Chișinău ( Rum. )
Кишинёв ( Russian )
|Administrative unit :||Chisinau municipality|
|Height :||85 m. ü. M.|
|Area :||120 km²|
|Population density :||4,438 inhabitants per km²|
|Telephone code :||(+373) 22|
|Postal code :||2000-2075|
|Structure :||Chisinau municipality|
|Mayor :||Ion Ceban|
Chișinău [ kiʃiˈnəu̯ ], German Kischinau ( , outdated Kischenau / Kischinew ; Russian Кишинёв Kishinev ), is the capital of the Republic of Moldova and with more than 530,000 inhabitants also the most populous city in the country. It is an important business location as well as a university town and cultural center. Chișinău has an area of 120 km². Together with its surroundings it forms the municipality of Chișinău, which is 563.3 km² and in 2014 was home to over 660,000 people.
name of the city
According to historians, Chișinău can be etymologically derived from the combination of the ancient Romanian word chișla ( water source , today cișmea ) and nouă (new) and thus indicates a groundwater source that served as an important source of supply in the origins of the city. This spring is now located at the intersection of A. Puşkin and Albişoara streets .
Among other Romanian historians, such as Ștefan Ciobanu earlier , the same derivation as for Chișineu-Criș is represented, i.e. from the Hungarian name Kis-Jenő (in Hungarian: kis "small" + Jenő "Eugen" and at the same time the name of one of the seven ancient Magyar tribes) Constantine VII in De Administrando Imperio : Genach ). When the Cuman Empire was defeated in the 13th century, the region came under Hungarian hegemony . The Szeklers built fortifications in this region to protect the Kingdom of Hungary against further Mongol invasions. These include Miclăușeni (Hungarian Miklóshely), Orhei (Hungarian Várhely) and Ciubărciu (Ciobruciu; Hungarian Csupor) not far from today's capital of Moldova. So a Hungarian origin seems plausible.
The official name of the city is Municipiul Chișinău (Munizip Chișinău), which also includes the surrounding municipalities belonging to the Munizip . Due to the frequent changes in territorial affiliation, the city had several different spellings of its name. So they called the Russians Кишинёв / Kishinev , pronunciation [ kiʃɨˈnʲɔf ], when it was the capital of Bessarabia .
Later, when Bessarabia became part of Romania , the city was officially named Chișinău [ kiʃiˈnəu̯ ]. During the brief German occupation in World War II , the city was probably referred to as Kishinew with the Russian-German transcription that was common at the time .
With the Soviet annexation after the Second World War, the Cyrillic script was introduced into the Moldovan Soviet Republic . Chișinău was written accordingly Кишинэу , parallel to this a second time the Russified variant Кишинёв / Kishinev . Shortly before the end of the Eastern Bloc , the government of the Moldovan SSR decided on August 31, 1989 to return to the Latin spelling of Romanian - Кишинэу became Chișinău again .
|Official name||Romanian||Cyrillic spelling||Russian||German|
|Chisinau municipality||Kishineu||Kishinev / Kishinev *||Chisinau|
|* = old, incorrect transcription||[ kiʃi'nəʊ ]||[ kiʃi'nəʊ ]||[ kiʃɨˈnʲɔf ]|
The city of Chișinău lies on the Bîc at about at latitude 47 ° 00 '50 "north and longitude 28 ° 51' 00" east. The approximately 120 km² urban area is divided into five, with the exception of the Centru, approximately the same area in terms of area ( Romanian Sector ):
Centru (Чентру / Центр) Rîșcani (Рышкань / Рышкановка) Botanica (Ботаника) Ciocana (Чокана) Buiucani (Буюкань / Боюканы)
The municipality of Chișinău (Municipiul Chișinău) with an area of 635 km² includes eleven smaller villages as well as the following six surrounding municipalities :
Politically, the city is right in the center of the Republic of Moldova. Geographically in Eastern European lowlands located, the town is surrounded by a flat hilly landscape with very fertile soil of black earth , which from time immemorial the basis for agricultural use provided for the cultivation of both wine as well as fruit . Crossed by the river Bîc , the city shows, especially in spring and summer, a very natural cityscape with many trees and large parks.
The first weather data go back to the year 1884. At that time, however, research was more concerned with the ideal climate for optimal viticulture. Over the course of a year, one reckons with around 2,215 hours of sunshine - 329 hours of which in the record month of July alone - but only 54 hours in December. Regionally there is a continental climate with an annual average temperature of 9.6 ° C and a rainfall of 547 mm. Summer begins around mid-May, it is short, but strong. The thermometer reaches high temperatures around 25 ° C, especially in June, July and August. Increased precipitation is to be expected in June and July. Like summer, winter is very short. January reached the lowest temperatures with an average of −3.2 ° C, October the lowest amount of precipitation with 27 mm. Autumn is particularly long and warm thanks to its location near the Black Sea , which has a strong influence on the region's climate. Most of the time, however, there is an average temperature of around 10 ° C with little precipitation throughout the year.
Climate data from Chisinau
Chișinău is a very green city. Many of the main streets are lined with trees. In addition, there are spacious parks that are spread across the entire city area and characterize the cityscape. The main parks include:
- Grădina Publică Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt (in the center): The park is located on Bulevardul Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt . In addition to the statue of Ștefan cel Mare, there is also the Allee der Klassik , which opened in 1957 , an avenue with bronze busts of famous, classical authors of Romanian-Moldovan literature. by Alexandru Hajdau , George Coşbuc , Mihai Eminescu , Nicolae Milescu-Spataru , Tudor Arghezi , Vasile Alecsandri , Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu , Constantin Stamati , Alecu Russo , Lucian Blaga , George Asachi , Constantin Stere , Alexei Matievici , Constantin Negruzzi , Mircea Eliade , Ion Creangă , Alexandru Donici and Dimitrie Cantemir . Also in the park is a monument to the Russian national poet Alexander Pushkin , who stayed in the city for a long time.
- Parcul Catedralei (in the center): In 1836 the nine- hectare park was opened at the same time as the inauguration of the Catedrala Nașterea Domnului . It is located on Bulevardul Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt .
- Parcul Silvic (in the north)
- Parcul La Izvor (in the northwest): The park to the source was opened in 1972, it offers two large lakes on 150 hectares, a bridge for pedestrians and a water fountain.
- Parcul Dendrologic (west of the center)
- Parcul Valea Morilor: South-west of the center is the valley of the mills, designed by the architect Robert Kurz . The park was opened in 1951 and also offers a large lake with an area of 114 hectares.
- Parcul Valea Trandafirilor: The Park of the Roses is located southeast in the Botanica district and has an area of about 145 hectares. As an attraction, it offers a ferris wheel and other leisure activities.
About 14 bird, 14 reptile and amphibian species live in the parks of Chișinău. Represented mammals are hedgehogs , moles , weasels and martens as well as bats . There are also various rodents, such as squirrels and field mice . A number of different species of pigeon can be found among birds , such as the wood pigeon. There are also swifts , starlings and sparrows . About 20 different species of fish live in the waters of the Valea Morilor Park , located in the southwestern part of Chișinău. The lake provides habitat for perch , crucian carp , bream , carp and other carp fish .
The first written mention of Chișinău goes back to 1436 when the village was part of the Principality of Moldova . This principality was first under Polish and later under Ottoman suzerainty. There was no significant development and the village remained practically unchanged as a boyar and monastery settlement until the 19th century . In 1818, as Kishinev , the small town became the administrative seat of the governorate of Bessarabia, which was ceded by the Ottoman Empire to the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Bucharest in 1812 . Kishinev did not enjoy a good reputation as a city on the edge of the Russian Empire and as a transfer camp for the dissatisfied and rebellious. The young Russian national poet Alexander Pushkin was exiled to Kishinev as a translator from September 21, 1820 to 1823 and wrote about the city:
“O Kishinev, O dark city!” ; "Cursed city of Kishinev, the tongue never tires of insulting you."
Boom in the industrial age
From 1834 a generous urban development plan created an imperial cityscape with wide and long streets. This roughly divided the city into two areas: the old town with its winding streets and irregular building structures and the city center with the concept of the street course planned in advance. At the same time, the city center and the station square in the Centru district were also planned. Between May 26, 1830 and October 13, 1836, the architect Avraam Melnikov built the Catedrala Naşterea Domnului with its magnificent bell tower. In 1840 the triumphal arch was built by the architect Luca Zaușkevici, which was completed the following year . The construction of a large number of other buildings and squares began in the immediate vicinity.
1858 by the architect who was Nicolae Golikov built Catedrala Sfîntul Mare Mucenic Teodor Tiron , which stands out with its blue appearance from the rest. As the century progressed, the city grew steadily. In 1891, the Swiss architect Alexander Bernardazzi led the construction of several projects, including the Biserica Sfîntul Pantelemon ( Grecească - Greek Church), and from 1900 to 1903 the Dadiani women's high school and the chapel there (1895-1897). Between 1898 and 1901 the town hall of the city, the Fosta Dumă Orășenească , was built on Bulevardul Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt by Mitrofan Elladi and Alexander Bernardazzi .
Pogroms at the beginning of the 20th century
Kishinev was a center of Jewish life in the Russian Empire around 1900 . According to a census from 1897, Jews formed the largest population group in Kishinev with a share of 45.9%, ahead of the Russians (27.0%) and the Romanians (17.6%). On 6 jul. / April 19, 1903 greg. and 7th jul. / April 20, 1903 greg. , the first day of Easter, there was a major pogrom against the Jews in Chișinău . 47–49 Jewish residents died; an estimated 400 were injured. Hundreds of households and hundreds of businesses were looted and destroyed. The then mayor Karl Schmidt (1846–1928), who was of Bessarabia German origin, made a major contribution to the investigation and prosecution of the perpetrators. As the "pogrom of Kishinev" riots designated were apparently of Pawel Krushevan , the publisher of the time the only official newspaper, Bessarabez (Бессарабецъ) , demagogic stoked and showed signs of an organized action on. The reactions in the world press were violent, even in the Russian Empire. So received in July 1905 Emperor Nicholas II. One by the American people to President Theodore Roosevelt plotted petition , however, do not impact on his policies. Since it was rejected by the Kaiser, it has been owned by the US government (until today). The Aid Association of German Jews , chaired by Paul Nathan , called together representatives of relevant Jewish organizations from different countries to discuss the situation.
On June 17, 1903, Pawel Kruschewan survived a knife attack by the Kiev student Pinchas Daschewski on the Nevsky Prospect in Saint Petersburg , who had only slightly wounded him. At that time newspapers were consciously supported and promoted in their anti-Semitic activities by the Russian secret police " Ochrana ". This also included the distribution of publications, e.g. B. the " Protocols of the Elders of Zion ".
On August 22, 1905, there was another bloody escalation in the city when the police opened fire on an estimated 3,000 agricultural workers demonstrating. This tragedy is comparable to the St. Petersburg Bloody Sunday , which took place on January 9th July. / January 22, 1905 greg. occurred in Saint Petersburg ; around 1,000 demonstrating workers were killed there.
A few months later, on July 19th . / November 1, 1905 greg. and 20. jul. / November 2nd, 1905 greg. , a march against the declaration of the October Manifesto by Emperor Nicholas II got out of control, and supporters of the Octobrists and Black Hundreds carried out armed attacks in the city against Jews , liberal students and social democratic workers . 19 Jews died and 56 were injured. This anti-Semitism eventually led to the steady emigration of the Jewish population to the United States and Palestine .
1914 to 1940
In the course of the Russian October Revolution , a national general assembly called Sfatul Țării (District Administrator) based in Chișinău took over the government in November 1917 . On December 2nd, Jul. / December 15, 1917 greg. the country declared itself an autonomous region within Russia and the Moldovan Democratic Republic was proclaimed. After the Bolsheviks occupied Chișinău on January 5, 1918, the District Administrator asked Romania for military assistance. The Romanian troops, which marched in on January 16, restored order in the country within a few days. On January 24th, July / February 6, 1918 greg. declared the Sfatul Țării independence and on March 27th jul. / April 9, 1918 greg. , while maintaining a partial autonomy, the connection to Romania. The Anschluss was confirmed by the Western Allies in the Treaty of Paris in 1920 . With the dissolution of Sfatul Țării, Chișinău lost its status as the capital and thus its importance.
In the interwar period , the city undertook major renovations in the center. In 1927, a monument to the Prince of Moldova , Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt , was erected by the artist Alexandru Plămădeală and the architect Eugen Bernardazzi .
Second World War
In the Second World War , Chișinău was almost completely destroyed. On June 28, 1940, the city was occupied by the Red Army . Here, the to was Romania belonging territory of Bessarabia by the Soviet Union annexed . A devastating earthquake struck on November 10, 1940 . The earthquake epicentered in eastern Romania had a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale and caused massive destruction in the city.
After almost a year of peace negotiations ( German-Soviet non-aggression pact ), the German-Soviet war followed on June 22, 1941 , which Romanian troops also joined. At the beginning of the major attack, the II. Mechanized Corps (armored and motorized infantry) was stationed in the area of the city . The area around the city was controlled by the 9th Red Army of Yakov Tscherewitschenko and the 18th Red Army , commanded by Andrei Smirnov . In July 1941 the city was fiercely contested, with tough resistance from the Soviet troops. There was bombing by the German air force. The advancing German 11th Army under Colonel General Eugen von Schobert , part of Army Group South under General Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt , was supported by troops from the Romanian 3rd and 4th Army . The Soviet resistance lasted until July 17, 1941, when Chișinău was finally conquered. German and Romanian troops occupied the city from the north via Sculeni and from the south via Hînceşti .
During the German-Romanian occupation there was systematically organized mass murder in the city, predominantly of Jewish residents. The rounded up people were loaded onto trucks and transported out of town. There they sometimes had to dig the pits themselves in which they were shot. Paul Zapp , leader of Sonderkommando 11a, was in command of the execution . As part of Einsatzgruppe D, this command was subordinate to SS group leader Otto Ohlendorf . The number of Jews murdered after the occupation of Chișinău is estimated at around 10,000.
The ghetto established on July 24, 1941 in the old town of Chișinău served as a stopover, the residents of which were allowed to work as workers in the Ghidighichi quarry . The ghetto was limited to a few streets and consisted of a few buildings, most of which were already badly damaged. A wall with several controlled entrances and exits ran around the ghetto. According to the Romanian army, there were 11,525 people in the Chisinau ghetto.
Tens of thousands of Jews and other undesirable ethnic groups were directly deported on so-called death marches to Transnistria to the east (not to be confused with Transnistria, which is smaller today in terms of area ). There were crossing points at Rezina near Rîbnița , at Cosăuți near Soroca and in Otaci near the Ukrainian town of Mohyliw-Podilskyj . About a third of them died of exhaustion, others were shot; only a few were able to hide in Ukraine. Some segregated groups were first collected in camps, such as around 23,000 in the camp in Vertujeni (today Vertiujeni ), in order to force them into forced labor. Other camps were in Secăreni , Edineț and Mărculeşti .
Various reports testify to terrible events in this region. This includes the death train from Iasi . On August 1, 1941, on the orders of the Gestapo, 450 Jews from the Chișinău ghetto, mostly women and scholars, were brought to Visterniceni, about two kilometers from the city; 411 were shot dead, as survivors reported on their return. On August 6, around 200 Jews were shot by police officers from Chișinău and their bodies were thrown into the Dniester , which flows a few kilometers east of Chișinău . On August 7th and 8th, 525 Jews, including 25 women, were taken to work at Ghidighichi Station; about 200 of them came back after a week.
Finally, on the orders of the Romanian Marshal Ion Antonescu , the ghetto in Chișinău also began to be cleared between October 4, 1941 and May 1942, and the prisoners were deported on death marches to Transnistria. Of the 65,000 former Jews in Chișinău in 1939, 53,000 fell victim to the Nazi regime. The Holocaust researcher Matatias Carp dealt in depth with the Holocaust in Romania.
The former Bessarabian provincial capital was also heavily involved in the war towards the end of the war, when the German and Romanian troops withdrew. On March 28, 1944, parts of the Soviet 2nd Ukrainian Front crossed the Prut north of Jassy (Iași) and related a line on the Carpathian ridge . The German-Romanian front was pushed back further and further until the beginning of April the 3rd Ukrainian front in the east near Tiraspol along the Dniester came to a standstill.
On August 20, 1944, the large-scale Soviet attack " Operation Jassy-Kishinev ", led by Fyodor Tolbuchin and Rodion Malinowski, followed . As a result of the attack in the form of a pincer operation, part of Colonel General Johannes Frießner's Army Group South , including the regrouped German 6th Army under the command of General of the Artillery, Maximilian Fretter-Pico , fell on August 24 during their retreat southwest of Chișinău and Huși in a cauldron and was destroyed. The later Soviet city commander of Berlin, Colonel-General Nikolai Bersarin , who broke through the German lines on the Dniester with his 5th shock army, was also involved in the fighting . Parts of the German 8th Army were able to withdraw to Hungary via the Carpathian Mountains, while the 6th Army was largely destroyed. The Romanian army, which had been allied with the Germans, changed sides on August 23, 1944 and stopped fighting. On August 24, 1944, Chișinău was occupied by the Red Army.
The city lost an estimated 70% of its living space by the end of the war, although it was spared direct combat operations. The 1940 earthquake and the air strikes as the fronts were passing by made a major contribution to this.
After the reconquest, the Soviet Union under Josef Stalin demanded back Bessarabia, which had already been annexed on the basis of the secret additional protocol of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939. With the Paris Peace Treaty in February 1947, Romania recognized Bessarabia as part of the USSR . Chișinău became the capital of the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic .
Time in the Soviet Union
After the severe damage in World War II, rapid population growth in Chișinău began in the late 1940s. From 1947 to 1949 the architect Alexei Shtusev developed a plan for the gradual reconstruction of the city with the help of a team of architects consisting of several people. While Stalin continued to rely on huge palaces in the confectioner's style ( socialist classicism ), the population increasingly suffered from a housing shortage.
With the beginning of the Khrushchev era in September 1953, austerity measures were called throughout the Soviet Union. In December 1954, Khrushchev gathered the leading architects and building officials of the Soviet Union for the “All Union Conference of Building Workers” and had the de-Stalinization of building culture and the abolition of “conservatism in architecture” announced - under the motto “Build better, cheaper and faster”, drastic developments followed Changes in the living concept. With the new architectural style of that time, the cityscape of Chișinău, which is characteristic to this day, was created with many large apartment blocks , arranged in the style of “ Khrushchevki ” ( хрущёвки , prefabricated housing estates). Around the actual city center, new residential districts emerged, so-called dormitory cities with retail shops and schools, but little social infrastructure.
See also: Socialist urban development
On March 4, 1977, a severe earthquake struck the city , causing panic and killing several people. In 1989 there were tensions in Chișinău with the central government in Moscow, which led to the reintroduction of the Romanian language and the country's independence in 1991.
- July 17, 1436: first mention of the village in what was then the Principality of Moldova
- 1511: Conquest by the Ottoman Empire under Selim I.
- 1812: the area becomes part of the Russian Empire after the Treaty of Bucharest
- 1818: Appointed capital of the Bessarabia Governorate
- 1918–1940: part of Romania
- fought fiercely between Romania and the Soviet Union in World War II
- 1940–1991: Capital of the Moldovan Soviet Republic ( Soviet Union )
- August 27, 1991: Formal exit from the Soviet Union as a result of perestroika , Chișinău becomes the capital of the independent Republic of Moldova
In 1817 there was the first mayor in Chișinău. In 1990 the post that had been abolished in 1941 was reinstated and Nicolae Costin was elected as the first mayor after the Soviet era.
In the 2007 election, the pro-Western, then only 28-year-old Dorin Chirtoacă was elected with 61% of the vote in a runoff. As a challenger, he clearly prevailed against the communist candidate Veaceslav Iordan (38%). Chirtoacă was narrowly re-elected twice, suspended in 2017 due to corruption affairs and finally dismissed in 2018.
|Surname||Taking office||Term expires|
|Serafim Urecheanu||August 9, 1994||April 20, 2005|
|Vasile Urzu||April 20, 2005||2007|
|January 25, 2007||June 18, 2007|
|Dorin Chirtoacă||June 18, 2007||May 25, 2017 (suspended)
February 16, 2018 (dismissed)
There are also a number of cooperation agreements with other cities and regions, including Moscow , Saratov and Tula ( Russia ), Jerusalem (Israel), Città di Castello (Italy), Hampshire ( United Kingdom ), Nur-Sultan ( Kazakhstan ), Damascus ( Syria ), Kherson (Ukraine), Vilnius ( Lithuania ), Piteşti (Romania), Lubusz Voivodeship ( Poland ) and Rome's Municipality XVII (Italy).
- United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
- the European Commission
- TACIS ( EU funding program )
- the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
- the world bank
- the International Monetary Fund
- the Latin Union (Uniunea Latină)
- the Commonwealth of Independent States
Economy and Transport
Chișinău is a center of the food industry. In addition to the tobacco and textile industry, there is a large winery and production facilities for canned fruit and vegetables. After the end of the communist system in Moldova, the city increasingly developed into an attractive location for banks. Due to the difficult legal situation and the ongoing corruption in the country, however, the influx of large foreign investors, as in other former communist countries, has so far not taken place.
The residents of Chișinău enjoy a higher quality of life compared to their rural fellow citizens. In a European comparison, however, the standard of living is far below average. After the great economic downturn around 2000, however, there has been an improvement again.
In addition to a dense trolleybus system (since October 12, 1949), buses , minibuses (see Marschrutka ) and taxis are available for public transport. The latter can be called around the clock by phone.
Shortly after the Second World War, Chișinău had a tram with a gauge of 1,000 mm. The railway was initially operated with MAN 1914 company cars . In the 1950s, the first T57 Gotha cars from the German Gothaer Waggonfabrik were in use. However, the operation of the tram network was stopped in 1961, the cars were relocated to Lemberg (Lviv) in the Ukraine .
The most popular means of transport for people in Moldova is the bus . Popular destinations include Bucharest , Constanța ( Romania ) and Odessa ( Ukraine ). There are also buses for the journey to Odessa, the route of which does not go through Transnistria , but via the border towns of Palanca or Tudora. The city of Chișinău has three bus stations that serve both national and international routes.
Due to the ongoing conflict between the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria , rail traffic to Ukraine came to a complete standstill at times. The national railway company is Calea Ferată din Moldova . The only marshalling yard in the country is located near the main train station .
The international airport Chișinău (KIV) is located approx. 15 km south of the city center and offers international flight connections to Athens , Budapest , Bucharest , Dortmund , Frankfurt am Main , Istanbul , Lisbon , London , Madrid , Moscow , Munich , Paris , Prague , Rome , Saint Petersburg , Tel Aviv , Timișoara , Verona and Vienna .
Public broadcasting is broadcast by the media group Teleradio Moldova (TRM), which operates both television channels and a few radio stations. The private sector is dominated by the media group Jurnal TV and Publika. All three are based in Chișinău.
The national TV broadcaster Moldova 1 has its headquarters in Chișinău. It is owned by the state TRM.
The local TV station Pro TV Chișinău has been broadcasting a daily news format and two programs in Romanian and Russian since September 3, 1999 . The rest of the broadcasting time is from Bucharest (Romania).
There are also some local radio stations in Chișinău. There are also channels from Romania, which are broadcast in local broadcast windows in Chișinău; the most important are Vocea Basarabiei, Radio Noroc (local), Kiss FM, Pro FM, Radio 21 / Hit Radio and Național FM / Fresh FM (Romanian), as well as HIT FM, Radio Chanson, Русское Радио (Russkoje Radio) (Russian).
Every October 14th, the residents of Chișinău celebrate the city's birthday with a large parade and various small stands and attractions in the car-free city center.
- Cathedral of the Nativity of the Lord , Moldovan Orthodox cathedral with a magnificent bell tower , built between 1830 and 1836 by the architect Avraam Melnikov , according to the initial plans of Peter Speeth
- Catedrala Sfîntul Mare Mucenic Teodor Tiron (Cathedral of the great martyr Teodor Tiron), built in 1858 by the architect P. Piskariov , impresses with its light blue appearance
- St. Teodora de la Sihla Cathedral , seat of the Orthodox Church of Bessarabia
- Roman Catholic Cathedral of Divine Providence , built 1840–1843 in the classicist style
- Triumphal Arch , actually called "Holy Arch", was built by Luca Zauşkevici in 1841; is located directly on Bulevardul Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt in the Parcul Catedralei opposite the government building, near the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Lord
- Statue of Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt , a bronze monument by Ștefan cel Mare , was created in 1927 in collaboration between the artist Alexandru Plămădeală and the architect Eugen Bernardazzi , is in the Gradina Publica Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt
- Bulevardul Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt , a spacious street that runs straight through the city center from northwest to southeast; the entire rest of the street pattern is aligned with this boulevard
- Avenue of the rulers of Moldova , at the Ministry of Defense there are ten bronze busts that were inaugurated on August 27, 2004; they represent the following personalities: Bogdan I. , Petru I. Musat , Alexandru cel Bun (Alexander the Good), Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt (Stefan the Great and Saint), Bogdan III. cel Orb , Petru Rareș , Alexandru Lăpușneanu , Ioan Vodă cel Cumplit (Prince John the Terrible), Vasile Lupu and Dimitrie Cantemir
- Jewish cemetery , the largest in the country
Museums and theaters
- Muzeul Național de Istorie a Moldovei (National History Museum)
- Muzeul Național de Arte Plastice (National Art Museum)
- Chișinău History Museum
- Muzeul Naional de Etnografie și Istorie Naturală ( National Museum of Ethnology and Natural History )
- Muzeul de Arheologie si Etnografie al Academiei de Stiinte din Moldova (Archaeological and Ethnological Museum)
- Muzeul Literaturii novels "M. Kogalniceanu "(Literary Museum)
- Muzeul Pedagogic Republican (Pedagogical Museum of the Republic)
- Casa-Muzeu "AS Puşkin" ( Pushkin Museum )
- Moldexpo , the exhibition platform near Parcul Valea Morilor , can accommodate various types of events; In addition, there are remains from the country's communist era, such as the statues of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
- Teatrul Național "Mihai Eminescu" (National Theater)
- Teatrul Dramatic Rus "AP Cehov" (Chekhov Theater)
- Teatrul Republican "Luceafărul"
- Sala cu Orga (Organ Hall), 1911 by the architect Cekerul-Kuş built
- Filarmonica Națională (National Philharmonic )
- Youth choir Gloria
In Chișinău there are several football clubs that play in the Divizia Națională ; among them are CSF Zimbru Chișinău , FC Dacia Chișinău , FC Unisport-Auto Chișinău and CS Steaua Chișinău. The larger football stadiums in Chișinău include the Stadionul Dinamo (Dinamo Stadium) with 2,692 seats and the Stadionul Zimbru (Zimbru Stadium), which opened on May 20, 2006 and named after the football club of the same name , has space for approx. 10,500 spectators (at the same time the Stadionul Republicii [Stadium of the Republic; 8,000 seats] was demolished).
Born in Chișinău
The sons and daughters of the city of Chișinău include: a. the Soviet astronomer Vladimir Albitsky (1891–1952), the Russian doctor and Zionist Jacob Bernstein-Kohan (1859–1929), the American film producer Samuel Bronston (1908–1994), the Moldovan opera singer Maria Cebotari (1910–1949), the Russian pianist and composer Julius Isserlis (1888–1968), the Moldovan-Austrian violinist Patricia Kopatchinskaja (* 1977), the Israeli Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman (* 1958), the Ukrainian tennis player Denys Moltschanow (* 1987), the Russian politician Vladimir Purishkevich (1870–1920), the German historian Georg Sacke (1902–1945) and the American banana entrepreneur Sam Zemurray (1877–1961).
People related to Chișinău
- Alexander Bernardazzi - Swiss architect
- Eugen Bernardazzi - Swiss architect
- Vladimir Beleaev - composer
- Pol Cassel - Dresden painter and graphic artist
- Ghenadie Ciobanu - composer, Moldovan Minister of Culture
- Rudolf Faltin - Protestant pastor and missionary
- Tatiana Lisnic - Moldovan opera singer
- Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin - Russian poet
- Florentin Smarandache - Romanian-American artist
- Trigon - Moldovan jazz band
- Serafim Urecheanu - 1994-2005 mayor of Chișinău and party president of the Democratic Party of the BMD
- Vladimir Voronin - President of Moldova and President of the Communist Party PCRM
- Alexander Paley - Moldovan pianist
- Pogrom 1903
- Jeffrey Kopstein: Kishinev. In: Dan Diner (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture (EJGK). Volume 3: He-Lu. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2012, ISBN 978-3-476-02503-6 , pp. 357-362.
- Kischinew - Das Pogrom 1903. Edited by Andreas W. Hohmann Jürgen Mümken , Edition AV , Lich / Hessen 2015, ISBN 978-3-86841-123-2
- L. Basarow: "The German-Romanian atrocities in Kishinev", in: Wassili Grossman / Ilja Ehrenburg (eds.): The Black Book - The Genocide of the Soviet Jews. Rowohlt-Verlag, Hamburg 1994, ISBN 3-498-01655-5 (editor of the German edition: Arno Lustiger ), pp. 216–223.
- Jean Ancel (Ed.): Documents concerning the fate of Romanian Jewry during the Holocaust. New York, NY 1986 (Beate Klarsfeld Foundation), Volume 5: Bessarabia , Bukovina , Transnistria
- Moldova, Moldova, Bessarabia - Journey through a torn country , Ö1 , Diagonal - Radio for contemporaries from October 12, 2019
- Information about Chișinău (English, Romanian, Russian)
- oldchisinau.com (Russian)
- monument.sit.md Information about the old town center (Romanian)
- Duden pronunciation dictionary . 6th edition. Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus AG, Mannheim 2006, ISBN 3-411-04066-1 .
- See also the name of the city
- Moldova: Administrative division (districts and municipalities) - population figures, graphics and map. Retrieved May 9, 2018 .
- The German settlements in Bessarabia
- Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson : History of the Jewish People - From the Beginnings to the Present . 1992, ISBN 3-7632-4070-5 (licensed edition for the Gutenberg Book Guild in one volume, p. 1139).
- Simon Dubnow : World history of the Jewish people. Volume 10: The Age of the Second Response (1880–1914). Jüdischer Verlag, Berlin 1929, p. 375.
- Monty Noam Penkower: The Kishinev pogrom of 1903: A Turning Point in Jewish History. In: Modern Judaism. Oxford University Press. Vol. 24, 2004, no. 3, pp. 187–225, here: p. 193.
- Samuel Aroni, Memories of The Holocaust: Kishinev (Chisinau) 1941–1944: I. The Establishment of the Ghetto in Chisinau and of the Camps in Bessarabia ( Memento of the original from July 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet tested. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , 1995 (2nd ed.)
- Maschke, Erich (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- End of term of office unknown; from 1941 to 1990 (Soviet era) there was no mayor.
- Orașe înfrățite ( ro ) Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- European Handball Federation - HC Olimpus-85-USEFS. In: eurohandball.com. June 1, 2015, accessed August 16, 2015 .