|(Italian: San Candido )|
|coat of arms||map|
|Region :||Trentino-South Tyrol|
|Province :||Bolzano - South Tyrol|
|District community :||Val Pusteria|
(VZ 2011 / 31.12.2019)
|3.206 / 3.349|
Language groups :
(according to 2011 census )
|Coordinates||46 ° 44 ′ N , 12 ° 16 ′ E|
|Altitude :||1,113– 3145 m slm (center: 1175 m slm )|
|Permanent settlement area:||9.6 km²|
|Parliamentary groups :||Innichberg, Obervierschach, Untervierschach, Winnebach|
|Neighboring municipalities:||Innervillgraten (AT), Sexten , Sillian (AT), Toblach|
|Partnership with :||Freising|
|Postal code :||39038|
|Area code :||0474|
|Mayor (2015):||Rosmarie Burgmann (list of citizens)|
Innichen ([ ˈɪnɪçn̩ ]; Italian San Candido ) is a market town with 3349 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) in the South Tyrolean Puster Valley in Italy . The municipality borders Austria in the east and north . As the location of the only hospital in Alta Pusteria , the place is of general importance.
The municipality of San Candido is located in the Pustertal , which runs from west to east , more precisely in Hochpustertal in the far east of South Tyrol. The municipal area, a total of 80.10 km², includes not only the Puster Valley floor but also areas in the Dolomites bordering to the south and in the Villgraten mountains to the north .
The village settlements of the community are all in the Puster Valley. The main place Innichen (1160- 1200 m slm ) is located at the mouth of the valley of the opening out of the southeast Sextentals where Sextner Bach and Drava meet, near the Drava origin at Toblacher field and the border with the western neighboring municipality Toblach . East thereof - even in the valley - follow the fractions Versciaco consisting of upper (1130- 1150 m ) and the lower Versciaco (1130- 1180 m ) and Winnebach (1120- 1180 m ), close to the Italian-Austrian border to State Tirol or in the vicinity of the East Tyrolean municipality of Sillian . On the northern slope of the valley above the main town of Innichen, where a wooded ridge separates the Puster Valley from the Silvestertal valley, which belongs to Toblach , is the scattered settlement Innichberg . To the north behind Vierschach and Winnebach, the Innichner part of the Villgraten mountains rises to over 2500 m . The ridge between Markinkele ( 2545 m ) and Hochrast ( 2436 m ), which slopes down into the Villgratental valley, bears the municipal boundary from Innichen to Innervillgraten and thus also the national border.
To the south of the Puster valley floor, the municipality protrudes far into the Sesto Dolomites and the Drei Zinnen nature park . This area includes the Innerfeldtal , which branches off from the lower Sextental to the south, and the surrounding mountains. On the west side of the Innerfeldtal, the Haunold group rises up with the Haunold ( 2966 m ) and the Birkenkofel ( 2922 m ). The ridge that borders the valley on the east side towards the Fischleintal and the municipality of Sexten carries, among other things, the Toblinger knot ( 2617 m ) and the Dreischusterspitze ( 3145 m ). To the east, above the exit of the Sex Valley, the Innichner community area on Grenzberg Helm ( 2433 m ) reaches the northernmost foothills of the Carnic main ridge .
In the 4th century BC Celtic tribes settled here, practiced agriculture in addition to cattle breeding and founded a small fortified village.
15 BC The Romans conquered the provinces of Raetia and Noricum , including the San Candido area. After the Roman road ( Via Julia Augusta ), which connected Aquileia with Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum), had passed through this area, the Romans most likely founded the Littamum military station here .
At the end of the 6th century AD, the Slavs advancing from the east fought fierce battles with the Bavarians advancing from the north in Hochpustertal . The locality at that time was destroyed, whether by armed events, by a flood or by a major fire, is not clear.
In 769 the Bavarian Duke Tassilo III transferred. the abbot Atto von Scharnitz a stretch of land between today's Welsberg in the west and Abfaltersbach in the east with the requirement to found a Benedictine monastery in India , also called Campogelau (= icy land), for missionary work; this is how today's Innichen arose. Innichen is thus the oldest monastery and one of the oldest Bavarian settlements in Tyrol .
In 783 Abbot Atto became Bishop of Freising . Since then, Innichen has belonged to the Hochstift Freising as a Freisingian Hofmark, with a brief interruption up to secularization in 1803, and to the Fürsteten Grafschaft Tirol until 1919 .
Around 1140 the Benedictine monastery was converted into a secular collegiate monastery, and the Benedictine monks were replaced by "secular" clergymen, the canons . Since the High Middle Ages, the bailiffs (Counts of Görz, then Counts of Tyrol), who were actually intended to protect the Freising rule, snatched almost all of the lands from them, so that at the end (1803) only a part of the village of Innichen was left.
Up until the First World War , Innichen was a garrison of the Austro-Hungarian Army. In 1914, the headquarters and the IV. Battalion of the Landesschützen Regiment No. III were stationed here.
After the First World War, the Italian fascists built an ossuary as a memorial . The memorial is controversial to this day because the buried soldiers were reburied there from distant war cemeteries.
The districts of Vierschach, Winnebach and Innichberg were independent communities until 1929.
The oldest written documents are 769 "India", 822 "Intihha" and 1070 "Intichingen".
The etymology and the source language of the name are in the dark. Egon Kühebacher speculated that Innichen could come from a Celtic * Indiaca meaning "area of the Indians".
A major problem of name interpretation is the move from India to Intihha . Diether Schürr interpreted Intihha as a diminutive of the presumably late antique name India , which was used to differentiate it from the area name , which was regarded as inappropriate because of the association with India .
Innichen is the seat of a German-speaking school district . This includes the primary schools in Vierschach and Winnebach, as well as the primary and middle school in the main town of San Candido. The primary school in the neighboring community of Sexten is also connected to the district. There is also a primary school for the Italian language group, which is administered by the Toblach district.
The German-speaking business school in San Candido is the only offer of a secondary school in Alta Pusteria.
Innichen is the location of a hospital for the South Tyrolean medical company .
Culture and sights
- Innichen Abbey ( collegiate church and museum)
- Franciscan monastery San Candido
- Dolomythos Museum
For motor traffic , San Candido is primarily opened up by the SS 49 . In addition, the municipality is crossed by the Pustertalbahn , which offers access points at the Innichen train station and the Vierschach-Helm train station .
San Candido is one of the most popular vacation spots in Alta Pusteria, South Tyrol. In summer as in winter it offers a variety of activities: in summer mainly hiking and climbing as well as cycling on the Drauradweg and mountain biking. The cross-border bike path from Innichen to Lienz in neighboring Austria is particularly popular with families.
In winter the Haunold ski mountain is in operation, which also has a toboggan run. Night skiing has also been on offer since the 2011/2012 winter season. In the district of Vierschach and Sexten there are facilities of the Helm-Rotwand ski mountains. Like the Haunold ski mountain, it is part of the 3 Zinnen ski area, which with 115 kilometers of slopes is one of the larger ski areas in South Tyrol. It is also part of the world's largest ski carousel, the Dolomiti Superski .
San Candido is connected to the cross-country ski trail network of the Hochpustertal, which includes over 200 groomed trails. There are also opportunities for ice skating. The landscape is suitable for trips with snowshoes or for ski tours in winter. Innichen also has an indoor swimming pool. Innichen has around 2,500 beds for guests in catering establishments. Private room landlords and farmers (vacation on the farm) also offer approx. 500 beds.
- Anna Maria Chiuri , opera singer (mezzo-soprano)
- Julius Cornet (1793-1860), opera singer (tenor)
- Bartlmä Firtaler (1480–1535), late medieval architect and builder with characteristic vaulting
- Leopold Ganzer (1929–2008), painter
- Diana Gaspari (* 1984), curler
- Hans Glauber (1933–2008), sociologist, artist, environmentalist, mountaineer
- Stanislaus Kiepach (1754–1808), Franciscan, author of numerous books
- Egon Kühebacher (* 1934), historian and non-fiction author
- Christian Oberstolz (* 1977), luge rider
- Helga Plankensteiner (* 1968), jazz musician
- Thomas Prugger (* 1971), snowboarder
- Matthäus Rader (1561–1634), philologist and historian
- Peter Paul Rainer (1885–1938), poet and writer
- Paul Ram (b) lmayr (von Taufers), Stiftsdekan in Innichen from 1679 to 1689
- Nathalie Santer (* 1972), former biathlete
- Jannik Sinner (* 2001), tennis player
- Kurt Sulzenbacher (* 1976), alpine ski racer
- Michael Wachtler (* 1959), author and researcher
Mayor since 1952:
- Walter Müller: 1952–1956
- Walter Wachtler: 1956–1974
- Franz Senfter: 1974–1985
- Josef Passler: 1985-2010
- Werner Tschurtschenthaler: 2010–2015
- Rosmarie Burgmann: since 2015
coat of arms
In 1303 the coat of arms was awarded by King Albert I. On the coat of arms there is a red background on top of a silver-colored fort that stands on green lawn. The coat of arms of the Hochstift Freising can be found above the gate.
- Freising (Germany) since 1969
- Egon Kühebacher : 1250 years San Candido - a commemorative publication for the anniversary year 2019. Contributions to the history of San Candido from 769 AD to the late 19th century . Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2019, ISBN 978-3-7030-0985-3 . (on-line)
- Egon Kühebacher: Church and museum of Innichen Abbey . Athesia , Bozen 1993, ISBN 88-7014-721-5 .
- Hansjörg Plattner and Germana Nitz: Innichen - A picture book . Folio Verlag , Vienna-Bozen 2018, ISBN 978-3-85256-762-4 .
- Egon Kühebacher: Innichen, a 1250 year old foster home for Christian culture and art. A supplement to the anniversary "1250 years of San Candido" . In: Der Schlern, Vol. 94 (2020), Issue 7/8, pp. 4–23.
- Entry in the Tirol Atlas of the Institute for Geography at the University of Innsbruck
- Official website of the market town of San Candido
- Holiday portal of the market town of San Candido
- Landscape plan of the community of Innichen . Office for Landscape Ecology, Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (PDF file)
- ↑ Martin Bitschnau , Hannes Obermair : Tiroler Urkundenbuch, II. Department: The documents on the history of the Inn, Eisack and Pustertal valleys. Vol. 1: Up to the year 1140 . Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2009, ISBN 978-3-7030-0469-8 , p. 30-31 No. 50 .
- ^ Egon Kühebacher : Die Hofmark Innichen (1969), p. 38
- ↑ Diether Schürr: Sound shift in Tyrol: The case of Innichen . In: Austrian name research . tape 34 , 2006, p. 139-158 ( academia.edu ).
- ↑ San Candido school district. South Tyrolean Citizens' Network , accessed on October 25, 2014 .
- ↑ School district Toblach - Hochpustertal. South Tyrolean Citizens' Network, accessed on October 25, 2014 .
- ↑ Business College San Candido. South Tyrolean Citizens' Network , accessed on March 17, 2017 .
- ↑ Night skiing on the Haunold
- ↑ http://www.dmartist.com/artist/mezzosopranos/anna_maria_chiuri.html
- ^ Germana Nitz, Hansjörg Plattner: Innichen . Folio, Vienna 2018, ISBN 978-3-85256-762-4 , p. 145; see also Google Books
- ↑ The mayors of the South Tyrolean municipalities since 1952. (PDF; 15 MB) In: Festschrift 50 Years of the South Tyrolean Association of Municipalities 1954–2004. Association of South Tyrolean municipalities, pp. 139–159 , accessed on November 16, 2015 .