List of organ registers

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is an alphabetical list of common names of organ stops with brief explanations. Historical or foreign spellings were not taken into account. Even if the names of registers are based on type, scale or sound , they are by no means "standardized". Individual registers can have different names or sound properties depending on the organ builder , organ landscape or era . A short explanation of further technical terms from the area of ​​organ can be found in the organ glossary .

Additions to names


(also Aeoline) at the beginning of the 19th century, like the harmonium, also initially had a stop with penetrating reeds (as 16 ′ or 8 ′), similar to the Physharmonica (see there). This register had short or no essays. From around 1820, however, an open 8 ' labial register with a very narrow scale became established under the name “Aeoline” . In many romantic organs, this represents the most delicate string part.
16 'or 8' reed register, very delicate, striking
(Latin = spicy) a high-lying mixture , compare also Zimbel and Scharff
Acoustic bass
a double row of pipes consisting of octave and fifth pipes to form deep combination tones, 64 ′ or 32 ′, rarely 16 ′. For example, an acoustic bass 32 ′ consists of a 16 ′ and a 10 23 ′ row of pipes
see Dolz flute


Bach flute
Open, cylindrical night horn with very wide bores, which was named by Walcker in the movement of the organ
Baarpfeife, also Bärpfeife
short-bellied tongue register, 8 ′, comparable to a shelf or a crumhorn ; Especially in Holland also occurring as a labial register to 8 ′ and 4 ′, similar to the bahrpfeife and the barem
(also Baarpfeuff, Bahrpfeiff) rare name from the Rhineland for an 8′- Quintadena
Very seldom built pressed 16′-stop from the Baroque period made of wood with soft, quiet intonation
Basset horn
8 ′ register, has a warm, rounded tone. The basset horn can be built as a clarinet stop or a harmonium stop. In England the crumhorn, clarinet and basset horn seem to be the same.
French tongue register, mostly 16 ′ based on the design of the Hautbois (oboe). Sometimes instead of the bombard as a reserved 16 'reed part in the pedal or swell, according to the bassoon .
Bass zinc
a cornet- like register in the pedal, usually 2-fold as 5 13 '+ 3 15 ' or 3-fold as 5 13 '+ 3 15 ' + 2 27 '.
Peasant flute
in 16./17. Century covered, narrowly scaled metal labial register in the pedal, mostly 1 ′ or 12 ′, later also open manual register with a wide scale, partly also half-covered with tube
see Piffaro
see Piffaro
see Piffaro
see Piffaro
see Piffaro
(also called block pipe , English flute , flaut angelica , flûte à bec ) conical or cylindrical 4 'or 2' labial register with a wide scale and a soft, filling, clear sound. In very old organs, the recorder denotes a row of pipes with a wide bore that was split off from the Gothic blockwork . Since the Renaissance, a recorder can also mean a register that imitates the sound of the woodwind instrument of the same name .
strong tongue register with naturally long funnel-shaped cups in 32 'or 16' position; in the pedal as a 32 'register also referred to as double bombard. In the Baroque in southern Germany and France, mostly built instead of the usual trombones.
(also humming bass or Burdon called) decked 32'-, 16'- or 8 'stops, the French space as Bourdon name for Gedackt . While in central, west and south German organs based on an 8 'principal there is often a 16' drone in the main work, in north German organs there is usually a quintadena at this point.
Bourdon echo
(also Bourdon doux ) see Lieblich Gedeckt
Humming bass
see drone
rare alternative name for drone


(also called Campanella , Campanello , Campanelli or Campanetta ) Italian name for a carillon or bell tone (see there)
an effect register. It either corresponds to the original instrument of the same name with full-fledged bells or represents a different carillon . Third, a third, composite register (often 4 ′ + 1 35 ′) was also found in Dutch and Rhenish organs of the late 18th and 19th centuries. so called by a bright sound.
see Vox coelestis
4′- Vox coelestis (see there)
Cello or violoncello
tight string register, mostly 8′-position in the pedal
(also spinet ) Mechanism with which a harpsichord can be operated via the organ keyboard, usually in 16 ', 8' or 4 'positions; usually only in concert organs, compare also piano . Sometimes the sound is only imitated, see then bell tone .
see Spanish Trumpet
Choral bass
mostly principal register , almost always 4′-position in the pedal
see Cymbelki
Clairon , Clarine or Clarino
French reed stops, mostly 4 ′ in the style of the trumpet (trumpet) with conical beakers that are flared at the top
(Latin “clarus” for “bright” and “bellus” for “beautiful”) 8 'register, tonally between principal and hollow flute , see also open flute ; Type of pipe developed by JC Bishop in the early 19th century
Clarinet or also clarinet
Tongue register, which imitates the musical instrument of the same name, built both striking and striking
see double bass
Copl, Copel, Coppel or Copula
South German name for Gedackt 16 ′ or 8 ′, in small organs also 4 ′
Cor Anglais
see english horn
Cor chamois or Cor de chamois
see Gemshorn
Cor de Nuit
French name for night horn, but here as a rule as 8 ′ and in a cutted construction
Cor d'Orchestre
see horn
Corneta de 26
In Spanish organs a cornet on a 16 'base for the treble half of the manual. It contains at least 16 ', 8', 5 13 ', 4' and 3 15 'choirs, plus higher choirs if necessary.
Cornett (also Cornet and Cornetto)
see cornet
see horn
English tongue register with full cup length, often with a capped cup. Similar in sound to a trumpet, very rich in fundamentals, mostly arranged in the swell
English name for a clarinet or krummhorn , mostly 8 'reed stops
French, mostly hollow-voiced crumhorn
Cuculus (only stop)
The effect is a "cuckoo call" (see there )
Eastern European register. It contains 6 to 12 choirs, which sound repetitive in the fifth and sixth octave, whereby the individual choirs usually do not form any harmonic overtones to the basic voices. The sound impression is more of a rustling noise than a tone. See also aliquot register .


German flute
see Viennese flute
English term for a principal 8 ′; comes in an open construction (open diapason) made of metal and wood, but also as a very wider Gedackt ( stopped diapason , mostly made of wood). A 16 'register in the manual is called a double diapason .
see Flauto dolce
see Flauto dolcissimo
(also called Dolzan , Dulkan or Dulzan ) funnel-shaped labial register, mostly 8 ′ or 4 ′, similar to Flauto dolce
Dolz flute
(also Dulzflöte , Dulcianflöte , Dulzianflöte , Amorosa , Lovely flute or Flûte douce called) rare soft, open flute register is usually built in a position 8 'or 4'
Effect register - creates a sound similar to the rumble of thunder. In the Altenberg cathedral organ, also a name for an acoustic 64 'register (from contraposaune 32' and labial 21 13 ') in the pedal
Double flute
(also Flauto doppio or Duiflöte , then) Register of wood, whose pipes each having a meats (labium) on two sides (either over or corner) mostly in 8 'or 4' pitch, usually covered as Doppelgedackt referred . Also made as a double reed flute with a perforated lid with small tubes. This register was developed in the 16th century and is particularly popular in the USA and Galicia.
2 'principal or super octave , more rarely two -choir mixture of open metal pipes or intoxicating fifths
Dui flute
see double flute
(also Dulzan ): see Dolkan
(also called Dulzaina) Spanish 8 'reed register, similar to the Krummhorn , but built en chamade (see there).
(also Dulziana) very soft, tightly bored, weak 8′- string voice, which was invented by the English organ builder Svetzler and whose low octaves are often merged with the 8 ′ covered. Similar in sound to Flauto dolce , but with a clearer string sound .
Dulcian flute
see Dolz flute
see Dulcan
see Dulciana
Dulzian, also Dulcian
Long reed register in 32 ', 16' or 8 'position with narrow bells that are conical at the bottom and cylindrical at the top. Mainly common in northern Germany, there in the 17th and 18th centuries typical Rückpositivzunge in 16 'and 8' positions. In medium-sized organs also as a 16 'reed in the main work. Wide range of different timbres, depending on the pitch (16 ′ or 8 ′), region and time of construction. Of Arp Schnitger brought to perfection, in 8'-position then very full and excellent fundamentals in sound. This form lasted mainly in the Netherlands until the 19th century. From the beginning of the 18th century, in the 16 'position, it was increasingly replaced by the more fundamental bassoon, but the bassoon in the 8' position is very rare. Very rarely, Dulcian (Dulzian) also describes a soft principal with a narrow scale, sometimes similar to a Keraulophon .
Dulcian flute
see Dolz flute
Dulz flute
see Dolz flute


see echo flute
Echo flute
(also echo ) very soft flute of 8 'or 4', either made of wood or metal, sometimes partly or completely covered; sonically similar to the long-distance flute and flauto dolcissimo . The register is often located in a separate swellable wooden box.
Echo cornet
a mostly little choir cornet , which is housed in a box with or without a sill . Missing choirs of 8 'and 4' are then also available as individual stops in the box. It is used alternately with the cornet to create an echo effect.
see Aeoline
en chamade
Rows of pipes protruding frontally from the prospectus (built into the horizontal prospectus), mostly trumpets (compare Spanish trumpet )
Angelic voice
see Vox Angelica
English flute
(also called Flaut angelica ) see recorder
English horn
(also Cor Anglais or head trumpet ) reed register, sonically similar to a tenor oboe
Incomparable conical organ register developed by Ernest M. Skinner in 1904, mostly in 8 'position and in different volume; Tonally balanced between mixture and soft strings, compare also Kleinerzähler
(also Euphon ) 8 ', 4' or 16 'registry, by type of clarinet sound built between oboe , Physharmonica and clarinet to find
see Vox inauditiva


( Tonus Fabri ) either a 2-course mixture or a bell tone , it is a mixed aliquot register
Reed register with naturally long funnel-shaped cups, which are usually closed at the top and provided with holes on the side, in 32 'or 16' position, quieter than trombone, other name: basson . Somewhat more fundamental than the Dulcian . Also available as a 16 'or 8' bassoon in the pedal section.
Bassoon oboe
Register in which the bass range (up to the small b), through the bassoon part (analogous to the bass equivalent of the bassoon for the oboe in the orchestra) and the treble part (from the small b) is played by the oboe, partly with adjustable wind supply to a to achieve even greater tonal effectiveness, see bassoon and oboe , respectively
Field flute
(also field pipe ) small, high flute parts (mostly 4 ′ or 2 ′), medium to narrow scale, tonally similar to the piccolo, flageolet or flautino
Distance flute
very soft 8 'or 4' flute register made of metal or wood. There are both open and covered versions. Compare Flauto Dolcissimo and Echo Flute
Flat flute
Labial register with a wide length and with very wide labia
mostly high 2′- piccolo flute
Spanish term for a principal, usually 16 ′ or 8 ′; not to be confused with Flauto (flute)
Slack angelica
see English flute
(also called Flautina ) open 2 'flute register, sometimes also in 4' or 1 'register; tonally similar to the light pipe , the octavine , the piccolo , field flute or the flageolet register
Flute register, mostly 8 ′ or 4 ′, see recorder
Flauto d'Amore
also called the love flute , soft, lovely 8 'or 4' flute register, usually covered with a light string sound
Flauto di pan
see pan flute
Flauto dolce
(also called lovely flute or dolce ), very soft sounding (recorder) flute, partly with a light string sound, see flauto and name additions , partly synonymous with dolz flute
Flauto dolcissimo
(also called Dolcissimo ) very soft, lovely flute of 16 ′, 8 ′ or 4 ′. The hardwood pipes have narrow, inward-facing mouths and a narrow scale. Sonically it is a very soft flute, even more delicate than the dolce Flauto , otherwise the sound is similar to a Aeoline , remote flute or echo flute .
Flauto doppio
see double flute
Flauto piccolo
see Piccolo
Flauto traverso
see flute
16′-bass register of the flute
Flute (tibia)
Labial register wider length made of wood or metal, 16 'to 2' position, many different designs possible, sometimes also called flauto (Italian for "flute")
Flute principal
wide-bore principal register in 8 ′ position
Flûte à bec
see recorder
Flûte allemande
see German flute
Flûte bouchée
Designation for a covered principal, usually 8 '(see Covered )
Flûte à cheminé
see reed flute
Flûte douce
see Dolz flute
Flûte harmonique
Overblown flute register in wide scale and double length in 8 ', 4' and 2 'positions, as 4' usually referred to as Flûte octaviante , as 2 'as Octavin or Flûte octaviante , often arranged in French swell works, softer and clear sound, compare Oktavin and Flûte octaviante
Flûte octaviante
4′- Flûte harmonique (see there)
Flûte crotchless
see open flute
Flûte traversière
see flute
Flûte triangulaire
Triangle flute (flute whose body has the shape of a prism with a triangular base) with a large flute mouth, hollow, dull sound, less prominent than the hollow flute , mostly 8 ′, sometimes 16 ′.
Term for a three to sixfold mixture (see there), in French organs the general term for a mixture
French horn
see horn
(also Fuchsschwank) see non-acoustic stops
open, bowing labial register, narrow scale, 8 'or 4' position, occurs mostly in the swell , tonally between the viol and the narrow (violin) principal


Gamba or Gamba
open, stringing labial register, narrow scale, 16 'to 4' position, see also viola da gamba
small, soft 4′- viol
(also called Tibia Clausa or covered) covered labial register, different sizes possible, e.g. B. as Lieblich Gedackt narrow, as coarse-dacked wide scale, 32 'to 4' position; sometimes a covered row of principal pipes (flûte bouchée)
see Gedackt
(also Viole) see violin
Violin principal
tightly bored principal 16 'to 4' position
Covered gently
soft covered register of 16 ′ or 8 ′, practically the same as a musician covered or lovely covered (see there)
Conical pipes (wood or metal), 16 'to 2' position, the sound lies between principals and flutes, and depending on the style, is horny, lightly stroking (romanticism) or soft flute sound (renaissance, imitation of the wind instrument of the same name ). The shape of the pipe body is similar to that of the pointed flute . Also exists in the bass as Gemshorn bass 16 ′ or 8 ′.
(also called steel chimes or bell registers ) either real chimes with metal bells, which are operated via a mechanical or electronic device on the keyboard, usually in 4 'or 2' position, or tubular bells or high aliquot mixture 1 35 '+ 1'
Bell tone
(also bell , Glöckleinton , Campana , Campanella , Faberton or Zimbelflöte called) 2 ', 1', or 1 / 2 '-Flötenregister that a chime mimics (see below). It is a mixed aliquot register . However, the register mostly repeats - like a mixture - every octave.
Grand Cornet
Cornet arranged in the Hauptwerk , with wider bores than the other types of cornet. It is usually built from c 1 (2 octaves) and is mainly used to reinforce the reeds that are becoming weaker in the treble in the Grand Jeux. In the lower area this cornet is voiced a little weaker so that the transition is smooth.
Rare pedal register in terms of acoustic bass register 64 '. Is there e.g. B. from a 32 'and a 21 13 ' row of pipes; see also acoustic bass and vox balenae
Great tierce
see major third
Great Gemshorn
see Gemshorn and name suffix "Groß"
Grand principal
see principal and suffix "large"
Major third
(also Big Tierce , Terzbass or Terzbass ) deep third register from the classic French organ, which is an octave lower than the usual pitch ( 1 35 ′) ( 3 15 ′)


The register imitating the instrument of the same name, usually made of small metal or wooden rods that are struck
Harp principal
mostly conical principal register in 16 ', 8' or 4 'position with a narrow scale. When played in staccato, the sound is reminiscent of that of the harp, otherwise of strings.
Harmonia aetheria
2 23 ′ registers narrow scale, three to fourfold (consisting of three / four choirs), usually found on the weakest manual; sonically a discrete mixture with strings sounded ( Streichermixtur ), the intonation is similar to the violin principal s
Harmonica (harmonica)
8 'register of the "violin choir" with a delicate, fine, somewhat stringing tone that is weaker than the Salicional , but slightly surpasses the Aeoline in strength
Hautbois or oboe
French tongue register, mostly 8 ′ with cups indented on top
rarely as a 16 ′, often as a 4 ′ register, mostly in the pedal, similar to a tuba
(also called bright whistle or clear flute ) open 8 'or 4' wooden flute register narrow to medium scale; sonically clearer and brighter than the hollow flute , otherwise similar to the piccolo or the flageolet and octavine registers
Back set
Mixture , mostly not repeating, only containing fifths and octave choirs and usually standing in the pedal (see pedal mixtur ). The name comes from the also non-repeating backseat of the block mechanism thatstoodbehind the prospectus ; in very old organs the higher choirs of the block work, not placed on individual loops, as an early form of the mixture, in southern German organs the term used for a mostly large, deep-set main work mixture until the Renaissance.
Hollow flute
open flute register with cylindrical, sometimes slightly conical pipes, often wood, 8 ′ to 2 ′, various designs; the sound is usually round and filling, but can also be very delicate.
Wooden laughter
(also wood laughter , wood laughter or Hültze Glechter ) usually a mixed Aliquotregister or a single Aliquotregister , structurally similar to a harmonic, usually in combination with 16'-Quintadena used less frequently a wooden chimes . The sound is wooden clinking, as if a spoon were hitting a (wooden) pot, according to Arnolt Schlick around 1500.
Wooden flute
mostly open labial register made of wood, with a wide labium, 8 ′ or 4 ′
Wooden dacked
mostly 8 ′ or 16 ′, wooden register, covered with similar sound
Wooden harmonica
(also called terpodion or wooden harmonica ) delicate, penetrating reeds with or without bell, reed register, mostly 8 ′, tonally similar to the harmonica , only softer. With Eberhard Friedrich Walcker it is a very narrow string register made of wood, very delicate and quiet with an extremely complex overtone spectrum and long response behavior (e.g. Protestant Church in Hoffenheim, Walcker, 1845).
Wooden principal
Open labial register with medium scale length, compare also the principal , 32 '(in the pedal), 16', 8 'and 4', higher registers are rare because the pipes are increasingly difficult to manufacture. Sounded slightly flute-like with a natural, wooden character and overall somewhat softer and more fundamental than a principal made of metal, subtle but clearly perceptible spitting; as a chorale part in the pedal work, often in Seifert, Klais et al. to find
Wooden shelf
Shelf with cups (and / or throats) made of wood. Mostly in an 8 ′ or 4 ′ position.
(also Hörnli ) in the Rhineland and Switzerland, a register similar to the cornet or the sesquialtera ; mostly two choirs from flute and third. The pipes are made of an alloy that contains a lot of lead. The sound is similar to that of the cornet or a horn, hence the name. The register as an equivalent to the cornet and sesquialter is documented as early as the early 16th century. As a French horn or orchestral horn (Cor d'Orchestre), attempts were made to imitate the musical instrument of the same name based on various other lingual pipes such as oboe and trumpet.


Jubal (jubal flute)
(also called tubal or tubal flute ) 8'-, 4'- or 2'-, double-glazed pipes with a bright sound
Jeu céleste
see Vox coelestis


Acoustic signal to ask the Kalkanten to step; inoperative since the electrification of the organ fan
Chamber flute
(also called chamber covered or chamber pitched pitched) rare 8′-pitched register that is tuned a little lower than the rest of the organ, for accompanying other instruments, compare concert pitch
In continental Europe horn-like tongue register (Cavaillé-Coll), similar to the basset horn , in England also aeolin-like string register. Always in the 8 ′ position
often penetrating tongue register with a slightly conical cup; usually occurs in the 8 'position
Small counter
narrow bore, soft relative of the narrator , mostly 8 'or 4' position
Smalled up
(also with small covers) covered labial register, wide length made of metal, sound slightly quintessential and penetrating, mostly in 4 'position
double bass
(also contrabass ) mostly 32 'or 16' bass register, either as strings like violone or as a quieter principal
Concert flute
see flute
Head trumpet
see english horn
(only stops) Playing aids that allow the simultaneous playing of different works on one manual or the playing of the manual registers on the pedal, a special form is the romantic melody coupler (see there)
Coupling flute
Metal, half-closed register, hat with a conical top. Sounded hollow, flute, overtone, 8 ′ or 4 ′, mostly only used in the New Baroque
Cornet , also cornet or cornett (labial)
Mixed labial register, 3-fold to 7-fold, always containing thirds, mostly 5-fold, consisting of 8 ′ + 4 ′ + 2 23 ′ + 2 ′ + 1 35 ′, non-repetitive, usually wide , so no crown of sound . The sound is horn-like, round and filling. Grand Cornet (see there) consists of a mixture of overblowing flutes in 8 ′ + 4 ′ + 2 23 ′ + 2 ′ + 1 35 ′ pitch. A cornet is often set up on a bench (see there), that is, on a pipe stick that does not lie directly on the wind chest but is connected to it by conductors. In instruments influenced by the organ movement there are also more exotic compositions, often for example the seventh cornet (compare there). In smaller organs of the late romantic period, a so-called cornet mixture is occasionally found as the highest voice , i.e. a repeating cornet (usually three- horned with 2 23 '+ 2' + 1 35 'in the lowest register). Often only developed in the middle and high areas. For more information on the different types of cornets and the structural designs, see Cornet (Organ) . Other types of cornet are Basszink , Nasardos , Echokornett , Corneta (compare there) as well as Cornet de Récit , Cornet in positive , Cornet d'Écho , Cornet décomposé and the dismantled cornet .
Cornet (lingual)
Reed part in 2′-position in the pedal after trumpet design. Often found as a cantus firmus part in the pedal in northern German organs up to the middle of the 18th century.
Tongue registers with cylindrical cups in half or full length, 8 ′, less often 16 ′ or 4 ′. The register is one of the oldest known reed voices and mimics the sound of the woodwind instrument of the same name . In French baroque organs it is usually to be found in the (back) positive and is often very wide and intoned with a somewhat hollow sound. In romantic organ building it is tightly bored and voiced with a light stroke, which means that its sound is not so close to the woodwind instrument of the same name.
Short tongue register in 8 'position, sounds cheeky, relatively powerful. Execution also with lid, then nasal, mild.
Cuckoo call (also cuculus)
only stop, effect: imitation of a cuckoo call


far mensurierte fifth 1 1 / 3 ', also smaller Nasat called
Lovely flute
see Flauto dolce or Dolz flute (depending on the design) or flute and name affix "lovely"
Love flute
see Flauto d'Amore
Love violin
see Viole d'amour
Lovely covered
(also Lieblich Gedackt or Lieblich Bourdon ): soft, delicate covered register, compare there and see name additions
a Gedackt with a hole in the middle of the lid. It can also be viewed as a reed flute without a reed , usually in an 8 ', 4' or 2 'position. Reed flutes are sometimes completely or partially perforated because of their similar sound. In terms of sound, the register lies between the open night horn and the reed flute .


Sea flute
(also sea ​​calm ) see Unda Maris
also called melodica, open wooden register, usually in 8 'position; warm, soft sound; flowing demarcation to forest, hollow, traverse, love and suabe flute.
Melody coupling
Romantic coupling that amplifies the upper part of a chord so that the top key of the chord sounds an octave higher on the same manual. With the melody coupler I to II, the melody sounds on the second manual.
Metal flute
Labial register wide length made of metal.
a sound crown (see also Acuta , Scharff and Zimbel ), mostly consisting only of octaves and fifths ("silver" sound), in southern Germany and occasionally in central Germany there are also terzoid designs ("golden" sound), sometimes with other timbres (such as a string mixture). For more information see also sound crowns .
Minor third
a fake ( 1 45 ′ or 3 35 ′) or real ( 1619 ′) aliquot register , in principle or as a flute
in French organ building a principal , which is in the prospectus , usually 16 ′ or 8 ′
Tongue registers (mostly 16 ′ or 8 ′), with narrow, tapered beakers, tonally similar to a crumhorn, based on the musical instrument of the same name, musette
Covered for musicians
(also music Covered , Musiziergedackt ) 8 'or 4' Covered register, very soft sound, similar Gelindgedeckt or Sweetly Covered


Night horn
open or closed flute register with usually cylindrical metal pipes. Often built with a very wide length and a very narrow labium since the organ began to move. It has a very soft and quiet sound, 16 'to 1'.
(only stop, and Rossignol , Rosignol , bird cry , bird calls , birdsong ) effect: birdsong and bird calls, generated by two small open pipes that are installed overhead to the vicinity of the labium in a water bath. The water surface is set in motion by the wind pressure and the labium of the pipes is irregularly clogged with water, which imitates a chirping.
in Spanish organs a cornet- like register, always containing a third , only for the bass half of the manual. For the same Diskanthälfte Manuals then always Corneta exist.
Nasat or Nasard
Wide-bored fifth register 2 23 ′, often conical or as a reed flute (often referred to as “Rohrnasat”) or built covered.
an aliquot register , mostly in the 89 'position (the 9th partial tone related to 8'), especially popular in the heyday of the organ movement in the 1950s and 1960s. Often removed again in later redesigns.


Tongue register with funnel-shaped cups, first narrow then further above, partly covered above, mostly 8 ′, see also Hautbois
Open flute
(also Flûte ouvert ) sometimes used as a synonym for Clarabella . 8 'or 4' register, with wider bores than the principal, not overblowing, warm, round sound
Octave bass
Principal register in the pedal, made of wood or metal, mostly 8 ′
(in 2 ′ and 1 ′ positions also: super octave, octave, octave) Principal register in a higher position than the principal of the corresponding work, (octave 8 ′ if principal 16 ′), 16 ′ to 1 ′
(also Octavin ) bright, clear 2 ' flute harmonique , very rarely synonymous with a super octave
(also Ophikleide ) very strong, loud 16 'or 8' register with thin and wide reeds and tuba-like intonation, tonally between trombone and bassoon , similar to the original instrument .
Orchestra flute
(also orchestral pipe) compare transverse flute
Spanish 8'-tongue register, sonically similar to the shelf , musette or shawm , structurally a shelf with short, cylindrical cups, often also en chamade (protruding horizontally from the prospectus)


pan flute
(also called Flauto di Pan ) rare 2 'or 1' flute register, which imitates the musical instrument of the same name
Covered 8 'or 4' register in the manual or 16 'register in the pedal. Developed by Hans Henny Jahnn drone (see below). It is tonally heavy, quiet, simple-minded and poor in overtones. The name is derived from the related, also covered registers pan flute and drone . The scale length is wide in the bass and becomes increasingly narrow in the treble, which is why the sound varies from dull in the bass range to bright, clear (similar to a panpipe).
Pedal mixture
(mostly deep, heavy) mixture in the pedals
ancient name for a 16 'register, similar to the drone
Mechanism with which a piano can be operated via the organ keyboard, partly in the swell, mostly in 16 ', 8' or 4 'position; usually only in cinema or concert organs.
(also piccolo flute or flauto piccolo ) open 2 'or 1' flute. If it is to imitate the sound of the orchestra flute of the same name, the register is also called an orchestral piccolo. The sound is similar to that of the Flageolet , Hellpfeife , Oktavin or also the dwarf pipe registers .
(Gr. "Nightingale") circular cold cuts, rather flat sound similar to that of the transverse flute. Rarely found; more often with Walcker and Mauracher, mostly than 8 ′.
rare 16 'or 8' flute, very rarely also 4 ', tonal a soft quintad , partly light string sound . The register was invented by Hope-Jones at the end of the 19th century and manufactured by JW Whiteley.
Special reed register made of penetrating reeds based on a harmonium register (so-called game), without bell, very often in highly romantic and late romantic organ building e.g. B. realized at Eberhard Friedrich Walcker. An original from 1846 is still in the organ of the church in Hoffenheim. Mostly with its own wind swell, so that the sound can be increased from extreme pianissimo to plenum.
see Piffaro
see Piffaro
see Piffaro
(also called Biffara , Biffaro , Bifara , Bifora , Bifra , Pifara , Pifarra , Piffara , Tibia bifara or Tibia bifaris ) partly principal whistles, but mostly sounded with clear strings , sometimes as a second voice for a beat , usually then in 4′- and 2′-position, as 8 ′ usually only from c ° or a °; sometimes also to imitate the Italian wind instrument piffero / piffaro
Plein jeu
(French for "full game") French for large mix, also French term for the labial plenum
Register combination of principal and mixtures
mostly a covered, wide 16 'or 8' register, tonally between Gedackt and Quintatön
(also Portunalflute , Portunalpfeife or Portune ) 8 'or 4' register of the flute choir, occurs open or covered. The material is usually wood. The sound is gentle, clarinet-like.
Reed stops in medium-sized scale, with naturally long funnel-shaped beakers in 32 'or 16' positions, sometimes 8 '(especially in the southern German Baroque), mostly in the pedal, apart from high pressure registers and horizontal trumpets often the loudest register of an organ; blaring, solemn sound, but mostly (especially in 32 'position) weaker than the similarly used Bombarde. In smaller organs, the trombone 16 ′ is often voiced with a fundamental tone and less loud, the use of wooden beakers favors this intonation. If there is no principal 16 'together with sub-bass 16', it serves as a bass foundation for the plenum of the main work.
(also prefix) mostly synonymous with the principal , especially when it is in the prospectus ; in France as a Prestant term for the octave 4 ′.
Cylindrical open labial register of medium length, most important register family of every organ, 16 ′ to 1 ′, in the pedal also 32 ′ (French register name: Montre ). Prospect pipes are usually principals, they are then often called Praestant (see there),
Principal beat
Beating (see there) principally built rows of pipes, mostly 8 ′.
Progressio Harmonica
(also called progressio or progressive harmonica) low-lying mixture , non-repeating, primarily arranged in romantic organs. Named after the number of choirs, which increases rapidly across the keyboard; it may well be 1–8fold. The strong emphasis on the treble register makes it suitable for special sound effects and also for emphasizing a melody in the upper part.
Pyramid flute
see pointed flute


see intoxication fifth
see intoxication fifth
Aliquot register at which the fourth sounds, more rarely a quart mixture
Sixth quartzimbel
Special type of cymbal . The construction method, also known as the “Model Cappel”, is carried out as follows: The repetitions are made on every C and every F. The notes f 4 , a 4 and c 5 sound on every F , which corresponds to a major chord in its basic position. Since the three choirs are purely voiced, they are harmonic overtones to the basic voices, as is also the case with a third cymbal. The major chord in its basic position sounds on each of the notes F to H. On each C, the three notes f 4 , a 4 and c 5 sound again , which corresponds to a major chord in the fourth position , whereby the notes f 4 and a 4 have no harmonic overtones Basic voices are. The major chord in the fourth position sounds on each of the notes C to E.
(also Flauto traverso , traversière Flûte , concert flute , orchestral flute , fife , soldiers flute or transverse flute called) often überblasendes , open flute-hardwood double of body length. It mimics the sound of the woodwind instrument of the same name . The register usually has an 8 'or 4' position, and also exists in the pedals as a 16 'bass ( flute bass or flautotraversbass ).
Also quintades , quintades or quintatones , narrowly scaled Gedackt with particularly low cut, very pronounced 3rd partial tone (fifth), 16 'to 4' register. With the expression of the fifth partial tone (third) with an even narrower scale one speaks of the rare register "Tiercina" or "Terzadena" (see there). In medium-sized northern European baroque organs, the quintadena often forms the 16 'part in the main work, but was replaced in this function by the drone in the course of the 18th century .
an aliquot register of 5 13 ′, 2 23 ′ or 1 13 ′, for the formation of acoustic registers of 21 13 ′ or 10 23 ′ in the pedal, in principle with 2 23 ′ or 1 13 ′ belonging to the principal choir (no aliquot register).
see Quintadena


Short-beaker tongue voice, mostly 16 ′, stronger in sound than most shelves. In one design, the covered wooden cups are provided with numerous small holes on the side walls. The register mimics the sound of the woodwind instrument of the same name .
Mixed voice, usually from 2 ′ and 1 13 ′, since the high pitches do not occur, the register is not repetitive. The sound is high to shrill, sometimes a bit rustling, otherwise flute-like. In organs of the second half of the 20th century, this is also the name for a pedal mix.
Intoxication quarte
see intoxication fifth
Intoxicating fifth
principal mixed voice (2 to 3 courses) from 2 23 ′ and 2 ′ or 2 23 ′ and 1 13 ′; similar in sound to the Rauschpfeife , but with a stronger emphasis on the fifth. The synonyms Quartan or noise fourth stir of Quart interval between the two choirs ago.
often synonymous with Rauschpfeife or noise fifth , rarer than clear reeds similar to a trumpet or a two-chöriges register from a flute and a reed
Tongue register with short cups of different shapes in 16'-, 8'- or 4'-position. B. funnel , button and trumpet shelf . See also shelf (musical instrument) . The breastwork that emerged in the Renaissance is, in terms of the history of ideas, a set of shelves attached to the organ, so up to the Baroque period the shelf was mainly found in the breastwork, and during the Renaissance it was often only supplemented by a few higher-lying, wide-bore labial registers and a double cymbal.
Reed flute
half-covered labial register, a tube is soldered to the lid of the hat, which causes the characteristic brightening of the sound color, usually 8 'or 4'.
Tube bare
(also covered with tube ): flute stops in 16 ', 8' or 4 'positions. Design very similar to a reed flute , but the tube is longer and the tone darker than that of a reed flute.
Cane fifth
an aliquot register in the shape of a reed flute (usually 2 23 ′)
emerged only in the 20th century; a representative of the lingual plenum with sound between krummhorn and shawm
(also Rosignol ) compare nightingale


open string part, mostly used in the 4′-position in the Romantic period in the main work, more rarely also in 8 ′ or as a salicet bass 16 ′ in the pedal of German-Romantic organs
(from Latin salix , "willow"; also Salizional), see willow pipe . The salicional of French-Romantic organs corresponds to the German violin principal .
Soft flute
soft flute, mostly 4 ′, similar to the tender flute or Vienna flute .
Gently covered
soft 8 'or 4' covered register, compare also the suffix “gentle”.
Tongue register, usually 8 'or 4', cylindrical cups with a strongly conical attachment at the top of the cup or conical cups, e.g. T. also with a strongly conical attachment at the top of the cup. The register mimics the sound of the Renaissance shawl.
Sharp, also sharp or acuta
high sound crown (see also Acuta , Mixtur and Zimbel ) with a narrow scale and a bright and penetrating tone, mostly consisting of octaves and fifths. In the time of classical organ building, the Scharff was only known in northern and northeastern Europe. For Joachim Wagner , the Scharff was a major work mixture containing terz. In southern German organs, sound crowns with a similar composition are called a mixture or cimbel.
Reed pipe
mentioned only once in Silesia, possibly a Salizional
Snarling whistle
The reed register without beaker, space-saving but rough sound, was mainly used in old organs if there was little space available or the organ should be portable. Also a general term for lingual pipes .
Nicely covered
8 ′ wooden flute. Sonically, it resembles the Covered or far mensurierten Sweetly Covered .
Beautiful principal
a lovely principal (see there and compare name additions )
(also Schreyer , Schryari , Kleinschreier or Schreierpfeife ) either a synonym for Bärpfeife (which comes closest to the original instrument) or, more rarely, a term for a 2- or 3-course acuta ( cymbal ) with shrill overtones. As a triple cymbal mixture, the register is usually in 1 ' , 12 ' and 14 'pitches, as a double cymbal, on the other hand, usually in 2 ' and 1 'positions.
mostly two 8 'registers, often with a string sound, sometimes also with pipes built on principle (see principal beat ) which are slightly detuned against each other; create a beat (Unda maris, Voix celeste, Vox coelestis, Vox angelica and others), usually two separate stops.
(from Old High German suegala : "shin bone", also Schweitzerpfeiff , Schweitzerpfeife or Zwerchpfeife ) is the original form of the transverse flute
an aliquot register , usually 1 17 ′; largely unknown before the 19th century
Seventh cornet
a cornet with an additional seventh choir 1 17 ′. It is usually done 7 times with 8 ′ + 4 ′ + 2 23 ′ + 2 ′ + 1 35 ′ + 1 13 ′ + 1 17 ′.
16′-reed register with a weaker tone than the trombone and little "snarling". Walcker built these voices into the pedals of the smaller series organs of the 1880s, whereby there were no harmonium reeds here, but separate pipes in a small wooden case. The register mimics the musical instrument of the same name .
Sesquialtera , also sesquialter
It is usually built like a principle and in two rows from a fifth and a third ( 2 23 ′ + 1 35 ′).
Sifflute or Sifflet
(also sifflot , sufflot , subflute ) Flute register with mostly cylindrical pipes wide length, which only occurs in the high pitches of 2 ′ and 1 ′, sharp and penetrating tone
Soldier flute
see flute
Usually a short reed register of 16 ′ or 8 ′ (rarely also 32 ′), similar to the Rankett; very rarely a flute register of 16 'or 8', probably due to confusion with the register drone. In neo-baroque small and house organs often built as a pedal part for reasons of space
Spanish trumpet
(also called trompette en chamade or just chamade ) horizontally, usually in the prospectus, attached trumpet ( en chamade ). A fully developed Chamade work contains Spanish trumpets in the positions 16 ′ treble, 8 ′ bass / treble, 4 ′ bass / treble and 2 ′ bass, whereby the division point bass / treble in the area of ​​the c 1 key (in Iberian baroque organs always at c 1 / cis 1 ).
Capstan flute
8 ', 4' or 2 'metal register, tonally between pointed and reed flute; the name comes from the pipe shape, similar to a spindle
Pointed flute
(also called pyramid flute ) conical open labial register not too wide, 8 ′ to 2 ′, the pipes of which taper towards the top. The construction is similar to that of the Gemshorn . The tone is light but not very strong. Eberlein suspects that the name pyramid flute goes back to Carl Kützing, who describes it in the 2nd edition (from 1843) in the "Theoretical-practical manual of organ building art " .
Black viola
conical viol or viola how the partials reinforced when Gemshorn five to seven
(also pointed Covered ) covered or 8'-4'-flute made of wood, sometimes also conical metal pipes, sound between Covered and Spitz flute
Pointed fifth
an aliquot register in the shape of a pointed flute, usually 1 13
Steel game
rare synonym for a carillon (see there)
(also Stillgedackt ) soft 8 'or 4' covered register made of wood, compare Barem
various flue stops with string sound, for example viol ( viol ), violin , bass
String floating
see beat
Suabe Flute
Open 8 'flute made of wood with inner labium, 19th century in England
Sub bass
important cackled labial register in the pedal, occurs in almost every organ in the 16 ′ position, in larger organs also 32 ′, there usually referred to as a pedestal , the sound is very poor in overtones, dark and indefinite
see sif flute
see sif flute
Super octave
A term for a 1'- or 2'-principal register, if there are already lower principal registers in a work, strictly speaking the octave above the octave, e.g. B. Principal 8 ', Octave 4', Super Octave 2 '
8 'or 4' register, conical open metal pipes with a muffled string sound, related to the narrator and the Gemshorn
Synthematophon 8 ′
Strong tone voice of the principal choir with double labia facing each other (voice patented by Walcker, patent approx. 1902-04)


see wooden harmonica
(also Tierce) an aliquot register , mostly as a flute, rarely in principle, 6 25 ′, 3 15 ′, 1 35 ′, 45
Third bass
see major third
Third bass
see major third
Terzadena (also Tiercina )
Very tightly scaled Gedackt with particularly low cut, very pronounced 5th partial tone (third), 16 'to 4' register. The expression of the third partial tone (fifth) with a slightly wider scale is called a "quintadena" (see there). In contrast to the Quintadena, however, the Tiercina is extremely rare.
Example of a Terzian
The third is a mixed aliquot register . The register is made up of a third and a fifth above as a third ( 1 35 ′ + 1 13 ′). The third sometimes repeats in the major octave at 45 ′ + 23 ′. The design with 3 15 ′ + 2 23 ′ is less common . The scale of the Terzian (also Tertian ) is mostly flute-like, but in Germany in particular there are also principal scale lengths.
(Latin: flute) see flute , under the name Tibia as a basic register with covered wooden pipes in almost every cinema organ
Tibia bifara
see Piffaro
Tibia bifaris
(Latin: double speaking flute) see Pifarra
Tibia clausa
(lat .: closed flute) see Covered
Tibia silvestris
(lat .: forest flute) see forest flute
see third
In Spanish organs, the tolosana is a stop only for the treble half of the manual, which is made up of a third and a fifth. The most common design is 3 15 ′ + 2 23 ′. The design with 5 13 ′ + 3 15 ′ is less common . It is a mixed aliquot register . See also Terzian .
Tonus Fabri
see Faberton
Transverse flute
see transverse flute , also exists as a 16′-bass ( transverse flute bass or flautotraversbass )
(only stop), effect: tremolo
8 'or 4' string register with extremely weak intonation, even weaker than Dulciana , but otherwise the two are comparable
a three-course, non-repeating mixture with open metal flutes, similar to the two-course doublet
an Italian shelf with rectangular beakers (rarely), or Italian for small trombones with shortened attachments, rarely also built horizontally
engl. or Italian for trumpet, see there
Bass beat with a “thumping” effect similar to a bass drum or a real bass drum, which is usually operated with a pedal button
Tongue registers with naturally long, funnel-shaped beakers in 16 ', 8' or 4 'positions, also 2' or 1 'in the pedal, then usually called a cornet, built in almost every major work, blaring, loud sound, especially in French or Spanish Intonation. On large organs often fully developed from 16 'to 4'. The Spanish trumpet (also called trompette en chamade ) is a special form .
Trompette en Chamade
French name for the Spanish trumpet
Trumpet Harmonique
A trumpet of French design invented by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll with double bell length, mostly in Récit , the throats are often covered with leather to soften the sound
Reed register (usually 16 ′ or 8 ′), which imitates the instrument of the same name , see also Helikon
Tubal (tubal flute)
see Jubal


Unda maris
(Latin sea ​​wave ) (also called sea ​​calm and sea flute) a beat register with rows of pipes in different designs (flutes or strings, wood or metal), in contrast to the vox coelestis (string movement), often floating underneath, goes back to the Italian principal beats, was already in cultivated southern German baroque
rare, mixed cymbal register (3-fold) with different choirs for CDEF # G # A # ( 29 ′  211 ′  215 ′) and C # D # FGAH ( 29 ′  210 ′  213 ′) That repeat differently. It was invented by Helmut Bornefeld in the early 1960s, in 1961 for the Ev. Stadtkirche Schorndorf (Walcker) and in 1964 for the Church of St. Martin, Kassel (Bosch, since 2015 in St. Elisabeth ). When playing a scale, for example, the result is a restless, glittering effect
mostly covered pedal register in 32 ', occasionally also 16' position, often built as an extension , so that only the lowest twelve pipes are required and the higher notes are taken from an identical register that sounds an octave higher, with the covered 32 ' -Version mostly the pipes of the Subbass 16 ′ are used for the higher tones, naming because of the placement lower than the other registers, often behind the pedal wind chest


(only register pull / switch) Latin for "wind", as the Kalkanten call is used today as an "on / off" switch. Difficult to find for non-organists. Also known as the series name for organ blowers from a leading organ supplier.
open labial register narrow scale, 8 ′, 4 ′, rarely also 2 ′, strings sounded
Viola da gamba
(also Viola di Gamba ) Labial register, mostly conical, but also cylindrical and belonging to the string family and with a sharp, striking tone, very narrow scale, one of the few strings that appeared in the Renaissance, at that time with the aim of producing the sound of the same name Imitating a string instrument , compare also viol
Viole d'amour
The love violin is structurally identical to the viol string register , but receives less wind and therefore has a tonally less stroke.
(also Viole ) 16 ', 8' or 4 'labial register, which mimics the sound of the violin ; tender, bright strings sounded
(also violonbass or violone ) string part of 16 ′, rarely also 32 ′ or 8 ′, mostly in the pedal, compare also double bass , not to be confused with the Spanish violón register (Gedackt)
8 'or 16'-pedal register of tin, zinc, or wood, similar to the register strings viol imitates the sound of the musical instrument of the same after.
Voce umana
In Italian organs from the 16th to 18th centuries an 8 'principal beat from c 1 / c sharp 1 (synonym for Piffaro (beat)). See also Vox humana .
Bird scream
(also bird cry , bird calls , birdsong ) see Nachtigall
Vox angelica or angel's voice
Labial register with a narrow scale, often as a 4 'supplement to a floating 8' register
Vox balenae
(Latin "voice of the whale") 64 'register; Acoustic register from the interconnection of a 32 ′ register and a fifth 21 13
Vox coelestis or Voix céleste
(Latin or French "heavenly voice") (also called Jeu céleste or Celestina ) Beat register, narrow scale ("strings"), mostly floating higher, almost always 8 ′. Also called Celestiana as a 4 'register .
Vox humana
(French voix humaine, Latin “human voice”) short-cup tongue register, mostly 8 ′, less often 16 ′, with different cup shapes, but always short essays. The cups are usually made of nickel silver or brass . The sound should be reminiscent of the singing human voice. The Vox Mystica is a special form (see there). See also Voce umana .
Vox Mystica
Special form of the Vox Humana , lingual register with a cylindrical cup designed like a bell; very soft sound with some shrill overtones.


Forest flute (also called tibia silvestris )
wide-bored labial register of different types, mostly 2 ′
Willow pipe
open labial register narrow scale, delicate stroke, usually 16 ′ or 8 ′, see also Salicional
Viennese flute
Wooden flute, with a soft sound similar to a bright, lovely-soft flute ( Flauto dolce ), usually 8 ′ or 4 ′. Similar in sound to a transverse flute or soft flute . The register can be combined well with an oboe .


Subtle bass
tender-lovely 16′-covered (compare lovely covered or lovely bourdon ) in the pedal work, sometimes also as a transmission from other partial works . Sometimes also as a sub-bass with reduced wind supply . For the prefix “Zart-” see also name additions .
Soft flute
muted flute, mostly 8 ′ or 4 ′, structurally and tonally similar to the viol , only more delicate (see additions to name ); sometimes classified as a lovely quintad .
Magic Flute
harmonic, covered 8'-, 4'- or 2'-flute. It was developed by Michell and Thynne of London in the late 19th century. The flute, which is usually made as a metal pipe, sounds full, flowing and tenderly lovely with a slight tendency towards the sound of strings.
(old spellings: Cimbel , Cimbal , Cymbel , Zymbel ; also called Acuta ) highest mixed voice and sound crown (see also Acuta , Mixtur and Scharff ), which imitates the Zimbelstern labially. The cymbal is usually filled with the smallest pipes with a narrow scale and very high pitch. The sound moves at the upper tone limit and is glittering bright. Today, it is often used to supplement the principal plenum in the highest registers in the main work (in terms of the history of ideas borrowed from the French and Central German organ building, in northern European organs the higher choirs of divided main work crowns were usually called "Sharp" designated). In other sub-works often containing a third (in organs from the 1950s and 1960s also with higher overtone series) and arranged as a high color mixture, in this design mostly only intended in modern organs as part of a principal plenum. In Renaissance organs often with two or three instrumentation in combination with short-bellied reeds in 8 'and 4' positions in the breastwork or, if this is missing, in the Rückpositiv. In south, west or central German organs, it is often used simply as a designation for a sound crown in the positive that is higher than the main work mixture.
Cymbal flute
see bell tone
see Cymbelki
(only stop), accompanying glockenspiel, sometimes several with different speeds and pitches.
(also called cynk or prong ) reed register with funnel-shaped attachment mostly in 2 'position, tart sound. It is based on the original instrument of the same name .
see cymbal
see Cymbelki

Additions to names

(more often than afterthought bass ) A register in the pedals or a register only for the bass half of the manual, usually with the manual divided into treble and bass
as a prefix when using a high proportion of lead (e.g. lead-coated) to color the sound
(or as an afterword cantus ) A register only for the treble half of the manual, usually with the manual divided into treble and bass
  1. a register with labial pipes, each with two labia
  2. a register with wooden labial pipes, in which the two pipes for a key are rigidly connected to one another via a common wall. The pipes are either in unison or octave apart, with the lower octave covered and the upper octave open
  3. a register with two labial pipes for each key, which are either in unison or octave apart
Register with a very soft sound, similar to an echo flute (see there)
Fuller in sound and usually also louder than the register of the same name without a prefix, often with wider bores than the register of the same name without a prefix
mostly the same meaning as Kontra , but often for registers in the main work, for example Großgemshorn
Wooden pipes for labial registers, wooden cups for lingual registers; The sound is often a bit more fundamental than otherwise identical registers with metal pipes or metal cups
sounds an octave higher than the same register without a prefix, e.g. B. Gedackt 8 ′ → Kleinedackt 4 ′
Contra (also contra)
sounds an octave lower than the same register without a prefix, for example principal 8 ′ → counter principal 16 ′. Kontra usually refers to a register of 16 'or 32', often in the pedals
The sound is more delicate and mostly also quieter than the register of the same name without an attachment, often with a narrower gauge than the register of the same name without an attachment
(rare attachment) metal pipes at labial registers
sounds an octave higher than the same register without this addition, e.g. B. Octave bass
see lovely or tender
see lovely
(or only HD - high pressure register ) an increased wind pressure makes the pipes sound louder, only became interesting with the use of electric wind machines. → stentor .
(rare prefix) sounds two octaves lower than the same register without prefix or one octave lower than the same contra register, e.g. B. Principal 8 '→ Counter-Principal 16' → Sub-Counter-Principal 32 '. Subcontra usually refers to a register of 32 'or (very rarely) 64' in the pedal work
usually the same meaning as lovely or even to emphasize an even softer sound


Web links

Commons : Organ register  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Notes and individual references

  1. Roland Eberlein: Orgelregister, their names and their history , Cologne 2008, p. 477. Quoted from: Roman Schmeißner: Orgelbau in Salzburger Wallfahrtskirchen , Duisburg & Cologne: WiKu-Verlag 2015, ISBN 978-3-86553-446-0 , P. 292, note 925.