gottfried Silbermann held a special position . He brought Franco-Alsatian style elements to Saxony and trained his own school. Its representatives arranged their organs in a relatively monotonous manner with a constant register fund, limited themselves to a few 8 'labials, avoided narrow strings and dispensed with reverse positives (exception: Zacharias Hildebrandt in Naumburg, St. Wenzel, because of the reuse of the existing case). Silbermann used the French design for the linguals Krummhorn (as the treble register "Chalumeau") and Vox humana, in early instruments also for trumpet 8 ′ and Clairon 4 ′. The mostly low-choir sound crowns are relatively low. The "Cymbel" is a 2 or 3-fold mixture, more often than doubling the upper choirs in addition to the mixture. In side manuals, the octave-quint-containing sound crowns are occasionally supplemented by an independent repeating third ("sesquialtera"). Only Silbermann's temporary colleague Joachim Wagner built third-octave mixtures (called “sharp”). Silbermann often used drone 16 ′ as the labial 16 ′ basis in the main manual, and in some cases a quintade 16 ′ in the upper work. The largest organs in the main work were given a principal 16 ′ and a bassoon 16 ′ (manual trombone). The overall sound is determined by uniform scale lengths for the individual register groups, wide labeling and strong intonation with relatively high wind pressure. Silbermann tempered his early organs with a modified mean tone, later works mostly "well tempered". Apart from the Freiberg cathedral organ, the brochures show the structure of the work to a limited extent and are designed according to type.
Examples: Luckau ( Christoph Donat , 1673), Büßleben ( Georg Christoph Stertzing , 1702), Arnstadt ( Johann Friedrich Wender , 1703), Pasłęk ( Andreas Hildebrandt , 1719), Wandersleben ( Johann Georg Schröter , 1724), Brandenburg an der Havel ( Joachim Wagner (organ builder) , 1725), Lahm ( Heinrich Gottlieb Herbst , 1732), Freiberg, St. Petri ( Gottfried Silbermann , 1735), Grüssau ( Michael Engler the Younger , 1736), Grauhof ( Christoph Treutmann , 1737), Erfurt ( Franciscus Volckland , 1737), Ansbach ( Johann Christoph Wiegleb , 1739), Altenburg ( Tobias Heinrich Gottfried Trost , 1739), Suhl ( Eilert Köhler , 1740), Naumburg ( Zacharias Hildebrandt , 1746), Berlin ( Johann Peter Migendt , 1755), Nieder-Moss ( Johann-Markus Oestreich , 1791).
The baroque organ type of West and Southwest Germany
This type of organ was used in the Rhineland, Saarland, Palatinate, eastern Belgium and Luxembourg as well as z. Partly widespread in Hesse, North Baden and the southeastern Netherlands.
Typical for the organs of this region was the division of individual registers into bass and treble between h 0 and c 1 (trumpet, crumhorn, also partly Gedackt). Some registers only existed in the treble, such as the cornet , which is usually four or five times high , Tintinabulum II , Carillon III and Flaut travers 8 ′ (or transverse flute 8 ′). Some stops repeated at c 1 , e.g. B. Solicinal 2 '/ 4' and fifth 1 1 ⁄ 3 '/ 2 2 ⁄ 3 '. The mixtures often featured octave repetition. The many thirds as a solo register and as a choir in multiple registers are also characteristic. The mixtures, however, were always without a third chorus. The third 1 5 ⁄ 5 ′ and the fifth 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′ had principal censorship.
In the main work there are 8 'stops next to Principal and Gedackt (mostly called Hohlpfeiff ) a Gamba and occasionally Gemshorn and Quintatön, in the positive mostly only Gedackt 8' and Flaut travers 8 '(treble). Many labial registers were built with side or box beards. The 16 ′ of the main work was usually a Bourdon 16 ′ (also called Großgedackt or Groß-Hohlpfeiff ). A quintade 16 ′ was not built. Flaut or flaut douce , occasionally also solicinal, was added as 4 ′ . Krummhorn and Vox humana were used as solo tongues both in the positive and in the Echowerk. In the main work, in addition to trumpet 8 ′, the register Vox angelica 2 ′ was occasionally set, a narrow trumpet that was only built in the bass. The tongue registers had French throats. Basically the dispositions were very schematic and very similar in all organs.
The pedals were usually set up backwards and often only had three registers (subbass, octave bass and trombone). The trombone 16 ′ was made entirely of wood, as were most of the other pedal stops. The pedal circumference was very small and usually only reached up to d 0 , rarely up to g 0 and only in exceptional cases even higher. The manual range was mostly C, Dc 3 .
Two-manual organs had a Hauptwerk and Rückpositiv. An echo work with full manual scope was added as a third manual. No breastworks were built, upperworks only in exceptional cases. From 1740 the side-by-side system spread and the Rückpositiv was often displaced by a substation. The manual slide coupler was designed as a block coupler, the Hauptwerk pedal coupler as a wind coupler. There was never a coupling from the positive to the pedal. The tremulant usually only affected the positive. Zimbelstern, glockenspiel, nightingale and the like do not belong to the usual register repertoire.
Most of the time the organs were a semitone higher. Until around 1800, the mid-tone tuning was the norm. The instruments were characterized by a very powerful sound, so that significantly fewer registers than in other regions were sufficient to fill the church rooms with sound. Almost no organ from this period has survived in larger cities.
Examples: Steinfeld ( Balthasar König , 1727), Karden ( Johann Michael Stumm , 1728), Altenberg (Solms) ( Johann Wilhelm Schöler , 1757), Trier-Irsch ( Roman Benedikt Nollet , 1765), Meisenheim ( Johann Philipp and Johann Heinrich Stumm , 1767), Schleiden ( Christian Ludwig König , 1770), Bobenhausen ( Philipp Ernst Wegmann , 1775), Lambrecht (Pfalz) ( Johann Georg Geib , 1777), Bad Homburg vor der Höhe ( Johann Conrad Bürgy , 1787).
The southern German and Austrian organ type of the Baroque period
Organs of this style can be found in Württemberg, Upper Swabia, Franconia and Bavaria, in Austria, the Czech Republic, South Tyrol and in eastern Switzerland as well as in Hungary and Romania. From around 1720, southern Baden was increasingly under Alsatian influence. Differences between these many organ landscapes can be seen in the details of the prospectus design, the preference for certain registers, the presence or absence of return positives or the design of special "inking units."
Typical for this type of organ was the large range of basic voices, even with very small instruments there was a variety of 8 registers. Reed voices, on the other hand, were significantly reduced. The main work had a fully developed principal choir occasionally with a double principal occupation in the 8 'position in the form of a register made of tin and another made of wood ("Portun"). Tightly bored registers such as gamba or salicional were found early on. Floating registers were often built in. Mixtures of thirds were not in use until around 1720 and then only appeared in individual organ builders (especially in Upper Swabia). Single thirds were very rare, mixed color registers such as Cornettino or Hörndl were built more often . As a rule, the instruments were single-manual, mostly with attached pedal, two-manual instruments were almost only available in larger parish churches and in monastery churches, where there were occasionally three-manual and, exceptionally, four-manual instruments. The manuals were often dynamically graded. According to the Catholic liturgy, the organs were primarily used for playing alternatim , but not for accompanying the congregation. The many different 8 'registers take this into account.
Divided housings and free-standing gaming tables were extremely typical features of this organ building style. Larger parts of the organ were often positioned in the balustrade of the gallery. In many cases, there were enormously progressive experiments with free-standing gaming tables and other constructions with immense technical effort, e.g. B. choir organs with double prospectuses, twin organs (Gospel and Epistle page), z. Sometimes with daring subterranean actions that are several meters long. From around 1720 the organ cases were increasingly designed as artfully designed casings for the pipework. The goal was often the unique and unmistakable, sometimes accompanied by the seemingly technically impossible.
Compared to North German and West German organs, the instruments were on the one hand much quieter and on the other hand much softer in sound. Typical was the frequent insistence on short or broken octaves in the bass and on small pedal ranges as well as sticking to the mid-tone tuning until after 1800.
Joseph Riepp held a special position: he built French organs with a few southern German style elements.
Examples: Schlägl ( Andreas Butz / Johann Christoph Egedacher , 1634/1708), Klosterneuburg ( Johann Georg Freundt , 1642), Rheinau (Johann Christoph Leo, 1715), St. Urban Monastery (Josef Bossart, 1721), Zwettl ( Johann Ignaz Egedacher , 1731), Fürstenfeld ( Johann Georg Fux , 1736), Maihingen (Johann Martin Baumeister, 1737), Herrenbach (Augsburg) ( Georg Friedrich Schmahl , 1737), Vienna (Michaelerkirche) ( Gottfried Sonnholz , 1742), Weingarten ( Joseph Gabler , 1750), Bad Wimpfen ( Johann Adam Ehrlich , 1752), Herzogenburg ( Johann Hencke , 1752), Mediasch ( Johannes Hahn , 1755), Maria Limbach ( Johann Philipp Seuffert , 1756), Fiè allo Sciliar (Ignaz Franz Wörle, 1760), Ottobeuren ( Karl Joseph Riepp , 1766), Benediktbeuren ( Andreas Jäger (organ builder) , 1770), Maria Dreieichen ( Anton Pfliegler , 1780), Rot an der Rot ( Johann Nepomuk Holzhey , 1793), Bistritz ( Johannes Prause , 1795).
The classic French organ
Organs of this type were also built in Belgium and from 1710 also in Baden and western Switzerland.
The dispositions of French organs were highly standardized. Around 1700 practically every organ had the following disposition, which was only deviated from in rare cases:
The pedal had both bass and tenor function and occasionally also had a ravalement , i.e. That is, it had individual tones of the contra octave (e.g. from F 1 ). This gave the pedals up to 30 tones. The lengths of the two pedal registers were extremely wide. The principal choir was also predominantly of a wide scale, fittings and cymbals did not differ in terms of pitch, but only in terms of scale. The sound crowns were very deep-set and from c 1 onwards usually no longer had a 1 1 ⁄ 3 ′ or higher choir. They only contained fifths and octaves, so there were no thirds. The cornet was only developed in the treble (from c 1 ), as did the Récit and Echo, which usually began at c 1 , and occasionally even at g 0 or f 0 . Bourdon 16 ′ and Bourdon 8 ′ were often built as a reed flute in the treble, as were Flûte 4 ′ and Nazard 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′. In the main work, very large organs often had Nazard 5 1 ⁄ 3 ′ and Tierce 3 1 ⁄ 5 ′ as well as a second trumpet. There were no canceling registers.
Grand-Orgue and Récit were often set up on a twin drawer and equipped with a very smooth hanging action. The echo was in the substructure (often directly behind the music stand) and also had a hanging action (often without a wavy board). The Rückpositivtraktur was designed as a set trigger mechanism with rockers. As a rule, the pedal work stood on the left and right of the main work and did not have its own brochure. The two cornets were banked up and differed in that the Hauptwerkscornet was intended more for the tongue plenum and the Cornet de Récit as a solo register. The instruments only had a manual slide coupler from the Rückpositiv to the Hauptwerk and no pedal couplers. A tremblant doux (canal tremulant) and a very strong tremblant fort (with wind vent) acted on the whole organ.
In the 18th century, the disposition scheme in the positive around Flûte allemande 8 ′ from c 1 (an overblowing flute), in the Récit around Hautbois 8 ′ and in the pedal around Flûte (or more rarely Bourdon) 16 ′ and Bombarde 16 ′ - both from very further Scale length - added. The pedal was then usually built behind the scenes. Occasionally Montre or Bourdon 32 ′ was used in the manual, but never in the pedal. From 1730 the register Bombarde 16 ′ appeared with its own keyboard and was played from the third manual. From this time on the organs could have five manuals.
The standardization of the disposition led to the composition of organ pieces for certain registrations. Trumpets , Cornet , Cromorne and Voix humaine were classical solo voices.
- Plein Jeu: The complete principal choir on a 16 ′ basis with mixtures and mostly coupled back positive;
- Plein Chant en Taille: A plein jeu with the pedal trumpet (as middle part) in the tenor playing a cantus firmus ;
- Grand Jeu: A reed plenum with cornet , but always without a pedal, which was often designed with echo effects alternating between the four manual works;
- Jeu de Tierce: Bourdon, Prestant, Nazard, Doublette and Tierce, accompanied by Bourdon and possibly Prestant;
- Basse et Dessus de Trompette / Basse de Cromorne: A melody of the trumpet or the Cromorne in the bass, mostly alternating with treble sections, which were then often played with the cornet and accompanied by Bourdon and Prestant;
- Récit de Tierce / Cromorne en Taille: A melody in tenor register, with flute 8 ′ in the pedal as bass part and soft accompaniment registers (Montre 8 ′ or Bourdon 8 ′, possibly also Bourdon 16 ′).
Basically, the trumpet and flute were never drawn together on the pedal. Neither were the principal and trumpet choirs registered together.
There were organs in France only in the monastery churches, individual large city churches and in the episcopal churches (cathedrals), but not in the villages. The organs - especially in the Grand Jeu - were very loud and - according to the Catholic liturgy - were only used for alternative practice , but not for accompanying a parish chant. As a rule, the instruments were tuned to the opera tone - that is, a whole tone lower than today's organs. The mid-tone mood was widespread until the 19th century.
Examples: Saint-Martin-de-Boscherville (Guillaume Lesselier, 1623), Saint-Antoine-l'Abbaye (Jean-Laurent Astruc / Jéemie Carlin, 1625/1639), Rodez (Jean de Joyeuse, 1676), St-Gervais and St-Protais (Paris) ( François Thierry / François-Henri Clicquot , 1680/1768), Seurre (Julien Tribuot, 1699), Ribeauvillé (Friedrich Ring / Claude Legros, 1702), Marmoutier ( Andreas Silbermann , 1709), Versailles ( Robert Clicquot , 1710), Saint-Michel (Aisne) (Jean Boizard, 1714), Mouzon (Christophe Moucherel, 1725), Houdan (Louis-Alexandre Clicquot, 1739), Dijon ( Karl Joseph Riepp , 1740), Caudebec-en-Caux (Jean-Baptiste and Louis Lefebvre, 1740), Bordeaux ( Dom Bedos , 1748), Arlesheim ( Johann Andreas Silbermann , 1761), Wissembourg ( François Louis Dubois , 1766), St-Avold (Barthélemy Chevreux, 1770), Saint-Maximin -la-Sainte-Baume ( Jean Esprit Isnard , 1774), Auxonne (François Callinet , 1790), Poitiers ( François-Henri Clicquot , 1791).
The Italian organ since the Renaissance
Italian organ building was very conservative. Until the end of the 19th century, the type of organ, which dates back to the Renaissance, was still valid. With a few exceptions, Italian organs only had one manual; the pedal only had 12 to 17 keys and was mostly attached or at most had a stacked 16 ′ as its own voice. Italian organs had a large number of principal registers of all footers from the 8 ′ as the foundation to beyond the 2 ′ position. The basic principle - called principals - always sounded as an 8 ′ register and was often divided into bass and treble. The division was not uniform, but was mostly between c 1 and c sharp 1 . Multi-choir sound crowns were unusual, instead octaves and fifths up to the highest registers were present, which together with the principals made the ripieno (plenum). Principal registers in 1 ' , 1 ⁄ 2 ', 1 ⁄ 4 'or even 1 ⁄ 8 ' positions always repeated when reaching the sounding note c 5 . There were only a few other registers besides the principals. Voce umana or Fiffaro were very strong floating treble beats to the principal 8 ′, besides there were only flute stops (flauti in VIIIa, in XIIa, in XVa). Thirds-containing registers, trumpets (tromba) and other tongue registers or string parts were very rare. Footnote names were not used in Italian organ building. Instead, the distance between the registers and the first key on principal 8 'was denoted by numbers. Ottava (VIII) is accordingly 4 ′, Duodecima (XII) 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′, Decimaquinta (XV) 2 ′, Decimanona (IXX) 1 1 ⁄ 3 ′, Vigesima seconda (XXII) 1 ′. The pipes of the Ripienos were uniformly bore from the 2 ′. The number of rows built for the Ripieno varied and depended on the size of the organ. Small organs were content with the structure up to 1 1 ⁄ 3 ′, the largest instruments had rows up to 1 ⁄ 4 ′ or even higher.
The normal range of the keyboard was C to C 3 with a short major octave, i.e. 45 keys. Larger organs had a larger keyboard range by expanding the keyboard by an octave in depth, i.e. starting at C 1 - sounding 16 ′. This brought a considerable enrichment of the game possibilities with it. The pipes were mostly made of thick-walled lead. The wind pressure was very low.
In the course of the 16th century, a basic pattern of Italian organ prospect design had already formed, which remained valid well into the 19th century. Basically, flat facade brochures were typical. The prospect pipes were all in a line in a few pipe fields, usually closed at the top with a round arch. The internal technical structure of the organ had little influence on the design of the case, as most of the instruments only had a manual. Often the instruments were located in the choir on both sides of the altar, namely the Epistle organ on the left and the Gospel organ on the right when viewed from the nave . According to the Catholic liturgy, they were only used for alternative practice.
Examples: Brescia (Tomaso Meiarini and Graziadio Antegnati (III), 1633), Ferrara (Giovanni Fedrigotti, 1657), Pistoia (Willem Hermans, 1664), Venice (Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari) (Giovanni Battista Piaggia, 1732 and Gaetano Callido, 1796), Venice (San Rocco) (Pietro Nacchini, 1742), Venice (San Giorgio Maggiore) (Pietro Nacchini / Francesco Dacci 1750/1758), Venice (San Sebastiano) (Nicolò Moscatelli, 1763), Bergamo (Giuseppe Serassi, 1781 ), Venice (Santa Maria della Salute) (Francesco Dacci, 1783).
Organ building on the Iberian Peninsula in the 18th century
In Spain and Portugal the division of the organ into different works was typical: Organo mayor (main work), cadereta exterior (Rückpositiv), cadereta interior , an inner positive in the echo box (no swell in the actual sense), which is used for dynamic effects of individual registers (echo cornet , Echo trumpet ) had movable doors from the console , and trompetería ( horizontal tongue battery ) - also called lengüetería . There were no breastworks in Spanish organ building, instead there is often a substation under the play structure. Due to the fact that many organs were set up to the left and right in the choir area, which is surrounded by choir screens and located in front of the crossing, there were also rear works on some instruments with their own prospectus, which were arranged in the aisle. Occasionally a second Rückpositiv was built into this rear facade. The individual plants were switched on via shut-off valves . The play cupboard was always built in, there were no free-standing gaming tables. Even with up to five works, more than 3 manuals were never built.
The stops were distributed according to bass and treble on the left and right side next to the keyboard. Manual couplers were rare, pedal couplers were not built, the pedal was often attached or only had a few stops in 16 'and 8' positions, occasionally also in 32 'positions and usually only had a range of one octave. The pedal keys were often shaped as buttons and were only suitable for executing an organ point , i.e. individual long notes. Slider chests with a chromatic arrangement were common, often with a short major octave. Typically, the division into bass and treble is uniform between c 1 and c sharp 1 , which resulted in a large number of stops. Often there were also half registers (bass or treble registers). The standardized bass and treble division led to the composition of special organ pieces ( Tiento de medio registro ). In addition to the horizontal, there were also many vertical reed stops, so that several different trumpets and short-bellied reed stops (e.g. Orlos) were to be found in the main work. Repeating mixtures often contained a third.
Due to the lack of space that the installation between the main nave and aisle and between two pillars brought with it, the wind chests were made extremely small and often had very short actions, so that the valves were close to the keyboard. Hanging or operating with stings or with simple rocker actions ensured easy playability. In many cases there were no wave boards. Long valves ensured sufficient wind supply. The large pipes, which could no longer be accommodated in the small space of the drawer, were removed. Individual works often had a large number of registers; For example, on a small wind chest measuring 1.9 m × 1.4 m in Salamanca there are 21 registers, seven of which are removed from the prospectus - i.e. H. get the wind through thin wooden or metal tubes ("conductors"). Even with the pedal, the actions were often only a few centimeters long, while the pipes were supplied via conductors up to 10 m long. According to the Catholic liturgy, the organs were only used for alternative practice, but not for accompanying a parish chant.
Organ building in England in the 18th century
In England, due to the Puritan-Calvinist beliefs, the use of the organ in worship was forbidden until 1660. After that, organ building began practically from scratch and was mainly done by immigrants: among other things. Bernhard Schmid (called Father Smith) and Christopher Schrider from Germany, Renatus Harris from France and Johannes Snetzler from Switzerland. So different style elements came into organ building:
- Windchest and action guide as well as the sesquialtera from Germany;
- Northern French housing types and registers such as the cornet and the tongue register, e.g. B. Cremona (corrupted from French Cromorne );
- Italian way of counting instead of the usual footnote designations: Twelfth ( 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′) and Fifteenth (2 ′);
- frequent bass and treble division and swell boxes as they already existed in Spain.
In addition to the Prinziplachor ( Open diapason or Principal ) there were only a few registers of other types: Stopped diapason (Gedackt), sometimes also Flute , Sesquialtera and one or two reed stops. The manual range usually ranged from G 1 to D 3 , a pedal was practically unknown until 1720, after which pedals were added. It wasn't until 1790 that there were pedal registers - but only as 8 ′ until around 1820. In 1712 a swell was built for the first time. After that, most of the echo works were converted into swell works. A special feature of English organs is the installation on a rood screen - if one was available. This acoustically most favorable location for the organ has been kept up to the present day.
Almost no English organ from the Baroque period has survived unchanged. Instruments were constantly being moved from one place to the next, the work and case were separated from one another, old works were given new cases, and individual registers were built into other organs. Many baroque organ cases fell victim to efforts to restore older church interiors to a “purely Gothic” style.
Examples: Adlington (anonymous, 1693), Aldgate (Renatus Harris, 1704), Finedon (Christopher Schrider, 1717), Southhall (Abraham Jordan, 1723), Spitalfields (Richard Bridge, 1735), Hillington (Johannes Snetzler, 1756).
The period from 1830 to 1920 was a phase of technical innovations and further developments in organ building. Now, in addition to the towns and monasteries, the village parishes everywhere also strived for an organ, which on the one hand led to a veritable boom in organ building, on the other hand spawned large businesses. Some organ building workshops were now called organ factories with the addition of steam or machine operation . Productivity in the organ building industry was able to be increased above all through the division of labor and specialization. Towards the end of the 19th century there was almost no church in Germany without an organ.
After the organ lost attention in the early Classical period (well-known classical composers such as Mozart and Beethoven composed very little for the organ) and, as a result of secularization - especially in southern Germany - hardly any organs were built, the romantic organ emerged a new, completely different, orchestral sound ideal that gradually led to a kind of globalization in organ building. To a much greater extent than with the baroque organ, the 8 'position, in the pedal work also the 16' position, is occupied several times with different voices that imitate orchestral instruments, the higher positions are clearly receding: thirds disappear completely, other aliquots hardly become still available, so z. B. in Stralsund (Buchholz, 1841) or in Geisenheim (Stumm, 1842). The focus was on the ideal of “mixing” - the organ should sound like an orchestra, no breaks in the sound should be recognizable. Therefore, strings and overblowing flutes were used more often than not. String parts are very tightly bored pipes, in whose overtone spectrum the second partial tone (the octave) predominates. Overblown flutes are wide-bored open lip pipes that are twice as long as normal open pipes of the same pitch. Their sound is particularly full.
The greatest masters of romantic organ building include the French Aristide Cavaillé-Coll , his German-Belgian competitor Merklin & Schütze and the organ builders and organ building companies Eberhard Friedrich Walcker , Friedrich Ladegast , Wilhelm Sauer , Henry Willis , Steinmeyer , Gebr. Link , P. Furtwängler & Hammer , Harrison & Harrison, Norman & Beard, Weigle , Matthäus Mauracher , Rieger and many others.
In Germany, the development of romantic organ building took place in three phases.
The example is the beginning of the first sonata in D minor, Op. 11 by August Gottfried Ritter (1811–1885).
The early romantic organ building in Germany (1830-1860)
The side manual was mostly built as a back work or a side work without its own brochure, breast work and back positives were no longer used. Round arches and "kitchen cupboard-like claddings" were typical for the construction of the housing. B. in Mimbach (Walcker, 1860). The manual range was usually extended to f 3 , but the pedal range was often limited to one and a half octaves (up to f ° or g °). The mean-tone mood and the well-tempered moods that had been in use up until then were finally replaced by the equal-floating mood. Penetrating tongues were increasingly being built.
Examples: Mainz ( Bernhard Dreymann , 1838), Geisenheim ( Franz Heinrich and Carl Stumm , 1842), Schramberg ( Eberhard Friedrich Walcker , 1844), Belgern ( Johann Gottlob Mende , 1844), Altenhagen ( Philipp Furtwängler , 1844), Pelplin ( Carl August Buchholz , 1845), Papstdorf ( Wilhelm Leberecht Herbrig , 1845), Gierstädt ( Friedrich Knauf , 1846), Schönberg ( Friedrich Wilhelm Winzer , 1847), Erpolzheim (Carl Wagner, 1849), Wollershausen ( Johann Andreas Engelhardt , 1851), Hohenleuben ( Christoph Opitz , 1852), Halver ( Ibach , 1856), Esens ( Arnold Rohlfs , 1860), Luppa ( Urban Kreutzbach , 1863).
The highly romantic organ building in Germany (1860-1890)
The most important characteristic of this second phase of organ building in Germany was the displacement of the sliding chest by the cone chest from around 1860 onwards . An era of experts began, in which mainly organ experts determined the course of organ building. The organ builders who did not build cone shops and did not bow to the dictates of the experts, gradually received no more orders. In the 1870s, all major workshops had switched to cone shops.
The main work now gained significantly more power, especially through the third-octave mixtures, which gradually became established, while the side manuals were clearly receded: Here, the reeds disappeared more and more. Core stitches were now systematically added to improve the intonation. Free-standing gaming tables now became the standard, which were often given fixed combinations as steps or pulls and - especially in larger organs - the first crescendo devices.
In addition to modernism, however, there was also traditionalism. This often extended to the aesthetic area and the sound style. So the type of side-playing village organ was able to hold up into the last third of the century.
Examples: Greifswald ( Friedrich Albert Mehmel , 1866), Dahlen ( Carl Eduard Jehmlich , 1866), Marbach am Neckar ( Louis Voit , 1868), Güstrow ( Friedrich Hermann Lütkemüller , 1868), Schwerin ( Friedrich Ladegast , 1871), Königsee ( JF Schulzes Sons , 1871), St. Ingbert ( Gustav Schlimbach , 1874), Sandesneben ( Philipp Furtwängler & Sons , 1876), Ringleben ( Julius Strobel , 1876), Bützow ( Friedrich Friese III , 1877), Leutenheim ( Stiehr and Mockers , 1877 ), Vienna (Votive Church) ( EF Walcker & Cie. , 1878), Bernshausen ( Louis Krell , 1879), Schwäbisch Gmünd ( Carl Gottlob Weigle , 1880), Köthen ( Wilhelm Rühlmann , 1881), Wallerfangen ( Dalstein-Hærpfer , 1883) , Nennig ( Heinrich Wilhelm Breidenfeld , 1884), Lilienthal ( Johann Hinrich Röver , 1884), Kirchdorf bei Haag i. OB , ( Franz Borgias Maerz , 1884), Liepāja / Libau ( Barnim Grüneberg , 1885), Hof ( Georg Friedrich Steinmeyer , 1885), Werschweiler ( Oberlinger brothers , 1886), Kuchenheim ( Franz Joseph Schorn , 1895).
The late romantic organ building in Germany (1890-1920)
With the introduction of the pneumatic action around 1890, the late romantic phase of organ building began in Germany. Pneumatics brought some new technical possibilities with it: For the first time, sound connections could be preprogrammed through free combinations. Sub- and super-octave coupling created further possibilities. Many organs now had a crescendo roller, which made it possible to gradually switch on all registers of the organ by means of a roller that can be operated with the foot or a balancing step, without having to operate the corresponding register buttons individually by hand. In order to save costs, many organ builders increasingly used prefabricated parts (pipes, action parts, gaming tables) from suppliers.
Walcker had built the first swell factory in Frankfurt as early as 1833 . Some of the pipes are located inside or behind the main housing in a box with louvre-like swell doors that can be opened or closed by means of a kick on the gaming table . This makes a stepless change in dynamics possible. The principle was taken up by Cavaillé-Coll as early as 1838 and then became standard in France in smaller organs. In Germany, Schwellwerke remained rather the exception until 1890 and could only prevail with the tube pneumatics. From 1910 onwards, swellworks were also built in smaller organs.
In each work, a large number of registers were now arranged in the 8 'position (equivalent position), including often strings. In the second manual, stops of a similar design mostly appeared in a quieter type. This was used for shading and grading the volume. Strings were now also built as a beat , called vox coelestis (“heavenly voice”), in which two quiet rows of pipes are deliberately slightly detuned against each other, creating a floating tone. This practice was very popular in Germany around 1900. In smaller organs, the second manual was often given four to five 8 'registers and only one 4' register and no other part, e.g. B. in Biesingen (Steinmeyer, 1913, without swell). In larger organs, high pressure registers such as a stentor viol or seraphone flute were occasionally built.
Many instruments of this time - especially in the large churches in Germany - fell victim to the bombings of World War II. Therefore, instruments of this type are more likely to be found in village churches today.
Examples: Apolda ( Wilhelm Sauer , 1894), Lüneburg ( P. Furtwängler & Hammer , 1899), Sassnitz ( Gebrüder Dinse , 1899), Gera ( Ernst Röver , 1903), Nackenkeim ( Martin Joseph Schlimbach , 1904), Augsburg (cathedral) ( Franz Borgias Maerz , 1904), Dresden-Strehlen ( Jehmlich , 1905), Berlin-Moabit ( EF Walcker & Cie. , 1906), Mannheim (Lutherkirche) ( H. Voit & Sons , 1906), Giengen ( Gebr. Link , 1906), Strasbourg (Church of the Redeemer) ( Dalstein-Hærpfer , 1907), Namborn ( organ builder Christian Gerhardt & Sons , 1910), Bonn (St. Elisabeth) ( Johannes Klais , 1911), Hedingen ( Gebr. Späth Orgelbau , 1911), Hattingen ( Georg Stahlhuth , 1913), Biesingen ( GF Steinmeyer & Co. , 1913), Übersee ( Willibald Siemann , 1914), Dortmund ( Paul Faust , 1914).
The symphonic organ in France
The French-Romantic organ is essentially based on Aristide Cavaillé Coll. It usually has mechanical action, in the main work mostly with a Barker lever and mostly has a swell mechanism. Typical are the many reed stops, especially the blaring trumpets, the overblowing flutes (called flûte harmonique ) and the floating voix céleste in the swell. Cavaillé-Coll invented some of the most important registers himself, such as the trompette harmonique , in which the bell is usually twice as long as usual, which results in a very stable sound.
The romantic organ in England
The English-Romantic organ is, so to speak, a synthesis of the German-Romantic and the French-Romantic organ. It has delicate strings and solo registers in shadows alongside higher registers and strong trumpets, which were often built as high pressure registers, such as B. Tuba mirabilis or Royal Trumpet . This type of organ was originally found only in England. Nowadays a few instruments have also been imported to Germany. James Jepson Binns and Henry Willis were among the most important organ builders in England during this period .
Organs outside of sacred buildings
Since the end of the 19th century at the latest, organs were increasingly being built in concert halls and, at the beginning of the 20th century, in the cinemas that were emerging with silent films , there called cinema organs . The organs for concert halls already showed the first tendencies of the universal organ. The cinema organ, on the other hand, was still based on the sound of the romantic organ. In addition, however, there were increasingly reed voices, which, despite their sometimes old names, were sometimes newly or significantly redesigned, and above all various effect registers (drums, bells, bells, xylophones and other noises, such as "telephone bells"), which can be found in other, Especially in sacred buildings, organs cannot be found.
Numerous technical innovations ( pneumatics , electrics and new building materials) made it possible to build ever larger instruments and remote control units. During this time, some giant organs were built , some of which can be found in very unusual places. During this time, the two largest pipe organs in the world to date were built in an event hall and a department store. Examples are: The famous Wanamaker organ in Philadelphia ( Lord & Taylor Department Store , built 1904 to 1930, 357 registers) and the nominally largest organ in the world, the organ of the Atlantic City Convention Hall , in the Boardwalk Hall ( built 1929 to 1932, but not fully functional to this day) with 337 registers, 449 rows of pipes (ranks) and around 32,000 pipes.
An independent North American organ building can only be found in the 20th century. The concert and cinema organs in particular stand out from the sound of the European sacred organs. In large organs, cinema and sacred organs are often combined in one instrument in terms of register inventory. Overall, North American organ building tends to go to extremes (bizarre prospect designs, giant organs, 64 'stops in the pedal and 32' stops in the manual, extremely loud high pressure stops, console tables with up to seven manuals).
At the same time, the multiplex system tried to save costs and space in organ building. This principle can be found in many cinema organs from the 1920s and 1930s. Since different registers were generated from a row of pipes in the transmission and extension process, the concept could not be musically convincing because the individual characteristics of the individual registers were no longer given. In addition, there was the problem that when playing multiple voices with octave chords and fifths from the same row of pipes, fewer pipes sounded simultaneously with fifths than with other interval chords, making the overall sound appear thin and unbalanced.
The so-called organ movement has its forerunner in the Alsatian-New German organ reform of the early 20th century. This criticized the new organs in Central Europe of the early days as inartistic in sound design, conception and manufacture ("factory organ"), overloaded with playing aids. However, the organs of the French late romanticism (judging positively Aristide Cavaillé-Coll ), but also German and English instruments to about was around 1860. Triggered reform significantly by rediscovering the qualities of the Baroque organs, such as the instruments of Johann Andreas Silbermann in Alsace . The leading figures in the Alsatian organ reform were Albert Schweitzer , Émile Rupp and Franz Xaver Matthias .
Organ building after the First World War
With the First World War, organ building in Germany came to a standstill. At the beginning of the 1920s hardly any new organs were built due to financial and material difficulties.
The construction of the Praetorius organ in Freiburg (Walcker, 1921) initiated by Wilibald Gurlitt was the initial spark for the organ movement. The idea of returning to the early baroque (north German) organ was picked up in the 1920s by Hans Henny Jahnn , Christhard Mahrenholz and Karl Straube , among others . Instruments with a romantic sound character were now mostly devalued as "factory organs". Nevertheless, the inventions of the late romantic era were initially retained: free combinations, octave couplings, transmissions, extensions, electropneumatic actions. The organ of the Marienkirche in Göttingen , built by P. Furtwängler & Hammer according to plans by Christhard Mahrenholz in 1926 , shows the typical features of the new aesthetics: higher-lying and more strongly occupied mixtures also in the side manuals, disposition of aliquots, more tongues than in the late romantic era especially in the side manuals, significantly fewer 8 'registers, renouncing the vox coelestis etc. Typical of the time was the invention of new register names such as jubal flute , monastery flute , Italian principal or Bach flute . New buildings that were technically oriented towards the Baroque period, i.e. with mechanical sliders, remained the absolute exception.
Most organ builders of the time strived for a middle ground by combining features of the late romantic organ with the ideas of organ movement. The measure lengths were sometimes exaggerated, but baroque register names were also found in the dispositions. The intonation methods then corresponded to those of Romanticism.
Organ building after 1945
After the Second World War, the organ movement entered a second phase: The preoccupation with the forgotten baroque sound ideals and principles of organ building now led to the development of " neo-baroque " -oriented new organs and to growing interest in the restoration of baroque and pre-baroque organs. In addition to sound issues, the focus was now on technical issues. However, the return to the mechanical sliding chest was not yet complete, even if a few organ builders, such as Paul Ott , had already turned to this construction method again in the 1930s. Electric music mechanisms were pushed back and the cone chest was demonized and practically no longer built after 1965. Instead, from around 1965 onwards, most organs were fitted with slider chests with mechanical action and (often) electrical stop action.
In the design of the prospectus, the open-pipe prospect prevailed in the 1950s . B. in Munich-Ramersdorf (Carl Schuster, 1955). However, Rückpositiv, Brustwerk and Oberwerk became modern again, for example in Hamburg, St. Petri (Beckerath, 1955). Swell works, on the other hand, were built less often.
Since many instruments were lost or become unusable during the Second World War and the two major denominations increasingly built new churches, a real "organ building boom" set in in West Germany, partly in an actually "factory" series production using non-aging or unproven materials (windchest made of plywood , music mechanisms using aluminum or plastic ). The use of such materials was considered progressive and innovative at the time, but in retrospect did not prove to be very sustainable because the materials were often not durable. The pipe scales were now clearly, if not excessively narrower than those of the models. The wind pressure was reduced significantly, resulting in an intonation style with a low cut and a narrowed foothole . This way of intonation was completely new and, as far as we know today, had little in common with the baroque. As a result, the organs were sometimes considerably quieter, but at the same time more shrill. Often the intonation was very careless and superficial, and sometimes there are no traces of intonation at all on pipes from this period.
Usually only one or two 8 'registers were built per manual. For this, the instruments received many very high-lying mixtures and numerous aliquots, such as B. in Munich-Nymphenburg (Rieger, 1966). In places, sevenths and nons were used that did not yet exist in the Baroque period.
In contrast to those of the Baroque, the resulting organs are often characterized by a sharp, sometimes even shrill and screaming sound, a weak bass foundation and a lack of power in the middle register. From today's point of view, the organ movement has shot far beyond its goal, but has also significantly influenced the historical processing of the organ's history and in some cases even initiated it in the first place.
The goals, understood by the initiators in the 1950s to 1970s as progress (or even reconsideration) (return to manual production, brighter sound, clearer drawing of the voices) often led to losses of organs with a different concept that are difficult to understand today. Many romantic organs had to give way to new instruments with a steep, “neo-baroque” disposition (little fundamental, a lot of overtones). Not only were many romantic organs "baroque" or "sound modified" during these decades, often preserved (late) baroque organs, especially of southern German provenance, whose disposition did not seem baroque enough, were adapted to the often very schematic principles of organ movement. The use of extremely low wind pressures for restorations led to the distortion of a number of historical organs, such as B. During the restoration of the Schnitger organ in Norden by Paul Ott in 1948 and 1959. Often the original tongues and throats were removed and replaced with modern ones, as were the boots and nuts. Dispositions were changed by replacing the string parts (already widespread in the late baroque) with high aliquots . A typical example is the "sawing off" of a violoncello 8 'in the pedal to the chorale bass 4'. This careless handling of the historical material was typical of the organ building of the time. It grew out of the fact that the ideal of the Neo-Baroque was given greater importance than the preserved historical substance.
As a result of such alterations, some organs lost more of their original baroque substance than in the preceding Romantic period. Nevertheless, there were also the first stylish restorations of organs, for example by Jürgen Ahrend and Gerhard Brunzema , e.g. B. in Rysum (1960).
The German-speaking area in particular was clearly shaped by the organ movement. In contrast, in the Anglo-American area, the symphonic-orchestral organ with its rich register and electric action was long held. In France, the neoclassical organ type emerged in the 1920s (l'orgue néoclassique) , which enriched the register equipment of the French late Romanticism with individual aliquots and mixtures as well as partly historicizing reeds with electric action. It was believed that they had found a universal instrument for Bach and the old German masters as well as for the entire French school. It was not until the 1970s that instruments began to appear in France that sought to orientate themselves on the classical French organ or on the north German baroque.
Universal and style organ
The expansion of the organist repertoire , the in-depth study of instruments from other countries and the nostalgic perception of the 19th century have led to a criticism of the types of instruments shaped by the organ movement since the 1970s. The value and justification of romantic organs and their specific music have come back to life more strongly. In recent times the trend has been to restore organs from the 19th and early 20th centuries to their original condition when performing general overhauls. The number of new builds also increased towards the end of the 20th century, as many hastily built or poor post-war instruments are slowly being replaced. However, there is a risk that important organs of the 20th century will also be abandoned.
Since the 1980s, more and more new buildings have been experimenting with a kind of "universal organ" that is supposed to be as suitable as possible for all types and styles of organ literature. With larger organs (from three manuals and approx. 40 registers) you can achieve useful musical results by combining a major work with a North German plenum with a French-Baroque Rückpositiv and a French-symphonic swell, e.g. B. in the Frankfurt Katharinenkirche (Rieger, 1990). Occasionally this type is supplemented by Spanish trumpets , e.g. B. in Altenberg Cathedral (Klais, 1980). However, the technical and tonal properties of different contemporary or regional styles can only be combined in one instrument to a limited extent. In the case of smaller organs, the mixing of stylistic elements from different epochs proves to be even more problematic.
With the growing importance of historical performance practice , the prevailing ideal of an organ of stylistic synthesis is increasingly juxtaposed with that of the true-to-style instrument. Detailed scientific knowledge of the older instrument making and steadily growing experience through careful restoration offer today's organ building the opportunity to offer new instruments based on models from different epochs and artistic landscapes. An example of the new building in the style of a Spanish baroque organ is the so-called Spanish organ in the court and town church of St. Johannis in Hanover. Reconstructions of lost instruments are also being attempted, e.g. B. the organ by Johann Andreas Silbermann in Villingen-Schwenningen ( Gaston Kern , 2002).
The opposing positions - pure-style organ or universal organ - clashed particularly clearly in the dispute over the design of the organ in the rebuilt Dresden Frauenkirche (Daniel Kern, 2005).
At the beginning of the 21st century, organ building came to a standstill due to the dwindling membership of the churches. Many churches in Germany and in other countries had to be given up. As a result, some English-Romantic organs could be moved to Germany or integrated into new buildings. B. in Dortmund's Petrikirche (Schulte, 2015). The tendency to reuse material from older organs also means that cone chests are being used more often again. In smaller organs (up to around 15 registers), alternating loops are increasingly being used, which make it possible to make the registers of a work playable on another independently of this one.
There are notable technical advances in the field of playing aids and the electric action. The electronics have made larger typesetting systems possible; some church organs have already been midified so that they can be connected to and controlled by a PC. The connection with external sound generators such as synthesizers is also possible, which gives new impulses for composition and improvisation. Furthermore, research is being carried out into how a kind of " touch dynamics " can be achieved on the organ and how the interactive behavior of a mechanical action can be mechatronically reproduced in an electrical action . Where mechanical actions cannot be set up, fiber optic cables displace the electrical actions in new organs. The introduction of digital controls as a replacement for electrical actions opens up many new technical possibilities: Without the need for your own cabling, sub and super couplings are now just circuits, individual manuals can be created as a floating division and connected to each manual Transposition into all twelve tones of the chromatic scale is also possible as a circuit, e.g. B. in Homburg (Gaida, 2008). Individual registers are now increasingly being used as auxiliaries , e.g. B. built in 16 ', 8' and 4 'position, whereby a row of pipes can be played in all manuals and in the pedal as a transmission or extension, so z. B. in Marienstatt (Seifert, 2012). In addition, whole organs or partial works are built with individual tone control, so that (similar to the multiplex organ of the 20th century) significantly more registers can be represented from a few rows of pipes, often over 6 or 7 octaves. E.g. on the choir organ of St. Reinoldi (Dortmund) , where 29 registers are formed from 11 rows of pipes on 2 manuals and pedal ( Orgelbau Mühleisen , 2020).
At the suggestion of individual composers, the tonal possibilities are expanded. After Jean Guillou had already drawn attention to himself through the arrangement and rearrangement of works as well as new pipe shapes, Peter Bares left an instrument for contemporary music with integrated drums and other technical innovations through purely acoustic sound generation in the Kunst-Station Sankt Peter Köln in 2004 Install electronics recess.
Another variant that has increasingly gained its place with the advancement of digital technology is the digital organ (or digital concert and sacral organ). It is mainly to be found as a practice instrument in private houses, in small churches and chapels, or as an interim instrument during renovation or new construction phases of the pipe organ. The ongoing improvements in sound and reproduction quality make digital sacred organs increasingly an alternative for larger churches and concert halls and are now also accepted by well-known organists as a concert instrument. Cameron Carpenter appears in international concert halls with Marshall & Ogletree's own "International Touring Organ" . However, the “natural” unevenness of a pipe organ and its individual character when interacting with the player can only be reproduced to a limited extent by a digital organ. Especially close to the instrument, a digital organ loses spatial depth and plasticity, which many organists and listeners find unsatisfactory. When recording, however, current digital organs can hardly be distinguished from classic pipe organs.
Attempts to combine "real" organs with digital organs ("combination organ") have so far not been successful due to obvious problems (mood, mixing ability). In the USA in particular, however, expensive bass and lingual registers are often implemented digitally.
There are only a few older instruments that have essentially been preserved in their original substance. In the past, organs were repeatedly rebuilt, renewed and adapted to current tastes (disposition, intonation, mood, technology). Sometimes only traces of the original technique can be found, and often only parts of the pipework are preserved - possibly in a modified form. It is extremely rare for works to be left in their historically unequal mood . For example, it often happens that technology from the 20th century is hidden behind a baroque organ front.
When restoring historical organs, one speaks either of restoration (if the existing material still shows the desired condition) or of reconstruction (if large parts of the work have to be rebuilt according to the objective). Conflicts regularly arise with the principle of monument protection that the preservation of the existing "grown" condition is preferable to the recovery of a lost one.
Even certain organs from the first half of the 20th century can be considered historical and worth preserving. It is currently being discussed in individual cases whether even organs of the organ movement can and should be considered worthy of preservation.
An organ landscape consists of the preserved historical organs, the restored and reconstructed instruments and the rebuilt and newly built organs of a cultural area. Since the organ in its classic design is location-specific due to its size and its structural and acoustic coordination with the installation room and the exchange of sound ideas before the electrical recording of music was only possible through verbal or written descriptions, organs differ greatly from region to region. Due to the large number of organs that have been preserved or at least of arrangements since the Baroque, organ landscapes can be differentiated on the basis of national or regional peculiarities. These are often defined geographically and in Germany usually coincide with the borders of the historical duchies and counties . Every regional organ landscape is shaped by numerous influences. These often came from outside Germany (e.g. west and south-west Germany from the Netherlands and France, and south Germany from Italy). The regionally different denominations influenced the respective liturgical use of the organs and gave rise to different types of organs. Local organ building families or organ building schools gave each region its typical tonal (dispositions, intonation) and architectural (organ prospect design) character, which could last for several generations, but only in rare cases spanned epochs. Privileges gave an organ builder a monopoly position within an organ landscape for a certain period of time (for example Arp Schnitger in Oldenburg, Bremen and Verden, Gottfried Silbermann in Saxony). Most of the time, the organ builders' work was limited to just one region.
- Germany: Brandenburg , Elbe-Weser , Hamburg , Hesse , Upper Pomerania , Lüneburg , Lower Bavaria , Upper Bavaria , Upper Swabia , Oldenburg , East Frisia , Upper Palatinate , Saarland , Saxony , Saxony-Anhalt , Schleswig-Holstein , South Lower Saxony , Thuringia , Lower Franconia , Westphalia-Lippe , East Prussia , West Prussia .
- Others: Denmark , Japan , Lithuania ,
It can be assumed that the first organs used the Pythagorean tuning . Only through the increasing musical and technical development of the organ was it possible to establish a modified pure tuning . The mid-tone tuning was created in the 16th century and was used as an organ tuning until the 18th century. To avoid the difference in the syntonic commas , slightly reduced fifths were introduced, four of which are stacked to form a pure major third.
In the course of the 17th century, the restriction to central keys became increasingly disruptive. The well-tempered moods were created . Examples of this are the tunings of Andreas Werckmeister , in particular the so-called Werckmeister III temperature , or the tunings of the organ builder Gottfried Silbermann . Nevertheless, many organs were tuned to the mid-tone well into the 18th century. It was not until the 19th century that the same temperature finally became generally accepted as the standard.
Today there are again increasing discussions about how organs should be tuned. Many historical compositions are based on different sound properties of different keys and chords, which cannot be reproduced on equally tuned instruments; this is particularly important for historical performance practice . As a result, organs are now often tuned to a moderate temperature - as a compromise.
The pitch of the voice varied widely across Europe, depending on the time and region. A tendency towards standardization began in the 17th century. In the first half of the 18th century, organs were usually built and tuned either in the concert pitch (about a semitone lower than today), in the chorus (up to a minor third higher than today) or in the cornet tone in between . Since 1858 the standard has been a 1 = 435 Hz. In 1939 the current pitch was set at a 1 = 440 Hz (at 18 ° C).
The organ's pitch also depends on the air temperature. The detuning is only a few cents per degree Celsius, but can even be a quarter tone under certain circumstances. Even the heat given off by the fan motor, solar radiation or contact (for example when tuning) can cause the organ pipes to go out of tune. Air pressure and humidity also play a role.
The music from the Robertsbridge Codex (appendix around 1350) is considered the oldest organ music that has been handed down in writing. A few sources come from the late Gothic period, such as the Codex Faenza (around 1420), the organ pieces from the collection of sermons from Winsen (1431), the Oldenburg organ tablature by Magister Ludolf Lying (1445) and the tablature by Adam Ileborgh from Stendal (1448). The Buxheim organ book (1460/1470) , which was very extensive for the time, dates from the time of musical upheaval from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance .
Numerous organ pieces recorded in tablatures were already published in the 16th century . Organ music experienced its first heyday. Well-known representatives of this era include: Arnolt Schlick (~ 1460 ~ 1521), Leonhard Kleber (~ 1495–1537), Hans Kotter (~ 1485–1541), Antonio de Cabezón (1510–1566) and Jacob Paix (1556–1623?). Due to the Thirty Years' War , however, sources and organs from the Middle Ages and Renaissance were lost to an incomprehensible extent.
Organ music experienced its second climax in the Baroque period . The fully developed, regionally very different organ types at that time led to correspondingly diverse and equally different organ music. Organ music from the Baroque era is still an integral part of many organ concerts today, which also has to do with the fact that many sources from this time, but also a number of organs, have survived to this day.
The most famous composers of baroque organ music were:
- in northern Germany: Heinrich Scheidemann (1596–1663), Franz Tunder (1614–1667), Dieterich Buxtehude (1637–1707), Johann Adam Reincken (1643–1722), Vincent Lübeck (1654–1740), Georg Böhm (1661– 1733), Nicolaus Bruhns (1665–1697)
- in Central Germany: Samuel Scheidt (1587–1654), Johann Pachelbel (1653–1706), Johann Kuhnau (1660–1722), Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow (1663–1712), Johann Gottfried Walther (1684–1748) and last but not least Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
- in southern Germany: Johann Jakob Froberger (1616–1667), Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (~ 1665–1746), Gottlieb Muffat (1690–1770)
- in the Netherlands: Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562–1621)
- in France: François Couperin (1668–1733), Louis Marchand (1669–1732), Nicolas de Grigny (1672–1703), Louis-Nicolas Clérambault (1676–1749)
- in Italy: Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583–1643), Domenico Zipoli (1688–1726)
- in Spain: Francisco Correa de Arauxo (1584–1654), Juan Bautista José Cabanilles (1644–1712)
With the end of the Baroque period in the middle of the 18th century, interest in the organ declined significantly. After a long break in classical music, organ music experienced its third climax in the period of romanticism , when symphonic organ music developed alongside the renewed interest in old forms that were combined with the new tonal language. Famous representatives of this era include: Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809–1847), Johannes Brahms (1833–1897) and Max Reger (1873–1916) in Germany, as well as César Franck (1822–1890), Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens (1823–1881), Alexandre Guilmant (1837– 1911) and Charles-Marie Widor (1844–1937) in France.
In the first half of the 20th century, a special neoclassical school emerged ( Siegfried Reda , Johann Nepomuk David ), on the other hand there was a further development of symphonic music for organ ( Sigfrid Karg-Elert , Louis Vierne , Charles Tournemire , Marcel Dupré , Maurice Duruflé , Jean Langlais ). Composers of dodecaphones ( Arnold Schönberg ) and subsequently serial music ( Olivier Messiaen ) also wrote for the organ. The increased organ building outside of sacred buildings (cinema organ, organ in the concert hall) meant that more secular music was played on the organ again. However, with the advent of electromechanical organs, and later electronic organs , much of this new secular organ music has shifted to these instruments.
Experimental elements and new compositional methods have also been used since the second half of the 20th century ( cluster with György Ligeti , graphic notation with Mauricio Kagel ). In addition, elements from older epochs (Gregorian chant, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque) and genre-independent styles of music (blues, jazz, rock) also flow into the organ music. Borrowings from film music can also be observed, although this is not primarily about reviving the old cinema organ tradition.
Organ landscapes and functions of organ music
A second differentiating criterion in addition to the historical classification is that of the organ landscape , since organ music was often written for, or at least inspired by, very specific instruments or types of instruments.
A third distinguishing criterion is the difference between sacred and secular organ music.
- Secular organ music is considered to be music independent of religion, e.g. B. the ancient organ music on the Hydraulis , the arrangements of dances and secular songs in the time of the Renaissance, which were usually played on house organs , positives and shelves , or the silent film accompaniment on the cinema organ .
- Sacred organ music is what is played in the context of religious ceremonies or is based on religious songs. This includes B. With a few exceptions, organ music that is played in the context of a Christian worship service ( liturgical organ playing ). In the field of sacred organ music, a distinction is also made between “chorale-related”, i.e. based on a sacred song, and “free” literature.
Solo organ playing and improvisation
The most artistically significant is the solo organ playing. Since the Baroque, its most important forms have been: Prelude , Toccata , Fantasy , Voluntary , Tiento , Chaconne , Passacaglia , Ricercar , Fugue , Variation , Suite , Sonata , Trio Sonata and Organ Symphony ; the combination of a fugue with a preceding further piece (e.g. prelude, toccata or fantasy) also occurs frequently. These organ pieces are called "free" organ music because they are based on themes freely written by the composer . There are also choral-related compositions: Gregorian chant or Protestant and Catholic hymns , some of which are also composed in the forms described above. A common form of organ arrangement of a mostly Protestant hymn is the chorale arrangement .
The improvisation is closely associated with the organ. This is due, among other things, to the fact that a musician can create a polyphonic improvisation on the organ alone, i.e. without interacting with other instruments. On the other hand, when you come into contact with an organ unknown to the musician, improvisation is a very good opportunity to get to know the instrument without being restricted by sound ideas associated with composed pieces.
Improvisation is extremely important in sacred organ music and an integral part of teaching in every church music education; it is also an integral part of liturgical organ playing in the form of chorale preludes and intonations and arose from the more functional demands on the music in church services .
In secular organ music, improvisation has always been an accompaniment to the organ. An example of this is the background music for silent films on the cinema organ. It is almost always improvised, whereby the performing musician has to manage this in real time to the running film. Usually this is only possible if the musician already knows the film.
Chamber and orchestral music
The organ in the form described here does not play a major role in chamber music . Smaller organs have been particularly popular as basso continuo instruments since the baroque era . Orchestral music with an organ was initially cultivated in the Baroque period, especially in Georg Friedrich Handel's organ concerts , more rarely in the Classical period , and then with a large organ occasionally in the Romantic period - in the latter case, in order to give the orchestras, which were increasingly huge towards the end of the 19th century, an even greater variety of timbres and to expand the pitch space into the subcontractive octave (32 'register of the organ).
The pressure point of the keys is decisive for the technique of playing the manual . With mechanical organs, it is more at the beginning of the key travel (as with the harpsichord ), as the air pressure on the valve must first be overcome. In this case, the approach and agreement of the whistle can also be influenced by different approaches to the pressure point. A clear difference to the piano can be seen here, in which the string is only struck at the end of the key travel and the swing of the key is decisive for the quality of the resulting sound. Therefore, unlike the piano, playing with the fingers is preferred with the organ, if the required effort allows it, and the hand is not lifted off the keys in order to get momentum for a stroke.
In the case of pneumatic or electronic actions, however, the pressure point cannot be felt because the counterpressure of the key does not come from the valve, but is produced by its own springs. The effort required is low, so that full-bodied music can be implemented more easily. However, the process of opening the valve cannot be influenced. Pneumatic actions also make articulation difficult due to their slow reaction and require the player to get used to it. The organ is usually more phrased and articulated than on keyboard instruments with strings, because the sound does not fade away.
The pedal can play with both the peaks and the heel ( heel done) both feet. This means that up to four voices can be played, which is rarely the case in practice. An important means is putting a foot in front or behind, and sliding from key to key is also used. The footpacks may like the fingering are entered by special characters in the notes that are not used by all organists same. Up until the 19th century, many organists preferred to play with the tip, often because of the design of the pedal keys , which only enabled the heel to be used meaningfully with combinations between lower and upper keys. The Germani technique (after Fernando Germani ) puts the tip and heel on an equal footing, making strict legato possible on the pedal for the first time .
When playing early music , historical finger and foot movements as well as sensitive articulation are once again emphasized. The execution of the ornamentation also plays a major role.
The example concerns the beginning of the organ choir "Who only lets God rule" (BWV 642) by Johann Sebastian Bach, played on a small organ by Bruno Christensen & Sønner (I / 7, 1980)
In contrast to many other instruments, you cannot usually learn to play the organ at music schools . In addition to the conservatories and music colleges, the teaching is primarily full-time church musicians . Since an exercise instrument is also required, if no special exercise instrument (e.g. in a university) is available, close cooperation with a local church community is usually necessary. In return, she often demands assistance in organizing the musical service. Since the advent of the digital sacred organ, however, practice instruments have also been available for domestic use, which relativizes the dependency on a church community that existed in earlier times. Budding organists often already play the piano enough, although the considerable differences in playing technique should not be underestimated. Studying the piano cannot replace the organ, not only because of the lack of a pedal. Many educators also require the piano to be a prerequisite for playing the organ. From a technical point of view, mastering the piano is not necessary to learn to play the organ.
Systematic school works have only been handed down since the middle of the 19th century. The best-known works include the “Organ Schools” by Karl Straube , Ernst Kaller , Marcel Dupré and Rolf Schweizer , which, however, deal almost exclusively with literary play. There is little established literature in the field of improvisation, so improvisation is passed on as far as possible in the classroom and across subjects in the areas of composition, composition and music theory.
Acquisition and maintenance
The acquisition of an organ is a major project that is roughly comparable to building a house. Only for instruments up to the size of a house organ are the dimensions of the project smaller. The planning phase alone, i.e. before any work is done on the organ, is rarely completed within a year. In this phase, the arrangement and appearance of the organ are determined in cooperation with the investor (e.g. parish, operator of a concert hall, university), organist (s) and organ builder and, if necessary, experts and authorities (monument protection, church office) and a financing plan is developed. Once the parameters of an organ have been determined, the actual construction of a medium-sized organ takes another one to one and a half years (around 4000 working hours). This usually ends with the organ being completely assembled in the organ building workshop. The setup in the installation room on site takes another two months, plus about four to six weeks for the sound adjustment to the installation room (see also: Intonation ). A single organ register currently costs between 5,000 and 20,000 euros as a new building, depending on size, material and design.
Organs are usually tuned annually, with complete tuning (including mixtures) often only taking place every two years. The reeds are tuned by the organists themselves as required. Tuning a medium-sized organ (20 to 30 registers) takes about a day and costs up to a thousand euros. An organ has to be "cleaned out" about every 15 to 25 years, as dust and dirt deposits impair the technical reliability and, for example, small open pipes can no longer be tuned. In the event of a cleaning, the entire pipework and all wind chests will be removed and overhauled. With a medium-sized organ, this work takes about two months and costs 20,000 to 30,000 euros, provided no further repair work is necessary.
Since the mid-1990s, the second-hand market for small and medium-sized instruments has been gaining in importance, as both abroad and in the German-speaking area, more and more small and medium-sized churches are being closed or rededicated and therefore the range is correspondingly large (see also church closure ). This is an interesting alternative, especially for financially weak operators, as implementation is still significantly cheaper than a corresponding new building despite the considerable effort involved in adapting it.
On the part of the organ builder, there is also a relatively high level of interest in individual historical registers that are used for returns or restorations. This is mainly due to the fact that the impurities and irregularities in the organ metal that resulted from the production processes that were imperfect from today's perspective can only be reconstructed at great expense.
The examples are the "Tema variato" by Josef Rheinberger (1839–1901).
The recordings were made on the organ built in 1996 in St. Maria Königin , Kerpen-Sindorf, Rhineland.
"In my eyes and ears, the orgl is the king of all instruments."
“Don't miss an opportunity to practice on the organ. There is no instrument that takes revenge on the unclean and unclean in the composition as well as in the playing than the organ. "
"The organ is without a doubt the largest, the boldest and the most splendid of all instruments created by the human spirit. It is a whole orchestra from which a skilled hand can ask everything, on which it can do everything."
"Playing the organ means revealing a will filled with the vision of eternity."
“The pipe organ should be held in high esteem in the Latin church as a traditional musical instrument; because their sound can wonderfully enhance the splendor of church ceremonies and lift hearts to God and heaven. "
The explanations of some technical terms relating to the organ can be found in the organ glossary .
- Organist , List of Organists , Category: Organist
- Organ music , list of organ composers , category: music for organ
- Organ building , list of organ builders , category: organ builder
- Organ registers , list of organ registers
- Church music , church musician
- List of German museums by topic # organs
In the category: disposition of an organ there are articles about individual organs. In addition to precise information on the disposition, some of these also contain audio samples.
Variants and related instruments
- Positive , portative , shelf , house organ
- Barrel organ , cinema organ , hydraulis , parabrahm organ
- Pyrophone , steam organ , bottle organ
- Electronic organ , Hammond organ , optical sound organ , synthesizer
- Organ landscape Japan
- ORGAN² / ASLSP
- Web links to organ databases (dispositions, etc.) under disposition (organ)
- Winfried Bönig , Ingo Bredenbach : Organ literature play - organ building. 4th volume in: Hans-Jürgen Kaiser, Barbara Lange (Ed.): Basic knowledge of church music. An ecumenical text and learning book in four volumes with DVD and register volume for basic training and professional support for Protestant and Catholic church musicians. Carus-Verlag, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-89948-125-9 .
- Hermann J. Busch , Matthias Geuting (Hrsg.): Lexicon of the organ. Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2007, ISBN 978-3-89007-508-2 .
- Douglas E. Bush, Richard Kassel (Eds.): The Organ. To Encyclopedia . Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, New York / London 2006, ISBN 978-0-415-94174-7 .
- Chris Riley: The Modern Organ Guide . Xulon Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59781-667-0 .
- Nicholas Thistlethwaite, Geoffrey Webber: The Cambridge Companion to the Organ . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998, ISBN 978-0-521-57584-3 .
- Wolfgang Adelung: Introduction to organ building . 2nd Edition. Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden 2003, ISBN 3-7651-0279-2 .
- Hans Klotz : The book of the organ . 14th edition. Bärenreiter, Kassel 2012, ISBN 978-3-7618-0826-9 .
- Michael Bosch, Klaus Döhring, Wolf Kalipp : Lexicon organ building. Bärenreiter, Kassel 2007, ISBN 978-3-7618-1391-1 .
- Organ . In: Alfred Reichling (Ed.): MGG Prisma . Bärenreiter, Kassel 2001, ISBN 978-3-7618-1622-6 .
- Bernhard Ader: Organ Studies. In: Hans Musch (Ed.): Music in worship. Volume 2. ConBrio, Regensburg 1994, ISBN 978-3-930079-22-3 , p. 256 ff.
- Winfred Ellerhorst: Handbook of organ science . 3rd repr. Edition. Frits Knuf, Buren 1986, ISBN 90-6027-519-5 (first edition: Einsiedeln 1936).
- Dom François Bédos de Celles . L'art du facteur d'orgues. Volume / Tome I: 1766; Volume / Tome II: 1770; Volume / Tome III: 1778; Facsimile reprint ed. v. Christard Mahrenholz. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1976/1977.
- Richard Rensch (Ed.): Dom Bédos - The Art of Organ Builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 146 (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Klaus Beckmann : Repertory of organ music: composers, works, editions; 1150-1998; 41 countries; a selection = A bio-bibliographical index of organ music. 2., rework. and exp. Edition Schott, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-7957-0358-1 .
- Hermann J. Busch: On French organ music of the 19th and 20th centuries. A manual. Butz Musikverlag, Bonn 2011, ISBN 978-3-928412-12-4 .
- Hermann J. Busch, Michael Heinemann (Ed.): On German organ music of the 19th century. Butz music publisher. Bonn 2006, ISBN 978-3-928412-03-2 .
- Rudolf Faber, Philip Hartmann (ed.): Handbook of organ music. Composers, works, interpretation. Bärenreiter, Kassel 2002, ISBN 3-476-01877-6 .
- Victor Lukas : Reclam's organ music guide. Reclam, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-15-008880-1 .
- Arnfried Edler (with the assistance of Siegfried Mauser): History of piano and organ music. 3 vols. Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2007, ISBN 978-3-89007-674-4 .
History of the organ
- William Harrison Barnes: The Contemporary American Organ - Its Evolution, Design and Construction . Read Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4067-6023-1 .
- Roland Eberlein : The history of the organ. Siebenquart, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-941224-01-8 .
- Karl-Heinz Göttert : The organ. Cultural history of a monumental instrument. Bärenreiter, Kassel 2017, ISBN 978-3-7618-2411-5 .
- Hans Maier: The organ. Small story of a great instrument. Revised and expanded edition. Beck, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-406-69758-6 .
- Orpha Caroline Ochse: The History of the Organ in the United States . Indiana University Press, 1988, ISBN 978-0-253-20495-0 .
- Curt Sachs : The History of Musical Instruments. WW Norton, New York 1968. (Title of the German original edition: Geist und Werden der Musikinstrumenten. 1929.)
- Bérnard Sonnaillon: L'orgue. Instrument et musiciens. Office du Livre, Editions Vilo, Paris 1984, ISBN 2-7191-0211-3 .
- Roman Summereder : The dawn of sounds. Materials, pictures, documents on organ reform and organ culture in the 20th century. Edition Helbling, Innsbruck 1995, ISBN 3-900590-55-9 .
- William Leslie Sumner: The Organ. Its Evolution, Principles of Construction and Use. St. Martin's Press. New York 1981
- Craig R. Whitney: All the Stops . Perseus Books Group, 2004, ISBN 978-1-58648-262-6 .
- Peter Williams : The Organ in Western Culture 750-1250. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993, ISBN 0-521-61707-3 (English).
- OrganIndex , free organ database (Wiki with pictures and dispositions)
- Photos and dispositions of many international organs
- Bund Deutscher Orgelbaumeister (BDO) (umbrella organization of organ builders in Germany)
- Society of Organ Friends (GdO) (including information on organ museums)
- Austrian Organ Forum
- An organ is being built . The broadcast with the mouse (Yout1ube video)
- Reportage assignment for Ralph: organ builder . Knowledge makes Ah! - KiKA from ARD and ZDF ( YouTube video)
- Christoph Driessen: 50,000 organs in Germany . In: Südwest Presse of August 10, 2015. Accessed February 7, 2021.
- Hey organ building: Vox Maris - the voice of the sea . Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Wolfgang Adelung: Introduction to organ building . 2nd Edition. Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden 2003, ISBN 3-7651-0279-2 , pp. 41 .
- Hans Klotz : The book of the organ . 14th edition. Bärenreiter, Kassel 2012, ISBN 978-3-7618-0826-9 , p. 115 .
- This is why 16 'registers are often built in a covert manner (e.g. as a sub-bass ) - often for reasons of space, as they only need about half the height, but often also for reasons of cost, as they only require half of the material.
- Richard Rensch (ed.): Dom Bédos - The art of organ builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 146 (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Wolfgang Adelung: Introduction to organ building . 2nd Edition. Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden 2003, ISBN 3-7651-0279-2 , pp. 122 .
- Friedrich Jakob: The Roman organ from Avenches / Aventicum . Assoc. Pro Aventico, Avenches 2000, ISBN 2-9700112-7-1 .
- Reichsannalen for the year 826 . In: Reinhold Rau (ed.): Sources on the Carolingian history of the empire . tape 1 . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2017, ISBN 978-3-534-74310-0 , p. 144-147 . Astronomus : Vita Hludowici (The Life of Emperor Ludwig), chap. 40th Ed. By E. Tremp (MGH SS rer. Ger. In usum scholarum separatim editi 64), Hannover 1995, pp. 432-435; there are also p. 433, notes 562–563, cited other sources ( Einhard , Ermoldus Nigellus , Walahfried Strabo ). The original sources (Reichsannalen, Astronomus) unanimously report this event in their description of the year 826; when Wolfgang Adelung: Introduction to organ building . 2nd Edition. Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden 1991, ISBN 3-7651-0279-2 , p. 216, which mentions the year 824, this is clearly an oversight.
- Jeremy Montagu: The Oldest Organ in Christendom. Bethlehem Organ of Latin Kingdom Date . Retrieved July 26, 2021 (PDF).
- Hans Klotz: About the organ art of the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque. Music, disposition, mixtures, lengths, registration, use of the pianos . 3. Edition. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1986, ISBN 3-7618-0775-9 , p. 9 .
- Michael Praetorius : Syntagma musicum . From the instruments. Wolfenbüttel 1618, panel XXIV - Internet Archive .
- Helmut Fleinghaus: Restoration Report Ostönnen , NMZ , accessed on March 12, 2014.
- Friedrich Jakob et al .: The Valeria organ . vdf-Hochschulverlag, Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-7281-1666-1 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Holger Balder (ed.): The Gothic organ in the Rysum church . Festschrift for the 555th anniversary of the Gothic organ Rysum 2012. Self-published, Rysum 2012, DNB 1028080913 ( orgel-information.de [PDF]).
- Organ in Bologna , accessed on March 12, 2014.
- Friedrich Jakob: The organ of the parish church St. Valentin and Dionysus zu Kiedrich in the Rheingau . Orgelbau Kuhn Publishing House, Männedorf 1989.
- Wolfgang Adelung: Introduction to organ building . 2nd Edition. Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden 2003, ISBN 3-7651-0279-2 , pp. 218 .
- Hans Klotz: About the organ art of the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque. Music, disposition, mixtures, lengths, registration, use of the pianos . 3. Edition. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1986, ISBN 3-7618-0775-9 , p. 60 .
- Kathrin Heitmüller: Interim report: The organ builder Matthias Dropa in the socio-cultural environment of his time . P. 3. Accessed January 31, 2021.
- Ibo Ortgies : The practice of organ tuning in northern Germany in the 17th and 18th centuries and its relationship to contemporary music practice . Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg 2004, p. 121 ( online [PDF] rev. 2007).
- Kathrin Heitmüller: Interim report: The organ builder Matthias Dropa in the socio-cultural environment of his time . P. 3. Accessed January 31, 2021.
- Cornelius H. Edskes , Harald Vogel : Arp Schnitger and his work (= 241st publication by the Society of Organ Friends ). 2nd Edition. Hauschild, Bremen 2013, ISBN 978-3-89757-525-7 .
- Roland Eberlein : A little history of the organ. The development of the internal design of the organ: the factory organ. P. 6. Accessed January 31, 2021 (PDF).
- Harald Vogel, Günter Lade, Nicola Borger-Keweloh: Organs in Lower Saxony . Hauschild, Bremen 1997, ISBN 3-931785-50-5 , p. 45 .
- For example, the approximately 65 m long St. Aposteln Church in Cologne received a new organ from Balthasar König with two manuals and 25 registers in 1738 . (See: Hermann Fischer , Theodor Wohnhaas : The organ builder families König in Ingolstadt, Münstereifel and Cologne . Festschrift Alfred Reichling on his 70th birthday. In: Roland Behrens, Christoph Grohmann (ed.): Dulce Melos Organorum (= 200th publication of the Society of Organ Friends ), Society of Organ Friends, Mettlach 2005, p. 148 . ) The main church Sankt Jacobi (Hamburg) of about the same size already had an organ by Arp Schnitger that was more than twice as large with four manuals and 60 registers.
- Ibo Ortgies : The practice of organ tuning in northern Germany in the 17th and 18th centuries and its relationship to contemporary music practice . Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg 2004, p. 195–204 ( online [PDF] rev. 2007).
- Harald Vogel, Günter Lade, Nicola Borger-Keweloh: Organs in Lower Saxony . Hauschild, Bremen 1997, ISBN 3-931785-50-5 , p. 23 .
- Due to the abundance of organs preserved, one instrument from every organ builder should suffice as an example.
- Organ in Maassluis , accessed on February 15, 2021.
- organ . In: Alfred Reichling (Ed.): MGG Prisma . Bärenreiter, Kassel 2001, ISBN 978-3-7618-1622-6 , pp. 72 .
- Roland Eberlein: A little history of the organ. The development of the internal design of the organ: organs with character voices. P. 1.
- Kathrin Heitmüller: Interim report . The organ builder Matthias Dropa in the socio-cultural environment of his time . P. 3. Accessed January 31, 2021.
- Roland Eberlein: A little history of the organ. The development of the internal design of the organ: organs with character voices. P. 1.
- Roland Eberlein: A little history of the organ. The development of the internal design of the organ: organs with character voices. P. 1 f.
- Roland Eberlein: A little history of the organ. The development of the internal design of the organ: organs with character voices. P. 4.
- Felix Friedrich : The organ builder Heinrich Gottfried Trost. Life - work - performance . Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1989, ISBN 3-370-00287-6 , p. 12 .
- Roland Eberlein: A little history of the organ. The development of the internal design of the organ: organs with character voices. P. 6.
- Felix Friedrich: The organ builder Heinrich Gottfried Trost. Life - work - performance . Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1989, ISBN 3-370-00287-6 , p. 54 .
- Felix Friedrich: The organ builder Heinrich Gottfried Trost. Life - work - performance . Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1989, ISBN 3-370-00287-6 , p. 16 .
- Felix Friedrich: The organ builder Heinrich Gottfried Trost. Life - work - performance . Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1989, ISBN 3-370-00287-6 , p. 84 .
- Felix Friedrich: The organ builder Heinrich Gottfried Trost. Life - work - performance . Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1989, ISBN 3-370-00287-6 , p. 85 .
- Frank-Harald Greß : Die Orgeln Gottfried Silbermanns (= publications of the Society of Organ Friends . Volume 177 ). 3. Edition. Sandstein, Dresden 2007, ISBN 978-3-930382-50-7 , p. 21 .
- Frank-Harald Greß: The sound shape of Gottfried Silbermann's organs . Breitkopf, Leipzig / Wiesbaden 1989, ISBN 3-923639-78-3 , p. 36-39 .
- Frank-Harald Greß: The sound shape of Gottfried Silbermann's organs . Breitkopf, Leipzig / Wiesbaden 1989, ISBN 3-923639-78-3 , p. 45 .
- Frank-Harald Greß: The sound shape of Gottfried Silbermann's organs . Breitkopf, Leipzig / Wiesbaden 1989, ISBN 3-923639-78-3 , p. 53 .
- Frank-Harald Greß: The sound shape of Gottfried Silbermann's organs . Breitkopf, Leipzig / Wiesbaden 1989, ISBN 3-923639-78-3 , p. 51 .
- Frank-Harald Greß: The organ temperatures Gottfried Silbermanns . Kamprad, Altenburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-930550-66-1 .
- Franz Bösken : Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine (= contributions to the Middle Rhine music history . Volume 6 ). tape 1 : Mainz and suburbs - Rheinhessen - Worms and suburbs . Schott, Mainz 1967, ISBN 3-7957-1306-4 .
- Franz Bösken: The organ builder family Stumm from Rhaunen-Sulzbach and their work. A contribution to the history of organ building on the Middle Rhine . Mainz Antiquities Association, Mainz 1981, p. 33 .
- Hermann Fischer, Theodor Wohnhaas: The organ builder families König in Ingolstadt, Münstereifel and Cologne . Festschrift for Alfred Reichling's 70th birthday. In: Roland Behrens, Christoph Grohmann (eds.): Dulce Melos Organorum (= 200th publication by the Society of Organ Friends ). Society of Organ Friends, Mettlach 2005, p. 158 .
- Franz Bösken: The organ builder family Stumm from Rhaunen-Sulzbach and their work. A contribution to the history of organ building on the Middle Rhine . Mainzer Altertumsverein, Mainz 1981, p. 30 .
- Hermann Fischer, Theodor Wohnhaas: The organ builder families König in Ingolstadt, Münstereifel and Cologne . Festschrift for Alfred Reichling's 70th birthday. In: Roland Behrens, Christoph Grohmann (eds.): Dulce Melos Organorum (= 200th publication by the Society of Organ Friends ). Society of Organ Friends, Mettlach 2005, p. 166 .
- Franz Bösken: The organ builder family Stumm from Rhaunen-Sulzbach and their work. A contribution to the history of organ building on the Middle Rhine . Mainzer Altertumsverein, Mainz 1981, p. 36 .
- Franz Bösken: The organ builder family Stumm from Rhaunen-Sulzbach and their work. A contribution to the history of organ building on the Middle Rhine . Mainzer Altertumsverein, Mainz 1981, p. 49 .
- Franz Bösken: The Stumm family of organ builders from Rhaunen-Sulzbach and their work. A contribution to the history of organ building on the Middle Rhine . Mainz Antiquities Association, Mainz 1981, p. 51 .
- organ . In: Alfred Reichling (Ed.): MGG Prisma . Bärenreiter, Kassel 2001, ISBN 978-3-7618-1622-6 , pp. 65 .
- Roland Eberlein: History of the organ tuning. IV. Equal mood. (PDF) walcker-stiftung.de, p. 3; accessed on January 20, 2021.
- Geib organ in Lambrecht , accessed on February 4, 2021.
- Organ building in southern Germany, western Austria, Switzerland , accessed on February 4, 2021.
- Organ Landscape Austria / Eastern Europe , accessed on February 4, 2021.
- Roland Eberlein: About the origin of the terz-containing mixtures, with conclusions regarding current reconstruction projects. P. 4; accessed on February 4, 2021.
- organ . In: Alfred Reichling (Ed.): MGG Prisma . Bärenreiter, Kassel 2001, ISBN 978-3-7618-1622-6 , pp. 78 .
- Organ . In: Alfred Reichling (Ed.): MGG Prisma . Bärenreiter, Kassel 2001, ISBN 978-3-7618-1622-6 , pp. 80 .
- Organ . In: Alfred Reichling (Ed.): MGG Prisma . Bärenreiter, Kassel 2001, ISBN 978-3-7618-1622-6 , pp. 117 .
- Roland Eberlein: History of the organ tuning. IV. Equal mood. walcker-stiftung.de, p. 3; accessed on January 20, 2021 (PDF).
- JE Miltschitzky: Ottobeuren: a European organ center. Organ builders, organs, and traditional organ music , accessed on February 6, 2021.
- organ in Rgeinau , accessed on February 6 2,021th
- Organ in St. Urban , accessed on February 6, 2021.
- The organ in Maihingen is one of the very few of the baroque period that never had to be rebuilt or suffered major changes. Even the original mid-tone mood has been preserved.
- Schmahl organ in Herrenbach , accessed on February 4, 2021.
- [orgelatei.evang.ro/organ/view/379 Orgel in Bistritz], accessed on February 4, 2021.
- The registers in brackets may be missing, the registers in double brackets were reserved for large organs.
- Compare Hans Musch: Registrations, types of movements and modes of delivery in classical French organ music of the 17th and 18th centuries . In: Hermann J. Busch (Ed.): On the interpretation of French organ music . Merseburger, Kassel 2009, ISBN 978-3-87537-313-4 , pp. 13 .
- Compare Richard Rensch (Ed.): Dom Bédos - The Art of Organ Builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 416 f . (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Richard Rensch (ed.): Dom Bédos - The art of organ builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 48 (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Jürgen Weyers: His name is Silbermann, and his work is golden ... In: Organ - Journal for the organ . Volume 2, 1998, pp. 12 .
- Richard Rensch (ed.): Dom Bédos - The art of organ builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 210 (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Richard Rensch (ed.): Dom Bédos - The art of organ builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 334 (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Richard Rensch (ed.): Dom Bédos - The art of organ builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 335 (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Richard Rensch (ed.): Dom Bédos - The art of organ builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 123 f . (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Richard Rensch (ed.): Dom Bédos - The art of organ builder . tape 1 . Organ building specialist publisher, Lauffen am Neckar 1977, ISBN 3-921848-03-2 , p. 413 (Original title: L'Art du Facteur d'Orgues . Translated by Christoph Glatter-Götz).
- Hans Musch: Registrations, types of movements and modes of presentation in classical French organ music of the 17th and 18th centuries . In: Hermann J. Busch (Ed.): On the interpretation of French organ music . Merseburger, Kassel 2009, ISBN 978-3-87537-313-4 , pp. 14 .
- Hans Musch: Registrations, types of movements and modes of presentation in classical French organ music of the 17th and 18th centuries . In: Hermann J. Busch (Ed.): On the interpretation of French organ music . Merseburger, Kassel 2009, ISBN 978-3-87537-313-4 , pp. 18 .
- Hans Musch: Registrations, types of movements and modes of presentation in classical French organ music of the 17th and 18th centuries . In: Hermann J. Busch (Ed.): On the interpretation of French organ music . Merseburger, Kassel 2009, ISBN 978-3-87537-313-4 , pp. 44 f .
- Hans Musch: Registrations, types of movements and modes of presentation in classical French organ music of the 17th and 18th centuries . In: Hermann J. Busch (Ed.): On the interpretation of French organ music . Merseburger, Kassel 2009, ISBN 978-3-87537-313-4 , pp. 26, 28 .
- Hans Musch: Registrations, types of movements and modes of presentation in classical French organ music of the 17th and 18th centuries . In: Hermann J. Busch (Ed.): On the interpretation of French organ music . Merseburger, Kassel 2009, ISBN 978-3-87537-313-4 , pp. 38 .
- Jürgen Weyers: His name is Silbermann, and his work is golden ... In: Organ - Journal for the organ . Volume 2, 1998, pp. 14 .
- Organ in Saint-Martin-de-Boscherville , accessed on February 5, 2021.
- Organ in Saint-Antoine (Isère) , accessed on February 5, 2021.
- Organ in Seurre , accessed on February 5, 2021.
- Organ in Ribeauvillé accessed on February 5, 2021.
- Organ in Saint-Michel (Aisne) , accessed on February 5, 2021.
- Organ in Mouzon , accessed on February 5, 2021.
- The Cliquot organ in Houdan is one of the few organs from the Baroque period that can be considered to have been preserved as authentic and that has made its way into our times without rebuilding, re-intonation or revision. Even the bellows and the mid-tone mood have been preserved.
- organ . In: Alfred Reichling (Ed.): MGG Prisma . Bärenreiter, Kassel 2001, ISBN 978-3-7618-1622-6 , pp. 99 .
- Italian organs , accessed February 6, 2021.
- Registration of Italian organs , accessed on February 6, 2021.
- Italian organs p. 15, accessed on February 6, 2021.
- Organ in Brescia , accessed on February 8, 2021.
- Organ in Ferrara , accessed February 8, 2021.
- Organ in Pistoia , accessed February 8, 2021.
- Organ in Bergamo , accessed on February 8, 2021.
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