These registers can normally only be played in connection with at least one basic register (such as an 8 ′ register). In a few cases, however, combinations such as 4 '+ 2 2 ⁄ 3 ' or 2 2 ⁄ 3 '+ 2' can also be used. In exceptional cases, a fifth 5 1 ⁄ 3 ′ or 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′ or a third 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′ can also be played alone. Since the use of an aliquot changes the overtone composition of the sound, such aliquots are used to color the sound. An exception are fifths in principal censorship, which are drawn to the labial plenum.
Aliquot registers are preferably used for solo registrations .
The following rule of thumb applies to solo registration: The footnote number, usually given as a mixed fraction, is converted into a real fraction; the counter then identifies the basic register to be used (example: the basic register for 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′ = 8 ⁄ 5 ′ is therefore an 8 ′). Since the aliquot register is also included in their partial tone series, basic registers one or two octaves lower can also be used. The combination 8 ′ + 1 1 ⁄ 3 ′ is often used. Since (too) high aliquots sometimes do not mix well with the basic register, depending on the intonation, an octave register in between can mediate in such cases (8 ′ + 4 ′ + 1 1 ⁄ 3 ′).
Most aliquot registers are designed for an 8 ′ base (overtones to 8 ′, i.e. fifth 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′, third 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′, seventh 1 1 ⁄ 7 ′ and ninth 8 ⁄ 9 ′). In the main work of large organs and in the pedal work there are also aliquot registers that require a 16 ′ base. Aliquot registers on the 4 'basis are rare, with the exception of the fifth 1 1 ⁄ 3 ', since the third 4 ⁄ 5 ' almost reaches the upper human hearing limit with today's manual range up to g 3 . The aliquot registers themselves are usually voiced in a fundamental tone with only a weak overtone spectrum of their own, since pronounced overtones of the aliquot register would prevent a tonal fusion with the other drawn registers (e.g. 8 ′, 4 ′, 2 ′, 1 ′) to form an overall sound. The overall sound would "fall apart". Therefore, wide sizes are preferred. For typical solo registrations, the aliquot registers are usually combined with wide-bored registers in octaves in order to achieve an optimal blend of sounds.
An organ part from several aliquot rows is a mixed part .
Simple aliquot register
Table of partials
Partials sound in the aliquot registers, which are initially listed here - based on the fundamental C with a frequency of 66 Hz .
|Natural tone||volume||frequency||Frequency ratio to the fundamental||Harmonic distance to the fundamental||Designation in organ building|
|1st partial (root)||C.||66 Hz||1: 1||Prime||different (equivalent position)|
|c 0||132 Hz||2: 1||octave||octave|
|3rd partial||g 0||198 Hz||3: 1||Octave + perfect fifth (duodecime)||Fifth|
|c 1||264 Hz||4: 1||2 octaves||Super octave, octave|
|5th partial||e 1||330 Hz||5: 1||2 octaves + major third||third|
|6th partial||g 1||396 Hz||6: 1||2 octaves + perfect fifth||Super-fifth, fifth|
|7th partial||≈ b 1||462 Hz||7: 1 see Naturseptime||2 octaves + natural seventh||Sept, Sept|
|c 2||528 Hz||8: 1||3 octaves||Octave, super octave, octave|
|9th partial||d 2||594 Hz||9: 1||3 octaves + major second||None|
|10th partial tone||e 2||660 Hz||10: 1||3 octaves + major third||third|
|11th partial||≈ f sharp 2||726 Hz||11: 1 see Alphorn-Fa||3 octaves + alphorn company||Undezime, eleventh|
|12th partial||g 2||792 Hz||12: 1||3 octaves + perfect fifth||Super-fifth, fifth|
|13th partial||≈ g sharp 2||858 Hz||13: 1||3 octaves + (≈) minor sixth||Tredezime|
|14th partial||≈ b 2||924 Hz||14: 1||3 octaves + natural seventh||Sept, Sept|
|15th partial||h 2||990 Hz||15: 1||3 octaves + major seventh||Durseptime|
|c 3||1056 Hz||16: 1||4 octaves||Super octave, octave|
Open and covered labial pipes are used. Fifths in principal censor are drawn to the labial plenum, wide-cambered fifths (Nasat, Nasard) are usually used for solo registrations. The layers 1 1 ⁄ 3 'and 2 2 ⁄ 3 ' are usually built open, the lower layers usually covered. A fifth is present even in most small organs and positives ; then often only in the position 1 1 ⁄ 3 ′. In large organs there is often a large fifth 5 1 ⁄ 3 ′ (French: Gross Nasard) in the main work . From Lingualpfeifen existing fifths (Trompeta quinta) are very rare. Fifths are also included in most mixed voices (Mixtur, Scharff, Zimbel, Sesquialter, Tertian, Cornet).
In the pedal standing forms the fifth covered 10 2 / 3 '16'-register together with a preferably open an acoustic 32'-register using the Residualtons or supports an existing 32' register corresponding forms the fifth covered 21 1 / 3 ' together with a preferably open 32 'register, an acoustic 64' register or supports an existing 64 'register.
The third partial tone, i.e. 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′ with an 8 ′ base, gives the sound a somewhat hollow color; it also emphasizes the fundamental tone, as it cannot be related to any other tone (e.g. 4 ′). The combination of Gedackt 8 'and Nasat 2 2 ⁄ 3 ' results in a sound that is similar to that of a Quintadena 8 '. The 6th partial, i.e. 1 1 ⁄ 3 ′ with an 8 ′ base, on the other hand, brightens the sound and slightly emphasizes the octave. Of all the aliquot registers, the fifth produces the weakest sound coloring.
There is a special feature of the fifth: with equal tuning , the equal fifth deviates from the perfect fifth by only −2 cents . Therefore, fifths are not always built as a separate row of pipes, but are also obtained from rows of octave pipes using the extension process. This is mainly used in the lower registers ( 21 1 ⁄ 3 ′, 10 2 ⁄ 3 ′). In particular, the fifth 21 1 ⁄ 3 ′ is often realized in this way. The only known fifth 42 2 ⁄ 3 ′ in the organ of the Atlantic City Convention Hall in Atlantic City (USA) available over the entire range of the pedal is an extension of the existing 64 ′ register. In the Cadet Chapel in West Point (USA) there are two fifths 42 2 ⁄ 3 ′, but these are obtained from existing 32 ′ registers and therefore only sound from the F pedal.
The most common is the third 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′, in large organs there is sometimes a third 3 1 ⁄ 5 ′ (French: large tierce) in large organs, this "large tierce" is common in larger French baroque organs. The third is usually used for solo registrations . Positions deeper than 3 1 ⁄ 5 'are very seldom on the pedal , are then usually designed with covered labial pipes and serve to support a 32' or 64 'register or to create an acoustic 32' or 64 'register with the help of the residual tone . The third is also part of various mixed voices ( cornet , sesquialter , third cymbal). The coloration of the sound by the third is much stronger than that by the fifth, but weaker than that by the seventh.
The third alone usually does not mix sufficiently with the basic register. It is conveyed by adding a fifth and often one or two octaves, e.g. B. 8 '+ 4' + 2 2 ⁄ 3 '+ 1 3 ⁄ 5 '. A special feature is the registration without an 8 ′ basic register, i.e. 4 ′ + 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′ + 2 ′ + 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′. The 8 'is created as a residual tone. This registration is particularly suitable for fast bass solos, since the sometimes somewhat sluggish response of an 8 ′ in the bass range is bypassed.
The most common is the 7th 1 1 ⁄ 7 ′, in large organs there is occasionally a 7th 2 2 ⁄ 7 ′ in the main work . The seventh is usually used for solo registrations. Positions deeper than 2 2 ⁄ 7 'are very seldom on the pedal , are then usually designed with covered labial pipes and serve to support a 32' or 64 'register or to create an acoustic 32' or 64 'register with the help of the residual tone . The seventh is also part of various mixed voices (seventh cornet, seventh cymbal, wooden laughter).
The seventh alone usually does not mix sufficiently with the basic register. It is conveyed by adding a fifth and one or two octaves, e.g. B. 8 '+ 4' + 2 2 ⁄ 3 '+ 1 1 ⁄ 7 ', or a third is added. Because of its strong tone, the seventh requires a sufficiently strong “substructure” with basic registers and deeper aliquots to prevent the overall sound from falling apart.
The most common is the ninth 8 ⁄ 9 ′, in large organs there is occasionally a ninth 1 7 ⁄ 9 ′ in the main work . The none is usually used for solo registrations. Positions deeper than 1 7 ⁄ 9 'are very seldom on the pedal , are then usually designed with covered labial pipes and serve to support a 32' or 64 'register or to create an acoustic 32' or 64 'register with the help of the residual tone . The ninth is also part of various mixed voices (nonenzimbel, wooden laughter).
The ninth alone usually does not mix sufficiently with the basic register. It is conveyed by adding a fifth and one or two octaves, e.g. B. 8 '+ 4' + 1 1 ⁄ 3 '+ 8 ⁄ 9 ', or a third and a seventh are added. When registering with a ninth, the risk of the overall sound falling apart is quite high, which is why the gap between ninth and the next lower register in the overall sound should not be too large. The tone coloring by the ninth is weaker than the tone coloring by the third or seventh. One of the reasons for this is that the ninth is not only a harmonic overtone to the basic register (9th partial, e.g. 8 ⁄ 9 ′ to 8 ′), but also to the fifth (3rd partial, e.g. 8 ⁄ 9 ′ To 8 ⁄ 3 ′ = 2 2 ⁄ 3 ′).
To 16'-base and 8'-base isolated higher aliquots used as individual register before, the eleventh in Elftelfußmaß (8 ': 8 / 11 '; 16 ': 1 5 / 11 '), the thirteenth in Dreizehntelfußmaß ( to 8 ′: 8 ⁄ 13 ′; to 16 ′: 1 3 ⁄ 13 ′) and the fifth decime or pure major seventh in fifteenth feet (to 8 ′: 8 ⁄ 15 ′; to 16 ′: 1 1 ⁄ 15 ′). The 15th partial has a similar effect as the ninth, because the pure major seventh is not only a harmonic overtone to the basic register (15th partial, e.g. 8 ⁄ 15 ′ to 8 ′), but also to the third (3rd partial, e.g. 8 ⁄ 15 ′ to 8 ⁄ 5 ′ = 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′). This effect is used in the rare third-third register twice 1 3 ⁄ 5 ′ + 8 ⁄ 15 ′. The small second in the seventeenth foot measurement is only available in mixed voices. The minor third or pure minor third in nineteenth feet is also available as individual registers as 16 ⁄ 19 ′ to the 16 ′ base. Occasionally, even higher aliquots appear in mixed voices.
Most of the other aliquots mentioned here also appear in mixed voices (wooden laughter, stick playing, balance wheel, overtones).
Higher aliquots produce very peculiar sound colorations, which in high register can turn into noise. In addition, there is the problem with higher aliquots for the 8 ′ that they would exceed the audibility limit in the highest position. There are three solutions to this problem. These aliquots are simply left out when the specified clay limit is reached. When the tone limit is reached, they are replaced in mixed voices by lower aliquots or an octave repetition is carried out. However, the latter implies a 16 'base from the repetition point, which can be problematic for the overall sound.
Mixed aliquot registers
To the mixed Aliquotregistern include the Register Sesquialter and Tertian and rarer register as woods laughter , bell or Faberton . The mixtures do not belong to the aliquot registers, even if they contain a third or even a seventh.
See also: mixed voice
Inharmonic aliquot registers
There are two variants of the minor third . It can be the harmonic (pure) minor third that makes the 19th partial sound sound (see “Higher Partials”). The inharmonic minor third is not a harmonic overtone to the basic voices (octaves). The frequency ratio of this minor third to the fifth is 5: 6. This minor third is z. B. marked with 1 2 ⁄ 3 'or 3 1 ⁄ 3 '. The inharmonic minor third is usually part of mixed voices.
This is a special construction of the cymbal. The construction method, also known as the “Model Cappel”, is carried out as follows: The repetitions are made on every C and every F. The notes f 4 , a 4 and c 5 sound on every F , which corresponds to a major chord in its basic position. Since the three choirs are purely voiced, they are harmonic overtones to the basic voices, as is also the case with a third cymbal. The major chord in its basic position sounds on each of the notes F to H. On each C, the three notes f 4 , a 4 and c 5 sound again , which corresponds to a major chord in the fourth position , whereby the notes f 4 and a 4 have no harmonic overtones Basic voices are. The major chord in the fourth position sounds on each of the notes C to E.
This register is occasionally found in Eastern European organs. It contains 6 to 12 choirs, which sound repetitive in the fifth and sixth octave, whereby the individual choirs usually do not form any harmonic overtones to the basic voices. The sound impression is more of a rustling noise than a tone.
It is not known whether the organs of antiquity , some of which had registers, also contained aliquot registers, but it is unlikely. At most a fifth would be conceivable. With the reintroduction of organ registers (voice separation) in the late Middle Ages , fifths first appeared, which, strictly speaking, were not yet aliquot registers, but were drawn to the labial plenum . The first real aliquots appeared in the organs of the Renaissance , fifths with wide bores and now the third as well. For a long time the limit was reached with the third. The first attempts were made with the seventh in the 18th century , but it was not until the 20th century that it became established . The ninth did not come into use until the 20th century. In modern large organs, even higher aliquots are sometimes available.