|english , italian , french tuba|
|Historic (around 1900) and modern (2004) F tuba|
|List of tuba players|
The tuba ( Latin for "pipe, tube"; plural tubes or tubas ) is the lowest of all common brass instruments . It has an upward-pointing bell, a beaker mouthpiece, three to six valves and, due to its wide length and the correspondingly strongly conical tube, generally made of brass, belongs to the family of the bow horns .
"Tuba" was the name for a brass or bronze wind instrument in the Roman Empire . It had the shape of a straight, elongated tube with a narrow bell, similar to a fanfare , and probably corresponded to the Greek salpinx .
Today, a tuba is the bass instrument of the bow-horn family . The first tubes were developed in Berlin around 1835 shortly after the invention of valve technology . Wilhelm Wieprecht and Carl Wilhelm Moritz received a patent this year for a bass tuba in F with five valves. The double bass tuba in Bb and C was developed by Václav František Červený in 1845 and patented in 1846.
The bass and double bass tuba are used equally in the orchestra. In the orchestra, the tuba is usually single, more rarely double. Whether a part is played with the bass or double bass tuba is usually decided by the tuba player himself based on factors such as the required pitch, volume or timbre, the wishes of the conductor, the room acoustics and the like. However, some composers, such as Richard Wagner, dictate the design. An orchestral tubist in German-speaking countries has to master both designs with virtuosity. In the Scandinavian countries, England, France and large parts of America as well as Australia, the double bass tuba in C is mainly used. The alternative to the bass tuba in F in these countries is an Eb tuba.
Technology and moods
The main feature of the tuba is the strong expansion of the tube (wide scale ) in a ratio of up to 1:20 from the mouthpiece to the bell of the instrument.
When seated, the tuba rests on the thighs of the wind player, for smaller tuba players with particularly large instruments also on the chair itself. A special stand, shoulder strap or tuba belt ( Tubabelt ) is required to play while standing . The funnel usually points upwards and usually slightly to the left in the version with rotary valves or to the right in the version with Périnet valves (as seen from the player).
The fingers of the right hand are on the first three to five valves . The instrument is supported with the left hand and, depending on the construction, up to three additional valves are pressed for better intonation .
The tuba is played with a kettle mouthpiece.
The natural tones of the Bb tuba are:
- B 2 - B 1 - F - B - d - f - (as) - b - c 1 - d 1 - (e 1 ) - f 1 etc.
Eb tuba :
- Es 1 - Es - B - es - g - b - (des 1 ) - es 1 - f 1 - g 1 - (a 1 ) - b 1 etc.
F tuba :
- F 1 - F - c - f - a - c 1 - (es 1 ) - f 1 - g 1 - a 1 - (h 1 ) - c 2 etc.
The tones mentioned in brackets can only be used to a limited extent, as they differ significantly from the corresponding tones that are equally tuned .
The fundamental tone or the lowest natural tone is also known as the "pedal tone". This can only be voiced on the tuba because it has a wide length . In practice, the player needs a lot of air and his breathing support to stimulate the standing wave of the fundamental in the tuba.
The tuba has a usable range of more than four octaves .
The notation is not uniform in international comparison: In Germany, Italy and England, notation is sounding (i.e. not transposing) in the bass clef. In France, Belgium and the Netherlands, the bass clef is transposed (bass tuba in F sounds a fifth lower than notated). In Switzerland, the treble clef is transposed (bass tuba in F sounds an octave plus fifth lower than notated).
- Bass tuba in Eb or F: It is the most common construction of the tuba, has a tube length of about 398 cm and about the same position as the double bass and the bassoon .
- Double bass tuba in B or C: Largest and deepest of the common tubes with a tube length of about 541 cm. A very wide-bored form of the double bass tuba in Bb is the so-called imperial bass . This tuba in Bb has a base tube length of 580 cm, including all valve bends, the vibrating air column is extended to 966 cm (without quart valve).
- Double tuba in B / F or C / F: combination of bass and double bass tuba (with tuning valve, as an additional switch valve).
- Sub -double bass tuba in Bb: This instrument sounds an octave lower than the Bb double bass tuba. The deepest natural tone is the B 3 . This means that the lowest notes of the instrument already reach into the sub - sub-octave below the hearing limit . Sub-contrabass tubes are rarely built as individual orders. The basic pipe length is 1160 cm, with all valve bends an enormous 1932 cm (without quart valve).
- Bombardon today generally refers to a deep, powerful bass tuba. The Viennese instrument maker Joh. Riedl named his twelve-key ophicleide in 1820 . By installing valves, he later circumvented Carl Wilhelm Moritz's patent and thus created a narrow, fully conical bass instrument. Especially in the popular and literary area, this name has been consolidated to this day.
- Helicon , mostly tuned in Eb: Lying around the upper body, "slung" around the neck, played bass or double bass tuba with an approximately circularly wound tube, which is used in brass bands and earlier in church trombone choirs and was probably first built in Russia in 1845. Also "equestrian instrument" of the military, great sonorous sound.
- Sousaphone : Modification of the helicopter with a somewhat larger and forward curved bell; mostly used as a two-part instrument (machine + body / funnel). The original form of the Sousaphone, with the funnel pointing upwards, wassuggestedby John Philip Sousa for the brass and big bands of the American military, because Sousa wanted to distribute the bass better.
- A tuba used from around 1908 is named as a knapsack tuba, the tight winding of which resulted in a small instrument that was designed for military musicians . The compact design ensured that the Austro-Hungarian regimental musicians could take their bass instruments with them into the field or into maneuvers, in the so-called infantry knapsacks .
- As Marschtuba or Marching tuba a tuba is referred to, having the usual handle, but a customized mouth tube has in order to play on the right shoulder lying, wherein the bell is aligned to the front. This design is preferred in military music or marching bands .
- An elongated tuba without valves can be found in the Markneukirchen Musical Instrument Museum . The oversized bell was made as a masterpiece by a Markneukirchen master in 1913. Intended as a showpiece, the playable instrument was carried on pageants.
Instrumentation in orchestral formations
- In the romantic symphony orchestra , one or two tubes are often occupied.
- On July 8, 2007, 286 tuba players made music together in Winterstettenstadt . You set a new Guinness world record .
Compositions for tuba (selection)
- Kalevi Aho : Concerto for tuba and orchestra (2000/01)
- Malcolm Arnold : Fantasy for Tuba solo
- Leonard Bernstein : Waltz for Mippy III
- Eugène Bozza : Concertino pour Tuba en Ut et orchester ou piano
- Franz Cibulka : Concerto for tuba quartet
- Crister Danielsson : Capriccio da Camera; Concertante Suite
- Morton Feldman : Durations 3 for tuba, violin and piano (1961)
- Stephan Foremny : Sonatina for tuba and piano (1983), Allegretto for tuba and piano (2002), From Alpha to Omega - 24 easy pieces for trumpet in Bb and tuba in C (2004)
- Kurt Gäble : Tuba Concerto Español
- John Golland : Tuba Concerto op.46 (1980)
- Edward Gregson : Concerto for Tuba and Brass Band ; Alarum for Solo Tuba
- Paul Hindemith : Sonata for bass tuba and piano (1955)
- Joseph Horovitz : Concerto for Tuba and Brass Band
- Bertold Hummel : Sonatina for bass tuba and piano op.81a (1983)
- Bertold Hummel : 3 Bagatelles for tuba and piano op.95h (1993)
- Julius Jacobsen : Tuba buffo, concerto for tuba; Tuba Ballet
- Dirk-Michael Kirsch : Concerto op.11 for tuba and orchestra (2003)
- Erland von Koch : Monologue No. 9
- Günter Kochan : Seven miniatures for four tubes (1977)
- Helmut Lachenmann : Harmonica . Music for orchestra with solo tuba (1981/83)
- Alexei Konstantinowitsch Lebedew : Concerto in A minor
- Wilfried Lingenberg : Elegy for tuba and organ (2002)
- Jean François Michel : piece for tuba
- Rodney Newton : Capriccio
- Bo Nilsson : Bass for solo tuba and percussion
- Krzysztof Penderecki : Capriccio
- Roger Steptoe : Tuba Concerto (1983)
- Alexander Tcherepnin : Andante for Tuba or Trombone and Piano, op.64 (1950, Frankfurt: MP Belaieff)
- Ralph Vaughan Williams : Concerto for Tuba and Orchestra in F minor
- Alec Wilder : Suite No. 1 for tuba and piano ( Effie Suite )
- John Williams : Tuba Concerto (1985)
- Franz Watz : Concerto for tuba and wind orchestra
- Walter Sears : Sonatina for tuba and piano
- Hartmut Schmidt : Concerto for tuba and orchestra
- Marco Pütz : Chapters of Life (Tuba Concerto), concert for tuba and orchestra / wind orchestra
- Alexander Arutjunjan : Concerto for tuba and orchestra (1992)
World tuba day
In 1979, the American musician called Joel Day the International Tuba Day off, which is celebrated since 1982 every year on the first Friday in May. On World Tuba Day there are concerts, lectures and exhibitions all about the instrument. According to Joel Day, the tuba player does not find the level of respect and recognition he deserves. The tuba is often dismissed as unimportant and viewed as an "imposing" appendage.
- R. Winston Morris , Edward R. Goldstein: The Tuba Source Book. Indiana University Press, Bloomington / IN 1996. ISBN 0-253-32889-6 .
- Hans Kunitz: The instrumentation 9. - The tuba . Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden 1994. ISBN 3-7651-1020-5 .
- Wieland Ziegenrücker: General music theory with questions and tasks for self-control. German Publishing House for Music, Leipzig 1977; Paperback edition: Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, and Musikverlag B. Schott's Sons, Mainz 1979, ISBN 3-442-33003-3 , p. 176.
- Tuba . In: duden.de . Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- The Art of Tuba and Euphonium Playing. Alfred Music Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4574-0438-2 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
-  www.schneideruwe.de Tubahistorien-Seite
- Martin Kunzler : Jazz Lexicon. Volume 2: M – Z (= rororo-Sachbuch. Vol. 16513). 2nd Edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-499-16513-9 .
- Winfried Pape: Instrument manual for string, plucked, wind and percussion instruments in tabular form . TB 264, Theoretica, Volume 11. 2nd edition. Musikverlag Hans Gerig, Cologne 1976 (1st edition 1971), ISBN 3-87252-055-5 , p. 148.
- Joel Day: The History of International Tuba Day. 1996, accessed September 18, 2013 .