History of Carinthia

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The roots of the history of Carinthia go back to the Paleolithic . In antiquity , the area of ​​today's Austrian state of Carinthia was also part of the Celtic Kingdom of Noricum , a first state structure in these regions, which later became part of the Roman province of Regnum Noricum . After the Slavs expelled the Romans around the year 600 and formed their own state of Carantania , Baier and Franconian influences in Carinthia also gradually gained in importance. From 743 to 907 Franconian kings and emperors ruled over the area, after which Carinthia became part of the Duchy of Baiern . 976 began a phase of independence for the Duchy of Carinthia, which lasted until 1335; During this time numerous monasteries were founded as well as the construction of castles and fortifications. Then Carinthia was ruled by the Habsburgs and united with Austria , Styria and Carniola .

In the period that followed, up to the 18th century, Carinthia's fate was initially shaped by the Turkish wars , the peasant uprisings and the effects of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation . Under Maria Theresa there were reforms at the end of the 18th century that curtailed the power of the estates and guaranteed the peasants the right to their property; Carinthia lost its administrative independence. The coalition wars from 1797 onwards, when all of Upper Carinthia fell to France in 1809 , caused another setback in the country's development . In 1814 these parts of the country came back to the Austrian Empire , but were now annexed to the Habsburg kingdom of Illyria .

After the revolution of 1848/49 Carinthia regained independence and national unity; from 1867 to 1918 it was crown land in Austria-Hungary . After the loss of territory in the south of the country as a result of the First World War , Carinthia, as a federal state of the Republic of Austria, has retained its former borders to this day.

Carinthian duke installation on the Zollfeld , contemporary depiction by Leopold Stainreuter (14th century)

Prehistory and Roman times

Prehistory and early history

The oldest traces of settlement in Carinthia are those in the Griffen stalactite cave in the castle hill of Griffen : The stone tools found there date from the Paleolithic Age ( Upper Palaeolithic ) and are 30,000 to 40,000 years old. Further individual finds come from the Mesolithic Age , and for the period from the 3rd millennium BC onwards. The archaeological finds are piling up on Carinthian soil; there were probably larger settlements on the Strappelkogel in Lavanttal , near Maria Saal and near Villach . The remains of a pile dwelling settlement were found in Lake Keutschacher See , dating from shortly after the beginning of the 4th millennium BC. BC ( Copper Age ). The felling date of the oldest stake could be established by dating its tree ring widths ( dendrochronology ) to the year 3947 BC. Be determined. The settlement in the Keutschacher See has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps since 2011. A second pile construction in the Hafnersee , seems to be a little younger than that of the neighboring Keutschacher See.

There are also some finds from the Bronze Age . In addition to bronze tools and weapons, which may indicate an early trading activity with copper-rich Transylvania, the oldest skeleton find on Carinthian soil (St. Salvator near Friesach ) dates back to around 2000 BC. Chr.

In the last prehistoric era, the Iron Age , there was already intensive farming in Carinthia during the period known as the urn field culture . In the Hallstatt culture , there was a lively trade in salt and Mediterranean products; for the late Hallstatt period there are finds with characters from the Gurina in the Gailtal, probably the oldest written monuments in Austria. Other sites from the Hallstatt period are the Frög cemetery and the Gracarca . Illyrians , Venetians and Celts settled in what is now Carinthia.

The Celtic state of Noricum

Around 300 BC Several Celtic and Illyrian tribes united under the leadership of the Noricans and established the powerful Celtic state of Noricum with a fortified capital on the Magdalensberg as the center in what is now Carinthia. They minted their own coins and had extensive trading relationships. The Norikers were known for mining salt and iron, valuable trade goods with which they traded with the Etruscans from an early age . It is thus probably the first political entity in the area of ​​today's Austria, which in the course of the following centuries extended in the north to about the Danube .

With the Romans , the Noric king Cincibilus reached from 170 BC. Through a "hospitium publicum" ( Latin for "state hospitality" ) a friendly relationship. In the 1st century BC BC Noricum under Voccio reached a significant expansion to the east and north. Relations with the Romans expanded beyond commercial activity, so Voccio sent in 49 BC. Chr. Julius Caesar in the beginning civil war on the Rubicon to support 300 horsemen.

The Roman province of Noricum

Roman provinces and places on the territory of today's Austria
The young man from Magdalensberg , evidence of flourishing Roman culture even before the province was established

The Romans steadily expanded their influence in the region; the entire kingdom of Noricum was finally peacefully established around 15 BC. Occupied by the Romans, Magdalensberg became the capital . Around 45 AD, Noricum was converted under Emperor Claudius (41–54 AD) into a Roman province under an imperial governor based in Virunum on the Zollfeld. In addition to Virunum, the city of Teurnia also lay on what is now Carinthian soil. Due to the strong Romanization, a flourishing provincial Roman culture developed. Settlement was very dense in the central area of ​​Carinthia, especially in Lower Carinthia. Other important settlements were Santicum ( Villach ) and Iuenna ( Globasnitz ). Mining for iron, gold and lead was economically important, as was agriculture. Important sanctuaries outside the settlements were, for example, the Noreia sanctuary in Hohenstein or the Mars Latobius temple in Burgstall-St. Margarethen near St. Paul in Lavanttal . Under Diocletian (284–305) the province was divided along the main Alpine ridge into Noricum ripense ("Ufernoricum") and Noricum mediterraneum ("Inner Noricum "). The seat of Inner Noricum was initially Virunum. The Milan Edict of Tolerance in 313 began a stronger spread of Christianity . Episcopal seats in today's Carinthia are occupied for both Virunum and Teurnia. Until 395, the collapse of the Pannonian Limes, there was a relatively calm re-bloom in inland Noricum.

Great Migration

Since the 5th century the Roman Empire was besieged by Germanic tribes. In Inner Noricum the population withdrew from the settlements in the valley to fortified hilltop settlements and forts. The capital was relocated to Teurnia, which was easier to defend due to its altitude than Virunum, located in a valley. Well-known hilltop settlements were on the Hemmaberg , Ulrichsberg , Danielsberg , Grazerkogel and the Duel , among others . Early Christian churches are characteristic of these hill settlements, and six churches have been excavated on the Hemmaberg. After several incursions into Italy, the Goths invaded Noricum for the first time in 408 under Alaric I , coming from Emona ( Ljubljana ) over the Carnic Alps , over which the Roman military leader Stilicho was in command. Stilicho allied himself with Alaric, but was accused of high treason and executed because of this pact. His successor Jovius refused to let Alaric cede the provinces because of an oath which all Roman officials had to swear and which forbade a peace with Alaric. From 472, Ostrogoths and Alemanni came through the country without being able to conquer it. Even after Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor in 476, Roman administration remained in the provinces. With the death of King Theodoric , the Ostrogoths' empire finally fell apart without them having gained full control over Noricum. With the Ostrogoths, Arianism came into today's Carinthia, which manifested itself structurally with the construction of one of the two double churches on Hemmaberg. Under Emperor Justinian I , the Eastern Roman Empire finally recaptured Italy, including parts of Noricum, from the Goths between 535 and 555.

The Franconian King Theudebert I obtained rule over Noricum for a short time and appointed bishops there. As a result, Bavarians came to the area, but from 591 they met Slavs who invaded from the east with the support of the Avars , so that the Bavarians and the indigenous Celto-Roman population could not offer any resistance.

middle Ages

Principality of Carantania

Main article Carantanien

The prince stone, which has been installed in the coat of arms hall of the Klagenfurt country house since March 2006

With the support of the Avars , Slavic tribes poured into the area of ​​what is now Carinthia from the east around the year 590 and, since they were not prevented from doing so by the remaining Celto-Roman population, moved further and further west along the Drava until they reached 610 from the Bavarians , who had previously penetrated into the Puster Valley from the north, were defeated in a battle near Aguntum (near Lienz ), which also resulted in the destruction of the city. The Longobards in Friuli prevented further advance southward . With the Slavic conquest, the sources for many settlements in the former Inner Noricum also end. The capital Teurnia was mentioned for the last time in 591. The arrival of the pagan Slavs also brought Christianization to a standstill.

So Slavs settled in the valleys of Drava, Mur and Save and founded the Slavic principality of Carantania around the year 600 . The center of Carantania was the Zollfeld in the area of ​​the former capital Virunum, where the Carantans set up the prince stone, the upturned base of a Roman column, which was used to ritually set the princes residing in Karnburg . This custom was later adopted by the Carinthian dukes and integrated into the ritual of the establishment of a duke .

Archaeologically, the culture of the Slavs in today's Carinthia can hardly be grasped. The presence of the Romanesque population is, however, also proven by archaeological finds for the 7th century. So it can be assumed that there will be population continuity for this period as well. The number of immigrant Slavs was accordingly too small to leave an impact on material culture. That the ruling class was still dominated by Slavs and was perceived as such from the outside can be proven by a large number of written sources from this time.

The old country name Karantanien, which goes back to the empire in the Iron Age - probably derived from the Celtic "carant" (friend, relative) - indicates that traditions were passed on here, probably through the remaining native Celto Romans. The name “Carontani” was evidently mentioned around 700 by the geographer of Ravenna and the later form “Carantanum” for the territory of the Slavs is documented by the historian Paulus Diaconus before the year 800 . The German neighbors referred to the Karantanen with the Germanic collective name for the Slavic peoples as " Windische ". In connection with the Slav mission in Carantania, the Slovenian-language Freising monuments were also the oldest evidence of a Slavic language in Latin script.

The Slavic Carantan princes, who had to fend off both the attacks of the Avars in the east and the Franks pushing into the area from the north, probably initially joined the so-called Slavic empire of Samo , a loose tribal association of Slavic principalities. But when this became a tribute to the Avars, Borouth (Slov. Borut), the first Slavic prince known to us by name , asked the Bavarians before 743 for help against the Avars, which was also granted by Duke Odilo of Bavaria , but on the condition of recognition the Bavarian or Franconian sovereignty.

Duchy of Bavaria and the Franconian Empire

Maria Saal , location of one of the first churches in Carinthia (mid-8th century)
Mark Karantanien at the time of Charlemagne

The influence of the Bavarians in Carinthia was accompanied by the first Christian missions of the Salzburg diocese in the 8th century. Bishop Virgilius had Borouth's son and nephew, who himself was still a heathen, brought to Salzburg as hostages and brought up a Christian. After Borouth's death, his son Cacatius (Slovene Gorazd) ruled first and from 752 his nephew Cheitumar (Slovene Hotimir).

Cheitumar asked Virgilius to Christianize the country. He sent Modestus as vicar and other clerics to Carantania in 767 . After the death of Modestus there were two uprisings of the pagan Karantanians, a third uprising followed after the death of Cheitumar in 770. The rebels were able to defeat the troops of Valhun , the successor of Cheitumar, and drove out the Christian missionaries. Then the Duke of Bavaria Tassilo III. in 772 with troops to Carantania, fought back the uprising and Valhun was reinstated as duke.

In the course of Christianization, Bishop Virgilius of Salzburg commissioned the missionary bishop Modestus to build a church near Maria Saal before 757 , and the first monasteries, which also served to bring settlers from the Altland, were founded, and San Candido was one of the first (769 , today South Tyrol) and Kremsmünster (777, today Upper Austria). The first monastery in Carinthia was built between 772 and 788 by Tassilo III. founded in Molzbichl near Spittal an der Drau .

After Charlemagne , King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor from 800, deposed Tassilo in 788, this marked the end of the Baier tribal duchy. Karantanien was annexed together with Baiern and the other areas previously connected with Baiern to the Frankish Empire created by the Carolingians and subordinated to imperial officials. Karl continued the expansion policy in the south-eastern area of ​​his empire, subjugated the Avars and incorporated neighboring western Pannonia , so that the south-eastern borders of his empire stretched from Lake Balaton to the Adriatic coast in Istria.

Around 820, Franconian margraves replaced the tribal princes of Slavic descent in Carantania, who until then had guaranteed a certain autonomy of the area, as rulers. The possessions of the Slavs became kingland, and the Bavarian dioceses were endowed with donations of territory. The ecclesiastical landlords brought more settlers to Upper and Central Carinthia, the declining Slavic population gradually assimilated .

The Frankish King Ludwig the German transferred Bavaria and Karantanien to his son Karlmann in 856 . This then expanded his sphere of influence to other areas in the east and moved the center of his rule to Carantania. To his illegitimate son, Arnulf von Kärnten , he transferred the prefecture of Pannonia and the march of Carantania in 876 . After the death of the East Franconian King Karlmann in 880, he inherited Carantania, then became King of East Franconia himself in 887 and finally Roman Emperor in 896. One of the most important of his palaces was the Karnburg ("Curtis Carantana"), which he had expanded into a fortress. He is considered the last important ruler of the House of Carolingians; his son Ludwig the child succeeded him in 899 at the age of six and died in 911 as the last East Franconian Carolingian king.

As early as 893, Luitpold von Arnulf was appointed as Margrave of Carantania and Upper Pannonia. The namesake of the Luitpoldinger family , whose successors ruled Carantania until 947, died in 907 at the Battle of Pressburg , in which the East Franconians suffered one of the most devastating defeats during the Hungarian invasions . After the Luitpolding people, the Baier dukes Heinrich I (from 947 to 955) and Heinrich II (from 955 to 976) ruled over Carantania.

Ocher: Duchy of Carinthia with its brands around the year 1000

Duchy of Carinthia

After Heinrich II the quarrel , Duke of Bavaria, which had grown powerfully through the marches in the south and east, had tried in vain to instigate an uprising among the tribal dukes against his cousin, Emperor Otto II , he decided to separate Carinthia from Baiern in 976 thus to reduce the power of the Bavarian Duke.

Carinthia thus became an independent duchy alongside the old tribal duchies of Baiern , Swabia , Franconia and Saxony , and thus the oldest regional unit of the East Franconian Empire , which was mainly on the soil of today's Republic of Austria. In the course of time, "Carinthia" or the Latin form "Carinthia" came into use in place of the name Carantanien.

Were under the administration of the duchy

In addition, the Duke of Carinthia, as Margrave of Verona, also administered the Verona, Friuli and Istria brands . The dukes themselves, however, received hardly any possessions, so that they could and were quickly deposed again; the emperors valued control of the duchy.

The first Duke was Heinrich III from Luitpolding . used, he lost the office two years later. The German emperors initially wanted to prevent a hereditary noble family in Carinthia. The first dynasty of the duchy was founded in 1011 by the Eppensteiners , whose first representative, Duke Adalbero von Eppenstein , was overthrown and banished in 1035 after political disputes with the Salians . Swabian and Frankish dukes followed in rapid succession, with King Heinrich III. between 1039 and 1047 kept the ducal office for himself.

On the other hand, extensive properties were given to the church, the bishopric of Bamberg , which was only founded in 1007, was generously granted sovereign territories (including Villach with the Kanaltal , Feldkirchen and Wolfsberg with the upper Lavanttal ), and the Archbishopric of Salzburg received, among other things, the area around the city of Friesach , in the Middle Ages one of the most flourishing areas in the southeastern Alpine region. The 11th century became an era when Benedictine monasteries were founded:

In 1072 the diocese of Gurk was founded as the first of Salzburg's own dioceses , followed by the allocation of a small diocese ( Dioecesis Gurcensis ) in 1131 .

With Luitpold von Eppenstein , Heinrich IV enfeoffed another Eppensteiner with the Duchy of Carinthia and the Mark of Verona for the first time in 1077 . With the death of his brother and successor Heinrich III. However, the line died out in 1122. The Eppenstein family was succeeded by the Spanheimers from the Rhineland-Franconia , who were the first to enforce the inheritance of the fiefdom. They chose St. Veit as their royal seat, and under their rule an economic and cultural upswing began in Carinthia, in particular the development of the market and urban system under Duke Bernhard von Spanheim . However, the Duchy of Carinthia lost its influence under the Spanheimers, who ruled until 1269.

As early as 1025, some brands had begun to break away from the duchy, in that year the Sanntal became an independent margraviate, in 1040 Carniola and Istria followed this example. During the reign of Spanheim in 1151 the Verona and Friuli brands were lost. As the last mark of the duchy, the Karantanian mark split off. Ottokar I , who came from the Baier family of counts of the Traungau , and his successors were from 1056 margraves of the Carantanian march. Barbarossa raised this to an independent duchy in 1180, which was also called Styria after the ancestral castle in Steyr , and set Ottokar IV as duke. Finally, the Lungau , an area in the Central Alps, separated from the Carinthian heartland by high mountains, was lost to the duchy in 1246 and became the property of the Salzburg bishops. 1252 were with the peace of Lieserhofen between Philipp , chosen from Salzburg, Albert III. , Count of Tyrol , and Meinhard III. , Count of Gorizia , regulated the spheres of influence in this room.

The later capital Klagenfurt was first mentioned in 1193/99 as forum Chlagenuurt . Due to its convenient location between Vienna and Venice and not least because of its rich silver deposits in the nearby Zeltschach , Friesach became the first and for a long time the most important city in Carinthia from 1215 onwards. On May 4, 1201, a strong earthquake shook Upper Carinthia and destroyed the castles Rauchenkatsch and Weißenstein and brought "some churches to fall". The epicenter was in the Liesertal . Medieval Carinthia reached its heyday with Bernhard von Spanheim , who ruled from 1202 to 1256, due to his vigorous promotion of the urban system there. During this time, the silver Friesacher Pfennig was the most important means of payment in the Eastern Alps, even beyond the borders of Carinthia. With the death of his successor, Duke Ulrich III. The last indigenous ducal dynasty of Carinthia died out in 1269, and the last of his line died in 1279 with his brother Philipp von Spanheim .

In addition to the ducal family, several other noble families (e.g. the Gorizia , the Ortenburgers , the Heunburgers ), but above all the Archbishop of Salzburg , the Bishop of Freising and the Bishop of Bamberg, owned important lands, which led to the formation of a closed one State rule prevented.

Carinthia becomes Habsburg

In the years 1269 to 1276 Carinthia fell to the Bohemian King Přemysl Ottokar II through the Podiebrad inheritance treaty . After his death, the country was united for the first time with other areas of today's Austria from 1276 to 1286 . Carinthia then came to the Counts of Görz-Tirol; Meinhard II of Tyrol was from 1286 to 1295 the first of those dukes of Carinthia from this family who remained in possession of the country until 1335, but no longer resided permanently in Carinthia.

With Count Ulrich von Heunburg , a Carinthian governor was appointed for the first time in 1270 . In 1292 Ulrich was the leader of an uprising directed against Albrecht I von Habsburg , in the course of which he occupied Griffen Castle and made it the center of his activities. However, the rebels were finally defeated in 1293 by Duke Meinhard II on Wallersberg near Griffen .

Meinhard's sons, Heinrich , Otto and Ludwig, inherited him after his death in 1295 as heirs with equal rights, but in 1305 only Heinrich was still alive, who himself remained without male descendants, so that the Meinhardin family died out with him in 1335.

In 1335 Carinthia was transferred to the Habsburgs by Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian and united with Austria, Styria and Carniola . However, the state freedoms, the "Kärntner Landshandveste", were confirmed by Duke Albrecht II , as were the city rights of St. Veit and Klagenfurt . When Tyrol fell to the Habsburg Duke Rudolf IV in 1363, a complex of countries was created in the Eastern Alps, which was called the rule of Austria .

However, in the late 14th and almost the entire 15th century, this was divided several times by inheritance divisions, and partly occupied by the troops of the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus . In the years 1379/1411 to 1457 (and later again from 1564 to 1619) Carinthia was united with Styria , Carniola and the coastal region to form Inner Austria . It was not until Frederick V succeeded in uniting the Habsburg lands at the end of the 15th century when he survived and inherited all of his opponents.

Decades of natural disasters

In the course of the 14th century, the residents of Carinthia were exposed to a number of natural disasters. In 1338 and 1339 entire areas were plagued by swarms of locusts coming from the east, and the winter of 1339/40 brought an unusually long period of cold with it. An earthquake on January 25, 1348 with its epicenter in Friuli also caused severe damage in southern Carinthia and caused a landslide of the Dobratsch , which in turn led to a damming of the Gail and widespread flooding. Numerous buildings, including churches and castles, were destroyed. A few weeks later, a plague epidemic originating in Italy , which subsequently spread over all of Central Europe, also reached Carinthia and claimed numerous lives in 1348 and 1349.

The Carinthians who were affected by the causes of this consequence of misfortunes partly suspected a criminal judgment from God, which led to penitential up to self-mortification like public processions of flagellants ; others, on the other hand, suspected the Jews as the cause of the epidemic, as they were accused of poisoning springs and wells . This resulted in local persecution of Jewish communities; for example, von Wolfsberg reports severe riots against Jews from 1349.

Early modern age

Turkish wars and peasant revolts

Between 1473 and 1483, Turkish armies invaded Carinthia five times. After the storming of Constantinople in 1453, the Turks advanced through the Balkans further west and in 1469 threatened Carniola's borders for the first time . When the news of the new danger was heard, the churches and mansions were feverishly expanded and the passes on the south side of the country secured. In order to raise the costs for this, the Ständetag in Völkermarkt decided to introduce a personal tax that every person, regardless of age and status, had to pay. At the end of September 1473, the Turks invaded the Jaunfeld via the Seebergsattel and plundered and pillaged for five days as far as Central Carinthia and the Glantal . Militarily, the country could not oppose the invaders, so that the knights, nobles and clergymen holed up in their castles, while most of the people were defenselessly exposed to the attack. Three years later the Turks broke into Carinthia again, this time from the Savetal , burned Arnoldstein down and devastated the Gailtal and the area around Villach . They settled in the Drauschlinge near Wernberg (the area is still called "Turkey" today), from where they continued their raids.

Because the farmers did not want to be exposed to further attacks defenseless in view of the inaction of their masters, they organized themselves in a Carinthian farmers' union under the leadership of Peter Wunderlich . The chronicler Jakob Unrest wrote about the founding of this covenant in Spittal in 1478 : Do you pay after Christ purt 1478 umb Lichtmeß, the Pawren pey der Traa under Spital made a pundt. In short days they made iren punt larger and longer, larger and larger. When the Turks invaded via the Predil for the third time on June 25th of that year, the Bauernbund was able to mobilize 3,000 armed men on the "Goggauer Wiese" near Arnoldstein . In view of the onrushing riders, however, a large number of them fled, so that the remaining 600 or so men were overwhelmed in a short time. This raid was not the last either; two more raids were to follow in 1480 and 1483.

Since between 1480 and 1490 the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus was in league with Salzburg Friedrich III. war and occupied parts of Carinthia, it came to one of the worst times of need in the country. This was followed by a plague of locusts in 1490. The dissatisfaction of the population, especially the peasants, erupted in several revolts from the second half of the 15th century. On the one hand, the landlords and the nobility levied ever higher “ Turkish taxes ”, but on the other hand they were unable to provide adequate protection. The “ Carinthian Peasant Uprising 1478 ” under the leadership of Peter Wunderlich was directed against both the landlords and the Turks. In 1515 the peasantry organized in the “ Windischen Bundschuh ” rebelled against the new legal principles in the Slovenian Lower Styria under the motto “za staro pravdo” (for the old law) . The foothills of the German Peasants' War also reached Upper Carinthia and Krain (Battle of Schladming) in 1525. The uprisings were finally put down in 1526 by Austrian troops supported by the Swabian Federation .

In 1500 the dynasty of the Counts of Görz died out from the house of the Albertines with Leonhard von Görz , the property was divided between Carinthia and Tyrol , which received today's district of Lienz . Most of the possessions of the Salzburg diocese were subordinated to the sovereign sovereignty. In 1518, Emperor Maximilian I gave the Carinthian estates the city of Klagenfurt, which burned down in 1514 . It was rebuilt and expanded as a rural residence in the 16th century and followed Sankt Veit an der Glan , which was previously the seat of the estates, as the political center and state capital.

After the battle of Mohács in 1526, Carinthia was not far from the border with the Ottoman Empire , and the Turkish wars took up a good part of the country's strength. Numerous fortified churches and above all the then massive Hochosterwitz Castle still bear witness to the latent danger of looting, pillage and massacres of the population.

Reformation and Counter Reformation

In the course of the 16th century there was a sharp rise in Protestantism , and from the mid-1520s the center of the movement in Carinthia was Villach . The Protestants were recognized with the Augsburg Religious Peace of 1555, but only as a result of the “ Brucker Libell ” of 1578, in which the nobility attached to the Augsburg Confession rejected Calvinism , was Archduke Charles II in Inner Austria under pressure from the nobility (Styria, Carinthia, Krain) religious freedom granted. This not only meant that Protestantism was tolerated, but also that almost all of Carinthia was Protestant at the end of the 16th century. Along with Burgenland, the country is still a stronghold of Protestantism in Austria, which was able to hold its own in remote valleys.

The Strasbourg , seat of the prince bishops Gurker

Archduke Ferdinand III. , who later became Emperor Ferdinand II., began around 1600 with the sovereign counter-reformation among the bourgeoisie and peasantry. The Reformation Commission under the leadership of Bishop Martin Brenner von Seckau roamed the whole country and forced conversions or the emigration of the insubordinate. In 1628 the religious freedom of the nobility was also abolished. The effects of the Counter-Reformation, which forced thousands of Protestant Carinthians into exile in southern Germany or Hungary, were economic decline, the collapse of precious metal mining, the decline of class power and massive emigration, especially to southern Germany.

The Carinthian property of the Archdiocese of Bamberg was fully subordinated to the sovereign sovereignty in 1649.

In the 18th century the denominational struggles became less intense, but there was still a new persecution of Protestants in 1732. The Protestants were now resettled in the areas of Transylvania and the Banat , which had been devastated by the Turkish wars .

Carinthia in the 18th century

Under Maria Theresa there were various reforms in the administration (district division, Villacher Kreis or Upper Carinthia, Klagenfurt District also called Lower Carinthia) and tax collection (tax rectification), which aimed to unify the administration of the monarchy and to curtail the power of the estates . In 1772 the peasants' legal right of inheritance to their property was decreed.

In 1759, the possessions of the Bamberg diocese in Carinthia were acquired, which brought Villach and the Kanaltal , Feldkirchen , Griffen , Wolfsberg , Bad St. Leonhard and the upper Lavanttal under the rule of the Habsburgs.

After the tolerance patent of Emperor Joseph II. In 1781, over 14,000 secret Protestants confessed and formed Protestant parishes.

In 1782 Carinthia lost its administrative independence when it came under the government in Graz (with interruptions from 1790 to 1804). The inner Austrian court of appeal came to Klagenfurt .

The Gurk prince-bishop moved to Klagenfurt in 1787. The diocese of Gurk now comprised most of Carinthia.


The coalition wars and the consequences

The French Revolution was followed by the coalition wars between France and its European opponents from 1792 . Initially not affected by fighting, Carinthia became a target of Napoléon Bonaparte's attack in the course of the Northern Italian campaign in 1797 . On March 27, French troops, led by General André Masséna , marched in front of Klagenfurt. The city was left to the attackers without a fight, two days later Napoléon himself came to the city and confirmed a provisional city administration ( "Centralcommision" ) of Klagenfurt citizens. Shortly afterwards, on April 18, 1797, the preliminary peace of Leoben between France and Austria was resolved and already on May 24, after the peace of Campo Formio , the French left Klagenfurt again.

The peace did not last long, however. In the Second Coalition War from 1799 to 1802, a national defense was organized in Carinthia, as they continued to see themselves threatened in view of Napoléon's successes in Italy, although there were no military clashes on Carinthian soil at that time either. In the same year Napoléon entered Vienna victoriously, and Klagenfurt was occupied by French soldiers for the second time in November 1805.

After the Peace of Bratislava , Carinthia became a border region, as Austria had to cede Venice and Dalmatia to the Republic of Italy. The heavy war contributions and the bad harvests of 1804 and 1805 brought Carinthia to the brink of ruin.

Border stone Austria - France in northern Carinthia (1814)

In the years that followed, resistance began to form against the foreign rule resulting from the coalition wars. From Tyrol, which had been under Bavarian rule since the Peace of Pressburg, Andreas Hofer led the rebels, in Carinthia Johann Baptist Türk had the supreme command of the "Carinthian Landsturm" . On April 9, 1809 the war between France and Austria broke out again, in Carinthia the positions of Malborghet in the Channel Valley and on the Predil Pass were defended by the captains Johann Hermann von Hermannsdorf and Friedrich Hensel, who both died in the battles.

Up until the Peace of Schönbrunn , the French occupied Carinthia again and blew up several fortifications, which particularly affected Klagenfurt. Another consequence of the war Upper Carinthia was separated with the city of Villach the country and formed as part of Napoleon's " Illyrian Provinces " the department "Carinthie" .

After Napoléon's defeat in the Russian campaign in 1812 , Villach could be recaptured in 1813, but the area was added to the Habsburg Kingdom of Illyria with the capital Ljubljana in 1813/14 . It was not until 1849 that Carinthia was to become an independent administrative unit again.

After the revolution of 1848

Blast furnace in the booklet near Hüttenberg

The revolution of 1848/49 , which began in Austria on March 13, 1848 with bloody riots in Vienna, was relatively peaceful for Carinthia. The freedoms gained were expressed - following the Viennese model - in the establishment of a national guard and the establishment of the democratic "Carinthian People's Association" . The new political order brought the peasants basic relief from all taxes to the manor and largely equal civil rights.

A first freely elected (but only by a few men) Carinthian Landtag met and demanded the restoration of the country's independence and administrative unity. This demand was finally enforced, and in 1849 the old crown land of Carinthia of the Habsburg Monarchy was restored, and Klagenfurt became the state capital again. In order to counteract national efforts, the Carinthian Slovenes were granted autonomy rights.

With the provisional municipal law of March 17, 1849, the 713 tax and cadastral municipalities created in 1785 in Carinthia were combined into 181 local municipalities in the course of 1849 and 1850 . Since then there have been some corrections, such as B. the municipal reform in 1973, and amalgamation, a large part of the 132 municipalities today has retained their areas defined in 1850 to this day. After the organization of the communities, they were assigned to one of the 28 newly established district courts in 1849. In turn, a district administration was formed from several district courts . The district division created in 1850 has only undergone two changes to date (Villach became a statutory town in 1932 and the Feldkirchen district was only formed in 1982).

Carinthia on a map from 1899

The church, in whose activities the Josephinist state had intervened, was granted far-reaching rights in the areas of clergy , marriage law and the school system. The diocese Lavant received a new seat in Marburg in 1859 , its Carinthian areas came to the diocese Gurk , which in this way became congruent with Carinthia.

With the Imperial Constitution of 1861, Carinthia, like the other Crown Lands, received a state order, according to which a state parliament and a state committee were formed as its executive committee. The chairman of the state parliament and state committee, appointed by the emperor from among the members, was called the state governor. The governor faced these autonomous state organs as a representative of the emperor and the central government. In Carinthia, the governor (as in only four other crown lands) bore the title of state president, and his office was referred to as the state government. In the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy formed in 1867 , Carinthia was part of Cisleithania , the half of the Austrian Empire. It later sent elected representatives to the Reichsrat in Vienna.

For the local industry it turned out to be an advantage that mining had been carried out here for centuries . About a quarter of the population lived from iron processing, mining and charcoal production. With the triumphant advance of the railroad in the second half of the 19th century, these products were in enormous demand.

Through the connection to the national railway network, local industry and trade initially gained economic strength, but most Carinthian companies were unable to keep pace with the rapid industrial development in the long term: many mines and works had to be closed at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th Century, including between 1901 and 1908 the blast furnaces in the booklet near Hüttenberg .

A side effect of the connection to the rail network was that tourism in Carinthia gradually increased; a development that led from the 1930s to the systematic expansion of a separate branch of industry that is now very important for the country.

The Mountain War 1915–1918

Almost a year after the outbreak of the First World War , previously neutral Italy declared war on Austria on May 23, 1915. Since Carinthia's external borders were not threatened up to this point, the country's troops fought on the Eastern Front . It was therefore compelled to set up volunteer groups to try to stop the enemy on the 100 km long border with Italy until regular troops arrived. In the bitter trench warfare in the Julian and Carnic Alps , numerous soldiers on both sides lost their lives in the winter months, also due to avalanches. The twelve battles of the Isonzo between 1915 and 1917 claimed hundreds of thousands of victims.

Defensive struggle and referendum

Old border Austria - Italy in Pontebba

The end of the war also meant the end for the old Duchy of Carinthia: the provisional Carinthian regional assembly under the leadership of Arthur Lemisch declared on November 11, 1918, that it would join the Republic of German-Austria . On December 1, 1918, the SHS Kingdom ( Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes ) was founded. In the course of the detachment of Slovenia from the Austrian union of states, this claimed the entire southern Carinthian area, and by the beginning of December troops under General Rudolf Maister had already occupied Ferlach, Völkermarkt and Bleiburg. On December 5th, the Carinthian Provincial Assembly, which in turn wanted to have the southern border of Carinthia along the Karawanken mountain range, decided to initiate armed resistance. By May 7, 1919, all but the areas evacuated according to the armistice agreement were horrified.

Due to the agreement in the peace treaty of St. Germain of 1919, the Canal Valley came to Italy, the Miessal , Unterdrauburg and the municipality of Seeland ( Kankertal ) to the SHS Kingdom - which for Carinthia the loss of at least 8% of the territory and 6% of the population meant -; A referendum was set for the whereabouts of Southern Carinthia. The referendum of October 10, 1920 showed that the majority of the population (59.04%) voted for Carinthia to remain with Austria , with an almost 100% turnout . The result of the vote implied that almost half of the Slovenes, who made up around 70% of the electorate in the voting area, had voted to remain with Austria after the state government had promised them extensive minority rights shortly before the election.

The SHS state tried again to occupy Carinthia after the referendum, but had to withdraw its troops from the voting area by November 22, 1920 due to international diplomatic protests. The borders of Carinthia established in 1920 have remained unchanged to this day.

Between 1920 and 1934

The result of the referendum was hailed as a great success. However, the country suffered from the effects of the war economy. The supply of food and coal, of which there was an acute shortage, was problematic due to the cut off trade connections to the former areas of the Danube monarchy. The consequence of this was the rise in inflation and unemployment, which led to an economic crisis in Carinthia.

In addition, political life became increasingly polarized from the early 1920s. With the conservative “Heimatschützer” and the social democratic “Republican Protection League”, two paramilitary associations with opposing worldviews faced each other. However, there were initially no serious arguments.

year Guests Country of origin
Austria Germany Others
1923 11,300 78.6% 5.8% 15.6%
1926 164,900 75.3% 21.6% 3.1%
1929 276,400 67.5% 18.9% 13.6%
1934 250.160 83.3% 1.1% 13.1%
1938 341.040 35.3% 56.2% 8.3%
Development of tourism 1923-38

The situation gradually eased from the mid-1920s. In Carinthia, which is mainly geared towards agriculture, progress first moved into the cities: Radio Verkehrs AG began broadcasting in 1924, and Klagenfurt Airport was opened in 1925 . In numerous cities and municipalities they began to invest more in tourism; For example, the rebuilt Naßfeldhütte of the Alpine Club on the Naßfeld in the Gailtal was opened on July 3, 1927, the Klagenfurt am Wörthersee lido was expanded from 1928 , and construction of the Großglockner High Alpine Road began in Upper Carinthia , which was opened to traffic in 1935.

The beginnings of economic upswing and optimism were followed by the global economic crisis of the early 1930s, which resulted in the closure of iron and steel works in Carinthia, a drop in livestock prices, falling demand for products from the woodworking industry and a renewed rise in unemployment. In view of this social situation, the political climate intensified again, social democrats and communists on the one hand and the Heimwehr and National Socialists on the other clashed during marches.


Since the beginning of the 1930s, the National Socialists in Carinthia gained considerable votes in state elections, but above all in municipal council elections. In 1931 , the NSDAP in the state capital of Klagenfurt was the second largest parliamentary group in the municipal council, and in the following year it also achieved the breakthrough into a politically important party in numerous municipalities.

The Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss tried from March 1933 - after the alleged " parliamentary shutdown " - to find a way out of the crisis with emergency ordinances. He formed an authoritarian regime and was strictly hostile to both National Socialism (whose party he banned by state constitutional law in the summer of 1933) and social democracy. But even during the prohibition of the NSDAP and after the lifting of all state parliament and municipal council mandates, Carinthia was an Austrian stronghold of National Socialism in the Austro-Fascist corporate state (from May 1, 1934), which was expressed in leaflets, demonstrations and even explosive attacks, a coup attempt by the Nazis on July 25, 1934 ( Juliputsch ), the day of the Dollfuss murder, which also led to the storming of several places in Carinthia, was crushed within a few days by troops of the Austrian army and the home associations. Under Federal Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg, the corporate state was able to hold out until 1938 despite comparatively little popular support. Governors of the Patriotic Front in Carinthia were Ludwig Hülgerth (1934–36) and Arnold Sucher (1936–38).

time of the nationalsocialism

On the day of Chancellor Schuschnigg's resignation, March 11, 1938, there were demonstrations by the National Socialists in the Carinthian cities of Klagenfurt and Villach. In the office building of the Government of the forced NSDAP - Gauleiter Franz Kutschera and Wladimir von Pawlowski by Governor Arnold viewfinder the transfer of the Office to Pawlowski. The next day, the entire administration of Carinthia, including the municipalities, was in the hands of the National Socialists, who were the first federal state in Austria to report the takeover of power. In the “referendum” on the “ annexation of Austria ” to the German Reich on April 10, 1938 in Carinthia, 99.83% of those entitled to vote voted “Yes”. In 105 so-called “Führer communities” there was not a single no vote. In advance, the propaganda had established a connection with the referendum on October 10, 1920.

From May 1938 Hubert Klausner was governor, after his death in February 1939 Pawlowski followed him as managing governor. At the same time, Pawlowski was district president from August 1939 to June 1942, Gauhauptmann from March 1940 to December 1941 and from April 1940 representative of the Reich Governor in Carinthia, a prime example of the interdependence of party and state offices in the Nazi state. On November 18, 1941, Friedrich Rainer was appointed NSDAP Gauleiter and Governor of Carinthia.

As early as October 1938, East Tyrol was incorporated into the Carinthia Gau. This initially remained a party district and only became a Reichsgau on May 1, 1939 . After the capitulation of Yugoslavia on April 17, 1941 ( Balkan campaign ), the Miessal and Upper Carniola were occupied by the German Reich and placed under the administration of Carinthia.

During the time of National Socialism , Carinthia made up around 6% of the population of Austria, 15.4% of the NSDAP members. There were 13,333 SS members in Carinthia .

The "Slovenian Problem"

After the "Anschluss" of Austria, there were various speculations in the mixed-language part of Carinthia: Some feared the transfer of the area to Yugoslavia , which was friendly with Germany, while the Slovenes feared discrimination and persecution. Leading representatives of the Carinthian Slovenes such as Franc Petek and Joško Tischler tried to find a good understanding with the new rulers and even recommended a “yes” in the vote on April 10th. In March 1938, however, a number of Slovenian priests were arrested and teachers dismissed - Joško Tischler, himself a teacher, was transferred to distant Vorarlberg . From August 1938, the Volkstumsstelle of the Reich Ministry of the Interior in Klagenfurt was responsible for the Slovenian question. The director was Alois Maier-Kaibitsch , former managing director of the Carinthian Heimatbund. The last bilingual place-name signs disappeared in 1938, and in May 1939 there were no more bilingual classes. After the German-Italian agreement on the resettlement of German-speaking residents in Carinthia, considerations were made in autumn 1939 to relocate the Kanaltal population in southern Carinthia. After the conquest of Yugoslavia, plans were made to relocate 20,000 to 50,000 Carinthians to the Lublin area . After protests, these plans were abandoned, only around 200 families labeled “anti-people and subversive” were initially brought to the “Altreich”.

After the conquest of Yugoslavia in 1941, 20,000 Slovenes were resettled from Slovenia. The "not able to Germanize" were resettled to Serbia , the "racially valuable" were brought to the old Reich for "Germanization". This also motivated the Carinthian Gauleiter Rainer to resume the resettlements. According to Himmler's slogan “Make this country German!”, 1,075 Carinthian Slovenes were expelled from their farms in April 1942 and taken to a camp in Ebenthal , 917 of them were later taken to northern Germany for forced labor. Kanaltal farmers moved into their farms.

Even Nazi functionaries protested against the planned and in some cases carried out resettlements. Even Himmler's main office and the Todt Organization had concerns about the growing unrest in southern Carinthia, as the resettlements increased the influx of partisan movements . The resettlements continued to a lesser extent, for example in January 1944 when 50 Slovenes were arrested and transported away in the Eisenkappel - Petzen area . The final "ethnic land consolidation" should be completed after the war.


As early as the winter of 1939/40, Slovenian armed forces deserted from Carinthia to Yugoslavia. After the defeat of Yugoslavia in April 1941, they formed the first partisan groups in the Karavanken. At the same time, the Liberation Front ( Osvobodilna Fronta , OF) was founded, which was under communist leadership, but was also supported by the Christian and liberal camp. Especially after the resettlements, many Wehrmacht members went "into the forest" after a leave from the front, including Franci Pasterk-Lenart , commander of the First Carinthian Partisan Battalion.

In November 1942, 130 partisans and sympathizers were arrested. In a people's court trial in Klagenfurt, Roland Freisler sentenced 13 defendants to death. The partisan movement quickly recovered. In March 1944 one group settled in the Sattnitz area , in June another group on the Saualpe . However, the associations developed their greatest activity outside of the Carinthian area, in October there was heavy fighting on the Saualpe. In 1944/45 the Germans had 15,000 armed men in action in the Carinthian partisan area, the number of gendarmerie posts had increased from 43 to 153. There were repeated attacks. In April 1945, police units murdered a family of 11 at Peršmanhof in Koprein-Petzen, from an 80-year-old grandmother to an eight-month-old baby.

Around 500 partisans were killed in fighting. This was the only continuous, organized and armed resistance against the Nazi dictatorship in Austria, and thus an important contribution to the liberation of Austria in the sense of the Moscow Declaration of 1943.


Memorial site with the names of 3,175 murdered by the Nazi regime in and from Carinthia. Klagenfurt-Annabichl cemetery

Representatives of the Catholic Church had initially hoped for a peaceful coexistence with the Nazi regime. However, as early as 1938, numerous clergymen were arrested and taken to concentration camps. Prince-Bishop Adam Hefter , who still met Hitler personally in 1938, was disappointed with the development in his New Year's Eve address in 1938 and resigned in 1939. His successor Andreas Rohracher could not become a bishop due to the opposition of the rulers and only carried the title of capitular vicar .

As a result, Catholic schools were closed, monasteries such as St. Paul in Lavanttal were closed, ecclesiastical goods were confiscated such as the Maria Hilf sanatorium in Klagenfurt and the Carinthia print shop . The church exit propaganda was quite effective in Carinthia, in 1940 about 4,327 Catholics and 828 Evangelicals left the churches.

In Carinthia, too, many prisoners of war and compulsory foreign workers were used as workers. Around 26,000 foreigners worked in agriculture, around 36,000 in other economic sectors. There were two main camps for prisoners of war in Carinthia, Wolfsberg and Spittal an der Drau. The Loibl concentration camp and the Klagenfurt-Lendorf subcamp were satellite camps of the Mauthausen concentration camp .

662 handicapped Carinthians fell victim to the " euthanasia " in Hartheim Castle in Upper Austria in 1940/41 . In the “ Reichspogromnacht ” on November 8, 1938, all male Carinthian Jews were arrested and taken to the Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps. By the beginning of 1940, half of the Jewish businesses had been " Aryanized " and the other half had been liquidated. By the beginning of 1943, all Carinthian Roma and Sinti had also been taken to concentration camps, only a few survived. A total of around 2,400 Carinthians were victims of Nazi persecution.

The war in Carinthia

Carinthia was spared direct war events for a long time. Only since the end of 1943 was Carinthia within reach of Allied airfields in southern Italy ( Foggia ). Klagenfurt was first attacked from the air on January 16, 1944; the attack claimed 234 lives. A total of 40 major air raids took place on Klagenfurt and 39 on the important traffic junction in Villach. After Wiener Neustadt, Villach was the most heavily damaged city in Austria, 451 buildings were totally destroyed, 848 badly damaged. Allied troops only reached Carinthia after the armistice, so that Carinthia was spared from heavy fighting.

End of war

Localizations of the Bleiburg massacre in Austrian Carinthia and epicentres of mass killings in Slovenia

In April 1945 there was the 438th Division under General Ferdinand Noeldechen, which was regularly in Carinthia, as well as strong Wehrmacht and SS units that had withdrawn from Italy and Yugoslavia. Gauleiter Rainer wanted to continue the fight in the so-called " Alpine fortress ". It shouldn't come to that anymore. On May 1st, Rainer handed over the office of regional president to Gauhauptmann Meinrad Natmeßnig . On May 5th Natmeßnig met representatives of the resistance movement and the parties from the First Republic in the country house. It was agreed to form a provisional executive committee made up of Social Democrats and Christian Socials. A first visit by the executive committee to Rainer was inconclusive. On May 6, the democratic parties formed a provisional state government, and the social democrat Hans Piesch became governor. A delegation under Piesch went to Rainer on May 6, who declared himself ready to resign. On May 7th, he handed over his business to Natmeßnig, who immediately passed them on to the provisional state government. Even before the arrival of the Allied troops, the democratic forces had come to power in Carinthia in a “legal” way. As the last base of the Nazi regime , the Gestapo headquarters in Klagenfurt was attacked by armed resistance fighters, whereupon the Gestapo people fled.

The British Army had reached after the surrender of the armed forces on the Italian front in the afternoon of May 7, the Carinthian border and marched into Klagenfurt in the morning of May 8, just hours before the arrival of associations of the communist Yugoslav People's Liberation Army , the territorial claims Titos should secure. The British immediately made it clear that they would not allow the Yugoslav troops to remain in Carinthia and demonstrated this by setting up cannons on Neuer Platz and in front of the country house in Klagenfurt. After diplomatic pressure and military threats remained unsuccessful, the Yugoslav troops were placed under Soviet orders on May 16 . The Soviets were interested in adherence to the negotiated zones of occupation and ordered the withdrawal from Carinthia, which took place in the following days.

During these days , the Yugoslavs arrested 263 people in the area they occupied in southern Carinthia . Around 100 were still released in Carinthia, around 90 were released again in Yugoslavia. 96 people were killed or died in custody. Most of the abductions took place in areas in which there had previously been particularly fierce partisan fighting. The exact motives could usually not be determined. In Bleiburg , Croatian ( Ustascha militias, Domobrani ), Slovenian ( Domobranzen ) and Serbian associations ( Tschetnik ), which were joined by civilians who had fled the fascist Ustascha regime, capitulated to the British army. They were extradited to Yugoslavia by them . Tens of thousands of them were executed in retaliation by the Yugoslav army or interned in camps for forced labor .

Since 1945

Hans Piesch was recognized by the British occupying power as governor on July 24, 1945 and confirmed by the state elections on November 25, 1945 . But he only held this office for a year and a half; he resigned in April 1947 when he was accused of being a member of the NSDAP during the Nazi era . His successor was Ferdinand Wedenig (SPÖ). After the Austrian State Treaty was signed in 1955, the British occupying power withdrew by the end of October.

The implementation of the rights guaranteed to the Slovenian minority in Article 7 of the State Treaty resulted in tough political disputes in the Second Republic , which were most violently expressed in the symbolically charged street sign dispute . In 1972, for example, the bilingual topographical inscriptions set up to fulfill international and constitutional obligations were removed again by residents who were hostile to Slovene in the course of the so-called local sign tower . The topography ordinance of 1977 set the Slovene-speaking population at 25%. This percentage was revoked in 2001 by the Austrian Constitutional Court as too high and therefore unconstitutional. The question was only resolved in 2011 when there was a consensus between the federal government, the state government and most of the minority representatives. The most important negotiators were State Secretary Josef Ostermayer (Federal Chancellery), Governor Gerhard Dörfler and Valentin Inzko , Chairman of the Council of Carinthian Slovenes (and High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina ).

In Carinthia, the SPÖ provided the governor from 1945 to 1989 . At the end of the 1980s, the scandal surrounding the Magdalen pulp mill shook the political landscape and above all weighed on the ruling SPÖ. After the SPÖ lost an absolute majority in the state elections on March 12, 1989 , Jörg Haider was elected governor; he was the first FPÖ politician in Austria to hold this position. In 1991 he was voted out after he had praised the “proper employment policy” of the Third Reich in the state parliament. Instead of him, Christof Zernatto ( ÖVP ) became governor; in March 1999 Haider won the election again. Haider and the FPÖ were confirmed in the 2004 state elections . After Haider's accidental death in October 2008 , Gerhard Dörfler formed the Dörfler I state government ; she served until March 2009.

In the state elections on March 1, 2009 , Haider's party, now renamed BZÖ , reached first place (44.89%) and provided the governor ( state government Dörfler II ).

As a result of a series of scandals such as the Hypo Alpe Adria - and the so-called part-of-the-game affair , the BZÖ in Carinthia came under great pressure; all other state parties called for new elections. An early state election took place in Carinthia on March 3, 2013 . The SPÖ became the strongest party (37.13%); the FPK won only 16.85% of the vote. Peter Kaiser became governor; he formed the state government Kaiser I . After the state elections in Carinthia in 2018 , he formed the state government of Kaiser II .

At the end of October 2018, a severe weather disaster caused severe damage in the country.

See also


  • Claudia Fräss-Ehrfeld : History of Carinthia. 3 vols. Johannes Heyn, Klagenfurt 1984-2005.
    • Vol. 1. The Middle Ages . Klagenfurt 1984, 2005 (2nd edition), ISBN 3-7084-0111-5 .
    • Vol. 2. The class epoch . Klagenfurt 1994, ISBN 3-85366-685-X .
    • Vol. 3/2. Carinthia 1918–1920. Defensive struggle - referendum, search for identity. Klagenfurt 2000, ISBN 3-85366-954-9 .
  • Walther Fresacher: Local history contributions to the history of Carinthia. Klagenfurt 1980, OCLC 450618517 .
  • Stefan Karner (Ed.): Carinthia and the national question. 5 vols. Heyn, Klagenfurt 2005, DNB 975136879 .
  • Hieronymus Gothart Megiser, Michael G. Christalnick: Annales Carinthiae - Chronicle of the praiseworthy Archduke Khärndten. Lamberg, Leipzig 1612. (Reprint: Johannes Heyn, Klagenfurt 1981, ISBN 3-85366-368-0 , (online) )
  • Gernot Piccottini : Introduction to the prehistory, Roman times and early history of Carinthia. In: Gernot Piccottini: Archaeological Atlas of Carinthia . Verlag des Geschichtsverein für Kärnten, Klagenfurt 1989, ISBN 3-85454-069-8 , pp. 11-21 (section Province of Noricum)
  • Helmut Rumpler (Ed.): History of the Austrian federal states since 1945. Volume 2: Carinthia. From the German border mark to the Austrian federal state. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 1998, ISBN 3-205-98792-6 .
  • Beatrix Schönet, Günther Schönet: A Brief History of Carinthia. Ueberreuter, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-8000-7089-8 .
  • Herbert Stejskal: Carinthia. History and culture in pictures and documents. Univ. -verlag Carinthia, Klagenfurt 1985, 1999, ISBN 3-85378-500-X .
  • Hellwig Valentin: The special case. Carinthian contemporary history 1918–2004. Hermagoras / Mohorjeva, Klagenfurt / Ljubljana / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7086-0108-4 . (for section Time of National Socialism)

historical monographs:

  • Ignatz de Luca: Duchy of Carinthia. In: Geographisches Handbuch von dem Oestreichischen Staats. 2. Volume The countries in the Austrian district. Verlag Johannes Paul Krauss, Vienna 1790, pp. 187–261 ( Google eBook, full view ).
  • Alois Maier: Church history of Carinthia. Klagenfurt 1956.

Web links

Commons : History of Carinthia  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Otto Cichocki: A Neolithic Village in the Lake? Stilt research in the Keutschacher See. In: Friedrich Wilhelm Leitner (Ed.): Keutschach am See. A chronicle. Heyn, Klagenfurt 2003, ISBN 3708400070 , pp. 11–26, here: pp. 17–19.
  2. ^ Otto Cichocki, Cyril Dworsky: Island settlements in Carinthia. Research in the Keutschacher See. In: Ph.Della Casa, M. Trachsel (Ed.): Wetland economies and societies. WES'04 - proceedings of the international conference Zurich, 10-13 March 2004. (= Collectio Archaeologica, Volume 3), Working Group for Research on Prehistory in Switzerland, Chronos, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-0340-0757-4 , pp. 251-254.
    Austrian site to the prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps and the UNESCO World Heritage Site in the Keutschacher See
  3. ^ Alfred Ogris (Ed.): On the search for traces in Carinthia's history. Discussions and controversies. Verlag des Kärntner Landesarchiv, Klagenfurt 2011, ISBN 978-3-900531-79-9 , p. 528.
  4. Heiko Steuer u. Volker Bierbrauer (ed.), Hill settlements between antiquity and the Middle Ages from the Ardennes to the Adriatic (Berlin 2008), p. 623 f.
  5. ^ Gernot Piccottini, The late antique burial ground of Teurnia. St. Peter in Holz (Klagenfurt 1976), p. 116.
  6. Walter Pohl, The Avars. A steppe people in Central Europe. 567–822 AD (Munich 2002) p. 120.
  7. ^ Paul Gleirscher, Carantania. Slavic Carinthia (Klagenfurt 2000), p. 22.
  8. Stefan Eichert, On the early medieval settlement of the Eastern Alps using the example of Carinthia, in: Studies on Spätantike und Frühmittelalter. Volume 3 (Hamburg 2011), p. 109.
  9. Walter Pohl, The Avars. A steppe people in Central Europe. 567–822 AD (Munich 2002) p. 120.
  10. ^ Fräss-Ehrfeld: History of Carinthia. Vol. 1, 1984, p. 51.
  11. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Leitner, in: Epigraphik 1988. Symposium for Medieval and Modern Epigraphy, Graz, May 10-14, 1988 (Vienna 1990), p. 36.
  12. Dehio Carinthia 2001, p. 561.
  13. History and Stories. January 2006, p. 55.
  14. ^ Paul Dedic: Carinthian exiles of the 17th century. In: Carinthia I 136-138 (1948), pp. 108-135; II: ibid. 139 (1949), pp. 388-417; III: ibid. 140 (1950), pp. 768-803; IV: ibid. 142 (1952), pp. 350-380; V: ibid. 145 (1955), pp. 577-589; VI: ibid. 147 (1957), pp. 628-634; VII: ibid. 150 (1960), pp. 277-320; VIII: ibid. 154 (1964), pp. 257-307; Carinthian migrants of the 16th and 17th centuries. A personal history index. Arranged by Karl Heinz Keller / Werner Wilhelm Schnabel / Wilhelm Veeh. Nuremberg: GFF 2011 (gff digital - Series B: Personal History Databases, 1). ISBN 978-3-929865-92-9
  15. ^ Imperial Constitution 1861, RGBl. No. 20/1861 (= p. 69); see attached state regulations
  16. The numbers mentioned here follow Hellwig Valentin: The special case. Carinthian contemporary history 1918–2004. Hermagoras / Mohorjeva, Klagenfurt / Ljubljana / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7086-0108-4 , p. 150.
  17. PressReader.com - Newspapers from around the world. In: pressreader.com. Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
  18. Overfather and foster son - Politische Sommerfrische - derStandard.at ›Inland. In: derstandard.at. Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
  19. limited preview in the Google book search
  20. Wilhelm Papst: "So I escaped from custody!" - Magdalen scandal - news - krone.at. (No longer available online.) In: krone.at. Archived from the original on September 23, 2017 .;
  21. Severe weather processing: Land informed affected communities. In: APA-OTS . Office of the Carinthian Provincial Government, November 17, 2018, accessed on November 19, 2018 .
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on December 30, 2005 .