The Bukovina ( pronunciation : [ bukowɪːˌna ], German and Bukovina , Romanian Bucovina , Ukrainian Буковина Bukovyna ) is a historical region in the border region between Central , Southeast and Eastern Europe . The northern half belongs to Ukraine and is part of the Chernivtsi Oblast . The southern half belongs to Romania and is part of the Suceava County . The Vltava monasteries , which are part of the UNESCO world cultural heritage, are also located here . Bukovina and Bessarabia to the east have been part of the historical Principality of Moldova for centuries ; from 1775 to 1918 the area with its multi-ethnic population belonged to the Habsburg monarchy . East Galicia is in the northwest and Transylvania in the southwest .
The term "Bukowina" comes from the Slavic languages and describes an area wooded with beeches ( buk = beech). It is particularly widespread as a toponym in the West Slavonic region . This term was also adopted by the Romanian language in the course of the Middle Ages and several areas in the Principality of Moldova , rich in beech trees, were named as bucovină , including the area that was later annexed by the Habsburgs. The coat of arms of the crown land of Bukovina was created on the basis of the Moldovan coat of arms.
The Duchy of Bukovina extended over 10,441 km² in 1900 and had 730,000 inhabitants.
The landscape borders the Carpathian Mountains in the southwest . The Tihuța Pass , formerly known as the Borgopass, forms the transition to Transylvania . The rivers Siret and Moldova have their source in the Carpathian Mountains . The landscape and principality of Moldova are named after the Moldova. In the north the land merges into the plain and extends to the Dniester . The Prut , the eastern border river of Romania, also flows through the Bukovina.
The country's climate was described in 1895 as "healthy but rough", the mean annual temperature in Chernivtsi was 8.3 ° C, in the higher parts of the country it was 5.6 ° C, and the average annual rainfall was 580 mm.
The historical capital is Chernivtsi (Cernăuți) . The population was very mixed, with Ukrainians (then known as Ruthenians ) and Romanians , Germans and Jews , especially in the area around Chernivtsi, strongly represented.
A first census was carried out during the Russian occupation from 1772 to 1774. However, the ethnic composition of the population was not discussed. In the 20th century, various Romanian researchers tried to understand this composition on the basis of family names. This type of evaluation, which is doubted by today's scientists, yielded very different figures, ranging between 65 and 85% Romanians.
In 1910, 22% of the population spoke German, of which 96,000 were Jews and 72,000 Christians (mostly Buchenland or Bukowina Germans ). In 1890 around 13 percent believed that they were Jewish. This proportion had risen sharply in the previous decades. In 1857 it was 6.5%, in 1869 9.3% and in 1880 11.8%. At that time there were German-speaking majorities in several larger towns, in addition to Czernowitz also in Radautz and Gura Humora .
The possibility of using Yiddish as a colloquial language had been rejected by the Vienna Ministry. Previous censuses had shown a sharp increase in German; the separate counting of Yiddish speakers would have called German acquisitions into question.
The proportion of Romanians and Ukrainians in the Bukovina population changed noticeably during the Habsburg rule, as the results of the following censuses show:
|year||Romanians||Ukrainians||Other||All in all|
In 1895 there were 62 inhabitants per 1 km².
Because of its traditionally strongly multicultural population, the legal scholar Gunther Teubner uses the term Bukowina as a metaphor to describe pluralistic developments in international law , as they have shown in the course of globalization since the 1990s, and speaks of a "global Bukowina".
In ancient times the area of today's Bukovina was inhabited by Dacians and Bastarnen . From the 1st century BC Until the end of the last Dakar War in 106 AD it belonged to various Dacian empires . In the 7th century the region was settled by Slavs . It later became part of the Kievan Rus and the East Slav principality of Halitsch-Volhynia . Chernivtsi was founded at this time. After the Rus was devastated by the Mongols, Bukovina became part of the Principality of Moldova and in the 14th to mid-16th centuries even its political center (this changed in 1565 with the transfer of the capital from Suceava to Iași ). From 1512 the principality came under increasing Ottoman influence. From 1769–1774, Bukovina was occupied by Russia.
For a long time the Habsburg monarchy had strived for a better connection between Transylvania and the newly acquired Galicia . After the Treaty of Kücük in 1775, she succeeded in obtaining the cession of the 10,000 km² area at the Hohe Pforte . In the treaty it was referred to as Bukovina - beech country - for the first time.
The humanitarian-minded Joseph II , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and heir to the Danube Monarchy , found a grateful task in the annexation of the country to the Habsburg rule. In the empire he published calls for the colonization of Bukovina. The response was strong. Farming families, mainly from Württemberg , went down the Danube in treks that lasted for weeks . Many stayed in the Banat , others moved on via the Carpathians or Galicia.
It remained part of the crown land of Galicia for decades . Around 1848, however, its own weight was so great that Vienna decided to comply with a petition from the Bukovina estates and make it a duchy and Czernowitz the capital.
After ten years of military administration, Bukowina was administered as the Chernivtsi District (later Bukowina District) of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria from 1786 . Since 1804 it was part of the newly established Austrian Empire . In 1849 it was elevated to crown land and initially ruled from Lemberg , but in 1850 it received its own imperial governorate in Chernivtsi. It divided the administration into district authorities :
- Chernivtsi with the judicial districts of Chernivtsi I, Chernivtsi II , Sadagura and Strezents
- Kotzmann with the Kotzmann and Zastawna judicial districts
- Moldovan Kimpolung with the judicial districts of Kimpolung , Wadradorna and Gura Humora
- Radautz with the judicial districts Sereth , Radautz and Seletin
- Suczawa with the Suczawa and Solka judicial districts
- Wischnitza with the judicial districts Wischnitz , Waszkoutz and Putilla
Administrative districts and state regulations
In 1854 this order was revised and Bukovina was divided into the following districts:
- Chernivtsi (surroundings)
- Waskoutz on the Czeremosz
The city of Chernivtsi was directly subordinate to the regional chief and also led the agendas of the district administration in its area.
With the imperial constitution of 1861 , the Bukovina received a state order in the Austrian Empire , according to which a state parliament with its executive committee, the state committee , was established in Czernowitz . As a representative of the emperor and the Viennese government, the kk Landeschef, now known as the provincial president, stood opposite these autonomous state organs with the governorship named here. When the previously unified empire was divided into an Austrian and a Hungarian monarchy in 1867, Bukovina remained with Austria. In 1868 the district division was changed again.
In the state parliament in 1895 sat the Greek-Oriental Archbishop of Czernowitz, the rector of the Franz Joseph University, founded in 1875, ten (mainly Romanian) members of the large landowners, five members of the cities, two of the chambers of commerce and industry and twelve members of the rural communities.
In 1895, Bukovina elected nine members to the House of Representatives of the Reichsrat in Vienna. With the electoral reform of 1906/1907, the number of Reichsrat members to be elected in Bukovina (from now on all adult male citizens with the same voting weight) increased to 14.
In 1914 there were the following district authorities:
- Gurahumora (since October 1, 1893)
- Waschkoutz am Czeremosz (since October 1, 1903)
- Zastawna (since October 1, 1905)
In the administration, headed by the Imperial and Royal Provincial Government, and in court (1895: Regional Court in Chernivtsi; District Court in Suczawa ; 15 District Courts), German, Romanian and Ruthenian, as Ukrainian was called at that time, had equal rights since 1864.
Diversity and upswing
German settlers and German- or Yiddish-speaking Jews who immigrated soon after the annexation to Austria ( Bukowina Germans ) contributed to the economic and cultural development of the country in the 19th century. Sadagora became a center of Hasidism during this period . In 1776 Bukovina had only 60,000 to 70,000 inhabitants. From 1776 and throughout the 19th century, many Ukrainians moved there from Galicia; however, the Romanians remained the largest group of the Bukovina population until they were overtaken by the Ukrainians in 1880.
Bukovina could not develop as well in the Habsburg Monarchy as other regions of the monarchy because it was far from the economic centers of Austria and there were no strong trading partners to be found beyond the eastern border of the monarchy. Compared to Romania at that time , however, the economic balance looked good. In the public perception of the central parts of the Habsburg Empire, the region remained a geographical and intellectual "frontier province", part of an "'oriental [n]' periphery", a symbol of provincial backwardness, the " ultima Thule of this side of the empire ", a "stepchild" the Viennese government, characterized by "Pascha-Wirtschaft" and "Corruptions-Bacillus". Theodor Mommsen called the local university an "kuk penal colony".
In order to solve the problems of nationality law in Bukovina, the electoral rules in the so-called Bukovinian Compensation were reformed in 1910 . It came into force with the law on the election regulations for the Duchy of Bukovina on May 26, 1910. The state parliament now consisted of 63 members and the division of mandates (actually the electoral districts) was based on the national principle. As a result of the country's ethnic diversity, the electoral system is said to have been one of the most complicated in Europe.
First World War
During the First World War , Bukovina was occupied by Russia twice: in 1914/15 and 1916/17. The Austro-Hungarian army needed German support to drive the Russian troops out of the country. Austria-Hungary fell apart at the end of October 1918 . During the demobilization of the army ordered by the Austro-Hungarian War Ministry in Vienna on November 6, 1918, the discharged soldiers in Bukovina were left with their weapons, which led to shootings. At the end of October 1918 Romania had laid claim to all of Bukovina on the basis of historical arguments; the Ukrainians exercised their right of self-determination and wanted to divide the country.
On November 6, 1918, the kk provincial president Josef von Ezdorf , who had waited in vain for instructions from the already powerless kk government in Vienna , handed over the provincial government in Chernivtsi to representatives of the Romanian and Ukrainian nations; they promised to act together until the peace conference, but could not agree on the division of Bukovina. As a result, the Romanian army gradually occupied the country, which was annexed to Romania on November 28, 1918. Bukovina was incorporated into the Kingdom of Romania without any autonomy rights or the like . The division sought by the Ukrainians was only carried out in 1945 after the Second World War .
Romanian rule (1918–1940 / 1944)
After the de facto abandonment of Bukovina by Austria-Hungary came to a power vacuum, both the Ukrainians and the Romanians tried to gain supremacy. Ultimately, Romania prevailed through the invasion of troops. On November 28, 1918, the union of Bukovina (Romanian Bucovina ) with the Kingdom of Romania was proclaimed by a Romanian congress in the synod hall of the archbishop's residence in Chernivtsi .
During the peace negotiations in Paris in 1919/20 , republican Austria and the smaller Kingdom of Hungary officially renounced Bukovina in favor of Romania; However, at the conference of July 2, 1919, Poland registered a claim to the communities of the Czeremosz Valley . After protests by the local population, this project was dropped again, only the five municipalities of Babin , Luka , Prelipce , Swiniacze and Krisczatek in today's Sastavna Rajon were added to the Second Polish Republic for transport policy reasons (here the railway line from Horodenka to Zaleszczyki ran through the Bukowina region ). However, a Polish-Ukrainian border commission came to the conclusion in the protocol of January 26, 1920 that this area could also be dispensed with. As a result, there was a strong wave of Romanization. The Ukrainian residents of northern Bukovina in particular suffered from severe reprisals.
The administrative structure was initially retained, the former district authorities were now called prefectures and were no longer subordinate to the state government, but to a general directorate in Chernivtsi. On June 14, 1925, however, a law to standardize the administration decreed the dissolution of the previous prefectures and five new districts were formed:
These remained unchanged until 1938, after which the Bukowina area became inutul Suceava ( Suceava area ), the name Bukowina, analogous to the deletion of the name Austria in the German Reich after 1938, no longer existed.
From 1941, the former five districts came together with the Hotin District and the Dorohoi District to form the newly formed Bukovina Governorate as part of Greater Romania .
Second World War
On August 24, 1939, a week before the start of World War II , the German Reich and the Soviet Union signed the German-Soviet non-aggression pact . The territorial areas of interest of the two dictators in northern, eastern and south-eastern Europe were defined in a secret additional protocol. This additional protocol only mentioned Bessarabia , but on June 28, 1940 the Soviet Union occupied not only the territory of Bessarabia but also the northern part of Bukovina.
On September 5, 1940, a German commission and the representative of the Foreign Commissariat of the USSR signed the "Agreement on the resettlement of the population of German descent from the areas of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina to the German Reich" in Moscow . They agreed to relocate from September 15 to November 15, 1940.
The Bukowina Germans were resettled in the German Empire or in occupied areas in Poland . Tens of thousands of Romanians were killed or deported to Central Asia . The demarcation of 1940 did not quite follow the ethnic settlement areas, so that numerous Romanians and Ukrainians remained on the other side. In 1941 Romanian troops who fought alongside the German Reich against the Soviet Union recaptured the Soviet-occupied territory. Many Jews were expelled and murdered in the Romanian occupied area of Transnistria in the 1940s . In 1944 the Bukovina was again occupied by the Red Army; Romania finally recognized the new border on February 10, 1947 by signing the Paris Peace Treaty . The northern part has since belonged to the Soviet Union or Ukraine, the southern part remained with Romania.
Culture bloom and decline
For economic and historical reasons, a multicultural society and, among other things, important German literature emerged in Bukovina, similar to Prague , in the 19th and 20th centuries. Chernivtsi became a center of intensive trade and cultural exchange between the neighboring countries. The focus was the Franz Joseph University , founded in 1875, with a Greek theological, legal and philosophical faculty (1895: 40 teachers, 285 students). The most famous author from Bukovina in the late 19th century was Karl Emil Franzos (1848–1904), the first editor of Georg Büchner's collected works (1813–1837). Throughout the Bukovina, there was an extensive German-language press, including the weekly Bukovina Post , the newspapers Czernowitzer morning paper , the Czernowitz Allgemeine Zeitung , di e Chernivtsi newspaper , Czernowitz German daily mail , the Bukovina news , the Bukovina Rundschau and the Zionist journal Ostjüdische newspaper .
After the First World War, when Bukowina was part of the Romanian Kingdom, the German culture of Bukovina - to name just a few important poets of German-Jewish origin - experienced Alfred Margul-Sperber (1898–1967), Rose Ausländer (1901–1988 ), Alfred Kittner (1906–1991), Paul Celan (1920–1970) and Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger (1924–1942) their second, last bloom. Even Ninon Hesse born, Ausländer, Hermann Hesse's third wife , was born in Chernivtsi in 1895. Growing nationalism, however, put an abrupt end to this culture.
During the Second World War, most of the Jewish Bukovinians were deported by the fascist Antonescu regime to the Romanian ghettos and concentration camps in Transnistria in 1941–1944 .
About half of the 800,000 Jewish Romanians survived the Holocaust . Few of them stayed in the country afterwards. The Jewish cultural monuments in Bukovina are falling into disrepair.
Karl Marx wrote a passion cantata in 1961, When Jesus went from his mother over an old tune from Buchenland for soprano, baritone, mixed choir and instruments.
Writer and poet
- Moshe Altman (1890-1981)
- Rose Foreigner (1901–1988)
- Klara Blum (1904–1971)
- Josef Burg (1912-2009)
- Paul Celan (1920-1970)
- Mihai Eminescu (1850-1889)
- Jurij Fedkowytsch (1834-1888)
- Robert Flinker (1906–1945)
- Alfred Gong (1920–1981)
- Jonél Kalinczuk (1856–1934)
- Heinrich Kipper (1875–1959)
- Alfred Kittner (1906–1991)
- Olha Kobyljanska (1863–1942)
- Ossyp Makowej (1867-1925)
- Itzik Manger (1901-1969)
- Maria Matios (* 1959)
- Alfred Margul-Sperber (1898–1967)
- Selma Merbaum (1924–1942)
- Ernst Rudolf Neubauer (1828–1890)
- Gregory of Rezzori (1914–1998)
- Moses Rosenkranz (1904-2003)
- Dmytro Sahul (1890-1944)
- Ludwig Adolf Staufe-Simiginowicz (1832–1897)
- Immanuel Weissglas (1920–1979)
- Manfred Winkler (1922-2014)
- Kubi Wohl (1911-1935)
- Isidor Worobkiewicz (1836–1903)
- Arnold Daghani (1909–1985)
- Friedrich Kiesler (1890–1965)
- Oskar Laske (1874–1951)
- George Löwendal (1897–1964)
- Karl Ewald Olszewski (1884–1965)
- George Ostafi (1961-2019)
- Leonard Wintorowski (1875-1927)
Musicians / performers
- Maria Forescu (1875–1942 / 43)
- James Kok (1902-1976)
- Otakar Hřímalý (1883–1945)
- Marija Yaremchuk (* 1993)
- Eusebius Mandyczewski (1857–1929)
- Karol Mikuli (1819-1897)
- Joseph Elgiser (1929-2014)
- Roman Vlad (1919-2013)
- Ludwig Rottenberg (1864–1932)
- Joseph Schmidt (1904–1942)
- Viorica Ursuleac (1894–1985)
- Joseph von Cavallar (1739–1812), major general and horse breeder
- Mayer Ebner (1872–1955), journalist and Zionist
- Eugen Ehrlich (1862–1922), legal sociologist
- Ninon Hesse (1895–1966), art historian and wife of Hermann Hesse
- Constantin von Hormuzaki (1862–1937), lawyer and natural scientist
- Raimund Friedrich Kaindl (1866–1930), historian and ethnologist
- Johann von Mikulicz (1850–1905), surgeon
- Basil Mitrofanowicz (1831–1888), Greek Orthodox theologian
- Oleh Pantschuk (* 1932), chemist
- Constantin Popovici (1846–1938), Greek Orthodox theologian
- Otto Preminger (1905–1986), film director
- Petro Rychlo (* 1950), Germanist and literary scholar
- Constantin Tomaszczuk (1840–1889), legal scholar and politician
- Hugo Weczerka (* 1930), historian
Cities and settlements
See also: Jews in Galicia
North Bukovina (Ukraine)
- Kizman (Kotzman)
- Storoschynez (Storozynetz)
- Wyschnyzja (Wiznitz)
South Bukovina (Romania)
- Câmpulung Moldovenesc (Kimpolung)
- Gura Humorului
- Rădăuți (Radautz)
- Siret (Sereth)
- Suceava ( Suczawa , most important city in southern Bucovina)
- Vatra Dornei
- Vicovu de Sus (Ober Wikow)
- Archduke Rudolf : The Austro-Hungarian monarchy in words and pictures . Volume 20: Bukovina. kk Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna 1899 ( digitized version ).
- Hugo Weczerka : The Germans in Buchenland (= The Göttingen Working Group . Series of publications. Issue 51). Holzner, Würzburg 1954.
- Hugo Gold et al .: History of the Jews in the Bukowina. Translated into English by Isak Shteyn. 2 volumes. Olamenu, Tel Aviv 1958/1962 (first in German: Hugo Gold (Hrsg.): History of the Jews in Bukowina. A compilation , volume 1: until 1919; volume 2: 1919–1944).
- Claus Stephani : "Long life, peace and freedom" . Zipser texts from the Buchenland. In: Neuer Weg (Bucharest), 25/7667, December 30, 1973, p. 7.
- Erich Prokopowitsch: The nobility in Bukowina. Südostdeutscher Verlag, Munich 1983.
- Andrei Corbea-Hoișie , Michael Astner (ed.): Cultural landscape Bukowina. Studies on the German-language literature of the Buchenland after 1918. Hartung-Gorre, Jassy Konstanz 1990.
- Dietmar Goltschnigg, Anton Schwob (ed.): The Bukowina. Studies on a sunken literary landscape. Francke, Tübingen 1990.
- Hannes Hofbauer , Viorel Roman: Bukowina, Bessarabia, Moldova: Forgotten land between Western Europe, Russia and Turkey. Promedia, Vienna 1993, ISBN 3-900478-71-6 .
- Emanuel Turczynski: History of the Bukowina in modern times. On the social and cultural history of a Central European landscape (= studies by the Research Center East Central Europe at the University of Dortmund. Volume 14). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1993, ISBN 3-447-03295-2 .
- Mariana Hausleitner : The Romanization of Bukovina. Oldenbourg, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-486-56585-0 (habilitation thesis, Free University Berlin, 1999; preview ).
- Cécile Cordon (ed.): At the edges of times. Chernivtsi and Bukovina. History, literature, persecution, exile. Theodor Kramer, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-901602-16-X .
- Kurt Scharr: "Chernivtsi is booming". The present of Bukovina in literature and media since 1991. In: Austria in history and literature with geography. Volume 47, 2003, No. 5, pp. 292-310.
- Petro Rychlo , Oleg Liubkivskyj: Chernivtsi, city of literature. 2nd, improved edition. Chernivtsi 2009.
- Victoria Popovici, Wolfgang Dahmen , Johannes Kramer (eds.): Lived multiculturalism. Chernivtsi and Bukovina. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-631-56484-4 .
- Kurt Scharr: The Bukovina landscape. The becoming of a region on the periphery 1774–1918. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2010, ISBN 3-205-78463-4 ( digitized version ).
- Claus Stephani: "Take my song". To the documentary show of German-Jewish poets from Bukovina . In: David . Jewish culture magazine (Vienna), 23rd year, No. 88/2011.
- Ion Lihaciu: Chernivtsi 1848–1918. The cultural life of a provincial metropolis. Parthenon, Kaiserslautern / Mehlingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-942994-00-2 .
- Márta Fata: Migration in the cameralistic state of Joseph II. Theory and practice of settlement policy in Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia and Bukowina from 1768 to 1790. Aschendorff, Münster 2014, ISBN 978-3-402-13062-9 .
- A Vanished World by Emil Rennert (2005)
- Chernivtsi, former Kronstadt of the Austro-Hungarian Empire . Germany 2006, documentary film, 80 minutes.
- Mr. Zwilling and Mrs. Zuckermann , Volker Koepp (director) Year of production: 1999, 127 minutes
- This year in Chernivtsi . Germany 2003/2004, documentary, 134 min., Director: Volker Koepp
- Othmar Andrée: Chernivtsi Bukowina - Where people and books lived
- Bukowina Institute at the University of Augsburg
- Andrei Corbea-Hoișie : Bucovina. In: YIVO (English; further entries on Bukovina in the YIVO)
- State Law Gazettes for Bukovina 1850–1918 , digital copies at ALEX
- ↑ Information from the German Historical Museum about resettlements from Bukowina
- ↑ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 5th edition, 3rd volume, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1895, p. 664.
- ↑ usv.ro
- ↑ Frederic Beaumont: Roumains et de Ruthènes Bucovine. Reflections on the formation of the myth of the ruthénisation. In Pierre-Yves Boissau (ed.): La Roumanie aux marches du monde slave. Slavica Occitania, 27, 2008, pp. 63-87.
- ↑ Entry on Bukowina in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- ^ Anson Rabinbach : The Migration of Galician Jews to Vienna. Austrian History Yearbook, Volume XI, Berghahn Books / Rice University Press, Houston 1975, p. 45 (Table 1, based on Jacob Thon: Die Juden in Österreich. In: Publications of the Bureau for Statistics of the Jews. No. 4, Verlag L . Lamm, Berlin-Halensee 1908, pp. 6-8; as well as Joseph Buzek: The emigration problem in Austria. In: Journal for Economics, Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 10, 1901, p. 492)
- ↑ Emil Brix: The colloquial languages in old Austria between agitation and assimilation. The language statistics in the Zisleithan population censuses 1880 to 1910. Verlag Böhlau, Vienna 1982, ISBN 3-205-08745-3 , p. 392.
- ^ Gunther Teubner: Globale Bukowina. On the emergence of a transnational legal pluralism. (PDF) In: Rechtshistorisches Journal 15 (1996), p. 253 ff .; Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- ↑ Kurt Scharr: The Bukowina landscape. The becoming of a region on the periphery 1774–1918. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2010, ISBN 3-205-78463-4 , p. 168.
- ↑ Reichsgesetzblatt No. 384/1850 of October 8, 1850 (= p. 1748)
- ↑ Reichsgesetzblatt No. 110/1854 of April 24, 1854 (= p. 395)
- ^ Imperial Constitution 1861, RGBl. No. 20/1861 (= p. 69); see attached state regulations
- ↑ Reichsgesetzblatt No. 101/1868 of July 10, 1868 (= p. 287)
- ↑ a b c Meyer's Konversations-Lexikon, 5th edition, 3rd volume, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1895, p. 665.
- ↑ Reichsgesetzblatt No. 134/1893 of August 12, 1893 (= p. 435)
- ↑ Reichsgesetzblatt No. 182/1903 of September 2, 1903 (= p. 728)
- ↑ Reichsgesetzblatt No. 139/1905 of August 15, 1905 (= p. 293)
- ^ Mariana Hausleitner: The Romanization of Bukovina. The enforcement of the nation-state claim of Greater Romania 1918–1944 . Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-486-56585-0 , p. 37 f.
- ^ Mariana Hausleitner: The Romanization of Bukovina. The enforcement of the nation-state claim of Greater Romania 1918–1944 . Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-486-56585-0 , p. 30.
- ^ Echoes. In: Bukowiner Rundschau No. 1141 v. May 26, 1892, p. 1, quoted from Andrei Corbea-Hoisie: Czernowitz 1892. The imagological projection of an epoch threshold. In: Wladimir Fischer u. a. (Ed.): Spaces and Borders in Austria-Hungary 1867–1918. Tübingen 2010 (= culture - rule - difference 11), pp. 35–47, here p. 42.
- ^ Andrei Corbea-Hoisie: Czernowitz 1892. The imagological projection of an epoch threshold. In: Wladimir Fischer u. a. (Ed.): Spaces and Borders in Austria-Hungary 1867–1918. Tübingen 2010, pp. 35–47, here p. 40.
- ^ Vienna, September 13th. In: Neue Freie Presse No. 10078 v. September 14, 1892, p. 1, quoted from Andrei Corbea-Hoisie: Czernowitz 1892. The imagological projection of an epoch threshold. In: Wladimir Fischer u. a. (Ed.): Spaces and Borders in Austria-Hungary 1867–1918. Tübingen 2010, pp. 35–47, here p. 42.
- ^ Andrei Corbea-Hoisie: Czernowitz 1892. The imagological projection of an epoch threshold. In: Wladimir Fischer u. a. (Ed.): Spaces and Borders in Austria-Hungary 1867–1918. Tübingen 2010, pp. 35–47, here p. 41.
- ↑ The Pasha economy and Zollmalversationen in the Bukovina. In: Fremdblatt No. 253 v. September 12, 1892 (Monday supplement), p. 1, quoted from Andrei Corbea-Hoisie: Czernowitz 1892. The imagological projection of an epoch threshold. In: Wladimir Fischer u. a. (Ed.): Spaces and Borders in Austria-Hungary 1867–1918. Tübingen 2010, pp. 35–47, here p. 42.
- ↑ Neue Freie Presse No. 1035 v. February 27, 1892, p. 1, quoted from Andrei Corbea-Hoisie: Czernowitz 1892. The imagological projection of an epoch threshold. In: Wladimir Fischer u. a. (Ed.): Spaces and Borders in Austria-Hungary 1867–1918. Tübingen 2010, pp. 35–47, here p. 42.
- ^ Karl Emil Franzos: Memories of Mommsen. In: Neue Freie Presse No. 14095 v. November 22, 1903, p. 1, quoted from Andrei Corbea-Hoisie: Czernowitz 1892. The imagological projection of an epoch threshold. in: Wladimir Fischer u. a. (Ed.): Spaces and Borders in Austria-Hungary 1867–1918. Tübingen 2010, pp. 35–47, here p. 41.
- ↑ verassungen.eu
- ^ Rudolf Wagner : Alma Mater Francisco Josephina. The German-speaking nationality university in Chernivtsi. Festschrift for the 100th anniversary of its opening in 1875 . Munich 1979.
- ↑ John Leslie: The Compromise in Bukowina from 1910. On the Austrian nationality policy before the First World War , in: Emil Brix, Thomas Fröschl, Josef Leidenfrost: History between freedom and order. Gerald Stourzh on his 60th birthday . Styria Verlag, Graz (1991), pp. 113-144.
- ↑ Gerald Stourzh: The national equalization in the Bukowina 1909/10 , in: Ilona Slawinski: Die Bukowina. Past and present . Verlag Lang, Bern / Vienna 1995, ISBN 3-906755-37-1 , pp. 35–52, here p. 49.
- ↑ Joint War Edition. Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung / Tagblatt. Thursday, November 7, 1918, p. 1
- ↑ Erich Prokopowitsch: The end of Austrian rule in Bukowina . Oldenbourg, Munich 1959, p. 60.
- ^ Treaty of Peace with Romania: February 10, 1947
- ↑ Bukowinaer Post on the website of the Austrian National Library
- ^ Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung on the website of the Austrian National Library
- ↑ Bukowinaer Rundschau on the website of the Austrian National Library
- ↑ The Last Jews in the Shtetl - Romania and its Jewish Legacy . Deutschlandfunk Europa heute, September 17, 2008:
- ↑ Volker Koepp: Mr. Zwilling and Mrs. Zuckermann. ( Memento from January 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Volker Koepp: This year in Czernowitz .