|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|Height :||448 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||88.6 km 2|
|Residents:||49,126 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||554 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||85354, 85356|
|Area code :||08161|
|License plate :||FS|
|Community key :||09 1 78 124|
|City structure:||40 parish parts|
City administration address :
|Obere Hauptstrasse 2
|Lord Mayor :||Tobias Eschenbacher ( Freising Center )|
|Location of the city of Freising in the Freising district|
Freising (formerly Frigisinga , Frisinga , Freisingen , Freysing , Latin : Frisinga ) is a large district town and university town in Bavaria and a regional center in the Munich region . It is located on the Isar about 30 kilometers north of the state capital Munich . The city was the seat of a duke in the first Bavarian tribal duchy and gained great importance as an early medieval bishopric and later as the center of the Freising Monastery. With the rise of Munich and secularization , the city lost its importance. Today Freising council is based in the same district Freising . The Weihenstephan Science Center of the Technical University of Munich , the Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences and other research and educational institutions are located around the former Weihenstephan Monastery . Just outside the city in the Erdinger Moos lies Munich Airport . Due to the resulting strong influx of new residents, including secondary residences, the city exceeded the limit of 50,000 inhabitants at the end of 2016. In 2017, Freising is considered to be the youngest city in Bavaria, based on the age of the population.
Geology and topography
The city of Freising is Upper Bavaria , 33 km northeast of the state capital. The municipality is characterized by the interface between two characteristic landscapes of the Alpine foothills, the flat land of the Munich gravel plain , which is the most striking part of the Isar-Inn gravel slabs , and the tertiary Danube-Isar hill country belonging to the Lower Bavarian hill country .on the Isar halfway between Munich and Landshut in
The Freisinger Moos , one of the largest remaining fen areas in Bavaria, is located in the southwestern municipality . It developed where the gravel packages on the Munich plain are so thin that the groundwater flows came to the surface and formed extensive fens. In the former low moor area, crossed by many bodies of water such as the Moosach , the districts of Pulling and Achering are located on slightly higher gravel tongues. In addition to the natural waters some originated there by gravel mining lakes . The largest of these lakes is the Pullinger Weiher between Pulling and Achering, where there is still an active gravel pit. The Erdinger Moos begins in the southeast of the municipality, but most of it has been drained. The Attaching district is located there and the Munich Airport site begins on the outskirts . The largest flowing water there is the Goldach , which runs south of Attaching.
Coming from the south, the Isar, which flows through the municipal area between Achering and the Isar bridge near Marzling for a distance of about 10 km, separates the two wetlands. It is accompanied on both sides of the river by alluvial forest , which is also present in the city of Freising, but has already lost some of its character due to human intervention. Thanks to the construction of the Middle Isar Canal , the Isar has only carried a small amount of water in the Freising area during the dry months for almost a century. Due to the containment of the river, the straightening of the Isar and the lack of sediment caused by the construction of the Sylvenstein reservoir, it is digging deeper and deeper and the groundwater level in the area has sunk. The alluvial forest is only rarely flooded and the species composition has changed significantly. The most populous district of Lerchenfeld is located in the previously almost uninhabited floodplain south of the Isar . The second, much less water-bearing river that flows through the urban area of Freising is the Moosach . Coming from the Freisinger Moos, this divides into several arms in the urban area, some of which man has created artificially for mills. One of them flows north of Toompea through the city center, the main arm south past Toompea. Both arms reunite on the eastern outskirts. The diverted Schleifermoosach crosses under the railway line and flows on through the Isar floodplains until it flows back into the Moosach in Marzling.
North of a line Pallhausen - Vötting - Tuching the landscape changes noticeably. The Isar valley is bordered by steep slopes, some of which are still forested. Two exposed hills of this tertiary hill country, the Domberg and the Weihenstephaner Berg, have been inhabited since ancient times and stand out due to the buildings that can be seen from afar. The landscape of the urban area in the tertiary hill country is characterized by trough-shaped brook valleys whose watercourses flow into the Isar or Moosach after a short course. Places such as Hohenbachern , Sünzhausen , Itzling and Pettenbrunn as well as the northern extension of the city of Freising are located in the landscape, which is often traversed by asymmetrical valleys . The old town, which hugs the northern foot of the Domberg, is characterized by its location between Domberg (Lehrberg), Weihenstephaner Berg (Nahrberg) and the former barracks mountains (Wehrberg) in the north. The town of Freising, bounded on the north and northwest, a forest belt, the forest reserve has -character. It is largely a state forest and is used for scientific research.
In the northernmost part of the municipality, the gently undulating hill country slopes steeply into the wide Amper valley , which runs outside the urban area. The steep slopes of the so-called Amperleite are mostly covered by forest, while the flat Ampertal is used for agriculture as it has largely lost its mossy character. The districts of Haindlfing , Garten and Erlau are located there.
- As protected landscape areas that are Freisinger Moos , the terrain along the Isar and the Ampertal and whose slopes expelled. Parts of the Freisinger Moos and the alluvial forest along the Isar are protected as fauna and flora habitats .
- For bird protection, the Freisinger Moos and areas near Attaching (including the northern runway of the airport) have been designated as a Special Protection Area (SPA) .
- Old gravel pit near Vötting , a 1.5 hectare wood on the field drive in the west of Freising.
- As a natural monument that is the source complex Lohmühlbach in Lerchenfeld placed under protection.
- Siderite formation in Ampermoos (geotope number 178A002)
- Mine field Waldsiedlung Freising (geotope number 178G001)
Neighboring communities and the surrounding area
The following communities border the city of Freising: Zolling in the north, Marzling in the north- east, Hallbergmoos and Oberding in the south-east, Neufahrn in the south-west, Kranzberg in the west and Kirchdorf an der Amper in the north-west . Except for the municipality of Oberding in the Erding district , all of them belong to the Freising district.
Freising is the second largest city and the second regional center after Munich in the planning region of Munich , as well as the fourth largest in the administrative region of Upper Bavaria after Munich, Ingolstadt and Rosenheim . Until 2013, the city was designated as a possible regional center (medium-sized centers with partial function of a regional center). Other cities in the area are Erding , Moosburg and Pfaffenhofen .
The municipality of Freising consists of the ten districts Attaching, Freising, Haindlfing, Hohenbachern, Itzling, Neustift, Pulling, Sünzhausen, Tüntenhausen and Vötting. The districts of Itzling and Tüntenhausen are - for historical reasons - not completely in the Freising municipality, but partly in the territory of the municipality of Zolling.
The core city with the old town is mostly in the area of the Freising district. Weihenstephan and Vötting are in the district of Vötting, Tuching and Neustift in the district of Neustift. A small part of Lerchenfeld is in the Attaching district. Other parts of the core city with proper names are the Eichenfeldsiedlung and Seilerbrückl.
The total area of the city of Freising is 88.59 km². The largest part of this is agricultural and forest areas as well as settlement and traffic areas. The areas are distributed as follows:
|Area type||Area in hectares||Area share [%]|
|Building and open space||898||10.1|
|of which mining land||12||0.1|
|including green spaces||51||0.6|
|of which streets, paths, squares||500||5.6|
|Areas of other use||209||2.4|
|of which settlement and traffic areas||1944||21.9|
Freising lies in the transition area between a humid Atlantic and a dry continental climate (type Dfb ). Due to this constellation, the weather is relatively changeable. On a long-term average, around 790 mm of precipitation falls in Freising, with a pronounced maximum in the months of May to August. On some days of the year, the foehn brings warm, dry air from the south and thus a good view of the Bavarian Alps. This can lead to spring-like temperatures even in the winter months. Due to the proximity of the Alps, snowy winters are not uncommon. The southern parts of the municipality in the Freisinger and Erdinger Moos and areas near the Isar are often foggy , especially in autumn . Heat thunderstorms often occur in the summer months .
Monthly averages for Freising
Prehistory and early history
The oldest traces of human settlement in the Freising area were revealed by excavations on the Domberg in 1976, which unearthed ceramics and chert tools. These finds were assigned to the early Neolithic Münchshöfen culture . Further evidence are extensive finds from the early Bronze Age and the Urnfield Age . Archaeologists are also familiar with a Roman road on the Isar. Continuous settlement has not yet been proven beyond doubt, but due to the exposed scenic location of Toompea, it is highly probable.
From the ducal palace to the ecclesiastical city
The next evidence of settlement history comes from the early Middle Ages , when the place was a ducal palace under the name Frigisinga in the first Bavarian tribal duchy (from 555 AD). After Duke Theodo II had divided the Duchy of Boiern among his four sons while he was still alive , Freising became an Agilolfingian residence around 715, which included a castle ( castrum ), a residence ( palatium ) and a Lady Chapel. Freising is the only known town founded by the Bavarian Agilolfinger and thus the oldest town in Upper Bavaria.
The Marienkirche, the first predecessor of the later cathedral , was already built of stone and designed as a bishop's church. Duke Theodo had made a pilgrimage to Rome and asked Pope Gregory II to set up bishoprics in Bavaria. This event was recorded in the Liber pontificalis and in 716 led to the papal instruction to found four bishopric seats ( Regensburg , Passau , Salzburg and Freising) in Bavaria. However, this first church organization did not materialize for unknown reasons, although the duke was waiting for a bishop because he hoped he would consolidate his rule.
In his endeavors to give the Duchy of Bavaria-Freising an ecclesiastical order, Duke Grimoald (son of Theodo II) sought and found the Franconian traveling bishop Korbinian , who officially came from Arpajon (south of Paris) in 724 (presumably as early as 715) Freising came. In Freising, the bishop found a chapel (St. Stephanus) on the Weihenstephaner Berg, which became a starting point for his work. Korbinian is therefore regarded as the first Freising bishop and the founding saint of the diocese, even if the canonical recognition of the bishopric was not made until 739 by Boniface . To this day, the holy Korbinian is the patron saint of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising . Its special attribute , the bear , which, according to the legend, carried the saint's luggage across the Alps, adorns the Freising city coat of arms.
Duke Grimoald and Korbinian got into a dispute over the marriage of the Duke to Pilitrud, the widow of his brother Theodolt (Duke in Regensburg ). Since this was forbidden under church law at the time, Korbinian demanded the dissolution of the marriage. When Duchess Pilitrud then tried to poison Korbinian, the saint fled to Kuens (near Meran ) and did not return to Freising until a few years later. Duke Grimoald had died in the meantime and his nephew Hugibert Herzog in Bavaria. The Hugibertsmünster , built around 725 on the Domberg, goes back to this. From this point on, Freising no longer appeared as a ducal palace.
Towards the end of the older Baier tribal duchy , the castle hill and the resulting city ( Civitas , Oppidum ) passed into church property in 788 and became Toompea. Freising developed into a spiritual city in which priestly communities and monasteries, libraries, scriptoria and a cathedral school were established. Bishop Arbeo von Freising (723–784), who is considered to be the first writer of German origin, is named as the author of the Codex Abrogans , a Latin-Old High German glossary, the copy of which is kept in St. Gallen and is considered the oldest surviving German book.
Cathedral city and learned mountain in the High Middle Ages
Around 860, Bishop Anno had a new three-aisled cathedral built on the site of the former St. Mary's Chapel, the oldest St. Mary's church in the diocese. Before the bishopric of Bishop Waldo (884), Chancellor of King Charles III. , the king interfered for the first time in the occupation of the Freising chair. In the following 250 years, East Franconian kings decided who would become Bishop of Freising. The Freising bishops of this time often served as chancellors, notaries or royal envoys in the service of the respective ruler. In general, the Freising bishops and the Freising Cathedral School enjoyed a high reputation among the kings and emperors of that time. Ludwig the German and Ludwig the child were students of the Freising Cathedral School, Emperor Heinrich the Saint was introduced to science by Bishop Abraham and Emperor Konrad II handed his first-born son over to Bishop Egilbert for upbringing .
In 903 the cathedral burned for the first time, but the damage was repaired by 906. In 955 the city was plundered by the invading Hungarians , but the Toompea was miraculously spared. In later years this was attributed to the prayers and "fog miracles" of the then Bishop Lantbert . Besides the founder of the diocese, he is the only saint who was also Bishop of Freising.
In contrast to Augsburg and Regensburg , the Freising bourgeoisie, which has since emerged at the foot of the Domberg, was unable to free itself from episcopal rule. Freising therefore remained a place dominated by Domberg for centuries, known in the Middle Ages as "mons doctus" (scholarly mountain) and became the cultural, artistic and religious center of old Bavaria . For this reason, many places in Upper Bavaria are first mentioned in Freising tradition books. Medieval writing and book illumination reached an early heyday in Freising. For example, the Freising monuments were created between 972 and 1039 , three texts in the Slovene language, the oldest evidence of the Slovene language and a Slavic language written in Latin script , based on the donation of lands and the place Škofja Loka (Bischoflack) in Slovenia by emperors Otto II to Bishop Abraham von Freising in 973.
Even the musical instruments and the early church music had reached a special quality in Freising. In 873 Pope John VIII approached Bishop Anno to send an organ builder and organist to Rome . The oldest German hymn Petrusleich was composed in Freising in the 10th century and the Dreikönigsspiel , the first known Latin Christmas play, was premiered in the choir of the Freising Cathedral.
The document is kept in the Bavarian State Archives in Munich with which Emperor Otto III. Freising was granted market , coin and customs rights in 996 . This document also mentions a donation from the emperor to Bishop Gottschalk von Freising of some land in the Neuhofen an der Ybbs area, "regione vulgari vocabulo Ostarrichi " (in the region usually called Ostarrîchi). This is considered to be the first mention of Austria in a document .
Bishop Otto von Freising (1112–1158) from the house of the Babenbergs and abbot in the Cistercian monastery Morimond was one of the most important historians of the Middle Ages. In 1140 he founded the outskirts Prämonstratenser - Monastery Neustift . In 1143 he wrote his famous world chronicle Chronica sive Historia de duabus civitatibus (Chronicle or the history of the two kingdoms), in which he presented world history in seven volumes and his vision of the Last Judgment in the eighth volume . Bishop Otto was also the chronicler of Emperor Frederick I ( The Deeds of Frederick , or more correctly their Chronica ).
In 1158, the Bavarian Duke Heinrich the Lion had the toll bridge belonging to Freising at Föhring burned down in order to run the salt road through his property "apud Munichen" , a settlement of monks from the Tegernsee monastery on today's Petersbergl , and to earn money with it . The bishop responded with a complaint to the emperor. In the Augsburg arbitration award (also called Augsburger arbitration ) of June 14, 1158, Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa decided the dispute over the Isar bridges, although Bishop Otto von Freising was his uncle, in favor of Henry the Lion. This was done for reasons of state , since the emperor was dependent on the Duke of Guelph at this point in time and shied away from a dispute with the most powerful imperial prince. Munich's market and coinage rights were confirmed, but a third of the income from this had to be transferred to Freising. These payments were made to the Hochstift Freising until 1803 and then to the Kingdom of Bavaria until 1852 . June 14, 1158 is also the official city foundation day of Munich, with which the rise of Munich to later metropolis began. After Heinrich's exile, Munich was awarded to the Bishop of Freising in the Regensburger Schied of 1180, before it came into the possession of the Wittelsbachers , who were newly enfeoffed with the Duchy of Bavaria, in 1240 and became their residence in 1255.
In 1159, instead of the previous building, which fell victim to a fire in the same year, construction began on the five-aisled Romanesque cathedral . The reasons for the devastating city and cathedral fire of April 5, 1159 are in the dark. However, they were closely related to the dispute between the Bishop of Freising and Henry the Lion. During the rapid reconstruction (by 1205), Emperor Barbarossa and his wife Beatrix of Burgundy appeared as donors. On the inner Romanesque cathedral portal, the donor couple was immortalized with relief statues. The building itself was the first brick building north of the Alps since the fall of the Roman Empire. Bishop Albert I von Harthausen led the reconstruction of the mighty pillar basilica with two west towers and hall crypt, which was changed more often in the following years, but which essentially goes back to him. The famous beast column (around 1160) in the crypt is the only one of its kind in Germany.
In the late Middle Ages , Freising developed into a larger city, whose prince-bishops ( Hochstift since 1294) made outstanding contributions to the cultural heritage of their royal seat. Another important step was the granting of city rights by Bishop Albert in 1359. The dukes of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach dynasty always saw the Hochstift Freising with its counties and possessions ( Garmisch-Partenkirchen , Mittenwald , Ismaning , Burgrain and Isen ) as a thorn in the Bavarian duchy. They tried to place members of their own family on the Freising bishop's chair, which they succeeded repeatedly from the 15th century onwards.
Bishop Veit Adam von Gepeckh (1618–1651) had the cathedral extensively redesigned and the prince-bishop's residence built. When Peter Paul Rubens , he was the great high altar of the cathedral The Apocalyptic woman in order. He led Freising through the difficult time of the Thirty Years' War . In 1632 the Swedish King Gustav Adolf came through Freising on his way to Munich, demanded 30,000 guilders and nevertheless set fire to the city. Hunger and plague raged when the Swedes invaded the city again in 1646. The successor to the bishop, Albrecht Sigismund von Bayern , donated the Marian Column in 1674 as a sign of the plague that was overcome , which gives the central square in the old town its name. He had the outer cathedral portal built and a court garden laid out outside the city fortifications.
Freising experienced a heyday under Bishop Johann Franz Eckher von Kapfing and Liechteneck (1696–1727). He donated the Maximilian Chapel to the cathedral, assuming that Saint Maximilian had Christianized Bavaria from Freising 1,500 years ago. The prince's walk also goes back to Bishop Eckher , a picture gallery of all Freising bishops and views of the Freising lands. In 1697 he founded the first Freising University, the Lyceum on Marienplatz , and had the baroque tower of the parish church of St. Georg built. For the thousandth anniversary of the diocese (1724) he entrusted the Asam brothers with a comprehensive renovation of the bishop's church. He also commissioned the Benedictine Father Karl Meichelbeck to write a new chronicle. The two-volume historical work Historia Frisingensis is regarded as the first source-critical historical work in Germany and carried on the long tradition of Freising history. A dark chapter of this time were the child witch trials in Freising , in which several children were executed, including the beggar boys Andre and Veit Adlwart .
The secularization in 1802/03 meant the abolition of the more than thousand-year-old bishopric of Freising and thus the end of the spiritual rule of the Freising prince-bishops . On August 23, 1802, the city was occupied by the military. From November 27, 1802, the civil property occupation commissioner Freiherr Johann Adam von Aretin administered the city. He initiated the dissolution of the bishopric, the takeover of the goods and dismissed the cathedral and collegiate colleges with their court from their offices. The former royal seat was incorporated into the Electorate of Bavaria. The seat of the newly founded Archdiocese of Munich and Freising was moved to Munich in 1821. All the monasteries and many churches in the city also fell victim to secularization. They were either looted and demolished or profaned and put to other uses. The collegiate churches and monasteries of St. Andreas on the Domberg and St. Veit on another hill between Weihenstephaner Berg and Domberg were completely destroyed, the Weihenstephan monastery largely destroyed. Even the cathedral church and its early Gothic side churches ( Johannis and Benediktuskirche ) were to be demolished. However, this was prevented by the French general Duverdien, who wanted to use the church as a ballroom for Napoleon Bonaparte's birthday party . On the other hand, the loss of the Asam Chapel of St. Korbinian above a spring formerly known as a place of pilgrimage (Korbiniansbrünnlein) on the Weihenstephaner Berg was particularly serious . The ruin is the only remaining church ruin from the secularization in Bavaria.
The buildings of the Premonstratensian monastery Neustift (the district was incorporated in 1905) present themselves as a jewel of Bavarian Rococo and house the Freising District Office . The Weihenstephan Benedictine Abbey, founded in 1020, has been preserved as a brewery and model agricultural operation and is the seat of the Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences and the Weihenstephan Science Center for Nutrition, Land Use and Environment of the Technical University of Munich .
The secularization hit the residence city of the former bishopric very hard and not only questioned its urban tradition, but also its very existence. One lamented the loss of many church property; With the loss of episcopal rule and the clergy of seven monasteries that had to be provided for, a large part of the Freising population suddenly became unemployed. It took the city over a decade to recover from this blow. Even Freising's guild life, which has been rich since the Middle Ages , with rare handicrafts such as instrument maker and goldsmith , almost came to a standstill.
Freising in the Kingdom of Bavaria
Between 1817 and 1819, the Kidney Stream, a junction of the Stadtmoosach, was arched in the main street and the Heiliggeistgasse.
On the occasion of the celebrations for the 25-year reign of the Bavarian King Maximilian Joseph , the Königsstein was erected in Freising in 1824 . The Königsstein first stood in the school garden near the Heiliggeistspital and was moved to Fürstendamm in 1853.
In 1834 the Lyceum was re-established as a theological university , from which the Philosophical-Theological University of Freising , which existed until 1969, developed in 1923 . It followed on from the first lyceum from 1697 to 1803. Today the cathedral library is housed in the building , which with over 322,000 volumes is one of the largest church libraries in Germany.
In 1858, the AG der Bayerischen Ostbahnen released the first railway line from Munich via Freising and Landshut to Regensburg for passenger and freight traffic. The station was built south of the city; the route outside the city center between the Isar and Domberg. Because of the increased volume of traffic and the low clearance heights, all medieval city gates were demolished in the 19th century. Of the Freising city fortifications , only the Citizens Tower , in which there is a museum, and the Karlsturm remain. The gates on the driveways to Toompea, however, have been preserved.
Between 1868 and 1870, a building designed by Matthias Berger for the archbishop's seminary for boys was built on the grounds of the Dechantei von St. Andreas auf dem Domberg , in which the Diocesan Museum Freising is now located.
Since the garrison in Neustift (in the former Neustift monastery ) was to be relocated to Freising, construction work on the Prinz-Arnulf-Kaserne (later Vimy-Kaserne ) began on December 7, 1904 . The Neustift community thus lost an important economic factor, which is why it applied for compensation to be incorporated into Freising, which was carried out on January 1, 1905.
Between 1900 and 1902, the residence used as a seminary on Domberg was extended . The architect of the building on the site of the former St. Andreas Church was Gabriel von Seidl . In 1904/05, the new Freising Town Hall was built on Marienplatz , which was planned by the Munich architect Günther Blumentritt . In 1908 the vaulted Kidney Stream in the city center was drained when sewers were built.
During the First World War , as in all of Germany, the deteriorating supply situation was a particular problem for the population.
Revolution, Weimar Republic and National Socialism
In 1918, with the November Revolution in Bavaria, the monarchy was abolished and Kurt Eisner proclaimed the republic. A workers ', soldiers and farmers' council was also founded in Freising . However, the municipal administration around Mayor Stephan Bierner remained in office and continued to work. In the state elections on January 20, 1919, the Bavarian People's Party and the SPD in Freising emerged as the clear winners with 48 and 39 percent respectively. Hans Unterleitner, a native of Freising, was represented in Kurt Eisner's cabinet as Minister of Social Affairs.
A few days after Eisner's murder, the Soviet Republic was proclaimed on April 7, 1919 in Freising and Munich . A few days later, Freising was neutral towards the Communist Soviet Republic, even if the Freising garrison had probably been on their side. On April 26, 1919, the government troops in exile in Bamberg, coming from Regensburg, advanced to Freising, against which there was no resistance. The city confessed to the parliamentary government, but declared that it would protect the supporters of the Soviet Republic among its citizens and not betray them. On April 30, the troops moved on to Munich and in the following days violently crushed the rule of the councils.
On September 7, 1922, the Freising NSDAP local group was founded. In 1924 Freising celebrated the 1,200th anniversary of the diocese for a week. Around 50,000 visitors came to church services, lectures and processions. In 1925 the Munich – Landshut railway line was electrified, the Pallottine Missionary Seminar opened on September 14, 1930, and the associated Pallottine Church of St. John the Baptist in the north of the city was consecrated.
In 1933, Mayor Stephan Bierner resigned after more than 30 years in office. The special commissioner for the city and district of Freising Hans Lechner and the NSDAP local group leader Georg Preiser had called for his resignation. The mayor denied in a speech that he was forced to resign. Although he was not a National Socialist, he had always been a national and German-minded man. His acting successor was the government building officer Gottlieb Schwemmer , later Karl Lederer was appointed. On April 1, 1937, parts of the municipality of Vötting came to the city, which was incorporated into the Freising district on May 22, 1940.
In addition to the Vimy barracks, two more barracks were built in Freising in the 1930s. Between 1933 and 1936, the so-called replacement barracks (E-barracks) were built on Haindlfinger Strasse, which was initially disguised as an SA sports school, and in 1936/37 the General von Stein barracks on Mainburger Berg.
During the Reichspogromnacht in 1938 there were also riots in Freising. A crowd of about 3,000 people marched through the city center and asked the Jewish residents to leave the city. The daughter of a department store owner was shown around to look after she came out onto the street and then taken into protective custody like her father . Another victim of the riots was the lawyer and later mayor of the city Max Lehner . Although he was not a Jew, he was beaten and driven through town with a sign that read Judah crazy . He was accused of being "in compliance with Jews" and representing Jews in court. Of the 16 Freising Jews in 1933, only three were still alive in 1945.
Until shortly before the end of the war, the city was not directly affected by the war. Since there was hardly any war-related industry and a hospital for foreign officers was on the Toompea, it was considered safe from bomb attacks by the population and the authorities. The only heavy air raid on Freising took place on April 18, 1945 and claimed 224 lives. The target of the attack with 61 Boeing B-17s was the station. The area around the train station with the Steinecker and Schlüter factories was hardest hit. The Church of the Ascension of Christ was also destroyed; the area at Wörth and the area around Kochbäckergasse were hit harder. A small chapel on the south slope of the Toompea Hill and a building on the Toompea Hill were also destroyed. The victims were buried in mass graves in the Neustift cemetery.
American troops approached the city on April 29, 1945. In the early afternoon she was shot at by artillery. The northern part of the city was particularly affected. Some business people, including the hotelier Dettenhofer ( Hotel Bayerischer Hof ), tried to persuade the city commandant to give up. They had hoisted the white flag on the church tower of the parish church of St. George , which had to be brought down again. A second attempt by Dettenhofer to get the commandant in his command post to surrender was unsuccessful because he feared the SS in the city. Since the American troops had meanwhile reached the outskirts, Dettenhofer went to them with the mayor and the pastor of St. Georg. They reached a cessation of fire in order to negotiate the handover of the city. An American officer escorted them back to the command post. The SS had since withdrawn, and the commandant agreed to surrender the city. On the same day at around 6 p.m., the Korbinian Bridge over the Isar was blown up by the SS to hinder the American advance. The very next day a pontoon bridge was built, which, with a few exceptions, was initially only allowed to be used by the military. Within five days, a wooden pedestrian walkway was built near the blasted bridge and a bridge for heavier vehicles was built by Freising companies by June 2nd. The Korbiniansbrücke was rebuilt in a slightly different form until 1948.
Police Commissioner Rasch was appointed provisional mayor on April 30th. Emil Berg replaced him in this position on May 2nd . On March 8, 1946, the city was taken out of the Freising district and regained its district immediacy. The first municipal elections were held on May 26, 1946, and the CSU emerged victorious. The city council elected Karl Wiebel as the new mayor. (→ Politics in Freising ) On January 15, 1952, the last resident officer left the city. With this, the Americans withdrew from the politics of the city of Freising.
In 1956, the long-planned road breakthrough from Johannisplatz to the train station began and today's Johannisstraße was created.
At the beginning of 1957 the first 300 Bundeswehr soldiers came to Freising as part of the transport company of the Air Force Supply Regiment Erding I and were initially housed in the artillery barracks ( General von Stein barracks ), which at that time also housed American troops. On July 18, the barracks passed into German hands. In 1966 the Americans handed over the last of the three Freising barracks to the German Armed Forces and after 21 years the last of the American troops left Freising.
In 1959, the city's gas, water and electricity supply were combined under the roof of the newly founded Stadtwerke Freising. On September 8th of that year a new sewage treatment plant was put into operation and on September 30th, 1965 the Freising prison in the Fischergasse was closed.
In 1967 the state government initiated the regional planning procedure for the new Munich airport for the Hofoldinger Forest and also for the Erdinger Moos at the gates of the city of Freising. On August 6, 1969, the decision to go to Erdinger Moos was made, which led to violent protests.
In 1969 the Philosophical-Theological University of Freising was closed and on August 1, 1971 the Weihenstephan University of Applied Sciences was founded.
On July 1, 1972, the city became part of the district again with the regional reform in Bavaria . At the same time, the previously independent municipalities Haindlfing , Itzling (partially), Sünzhausen and Tüntenhausen and on May 1, 1978 the municipalities Pulling and Attaching were incorporated into the city of Freising.
To cope with the increasing traffic and to relieve the city center, the so-called elevated route was opened in 1974 . This new street layout crosses the railway line and the Moosach. On September 11th of the following year, the new Isar bridge with the name Luitpoldbrücke, which adjoins the Hochtrasse, was opened to traffic. The building connects the northern and southern parts of the city. Until then, traffic ran through the city center over a level crossing with a barrier and over the narrow Korbinian Bridge. The S-Bahn has been running from Freising to Munich since May 26, 1972. In 1972 the gym in the Luitpoldanlage was opened. Between 1975 and 1980 the Dom-Gymnasium received a new building on the Domberg. To this end, the Phillips Castle was rebuilt and two canons' courts were replaced by new buildings.
The kidnapping case Richard Oetker caused a stir in Freising in 1976 . The industrialist's son was kidnapped on December 14th in the parking lot of the Technical University of Munich in Weihenstephan. Two days later and after paying a ransom of DM 21 million, he was released in the area.
In 1989 Freising celebrated 1,250 years of the ecclesiastical town and in 1996 1,000 years of Freising market rights .
Between 1988 and 1995, the Wörth area, which lies between two arms of moss directly in the old town, was fundamentally redesigned. New buildings and a multi-storey car park were built on the areas freed up by the relocation of the municipal gardening center and a parking lot.
Freising has had major urban development changes and a massive increase in residents since the construction of Munich Airport in 1980 and its opening in 1992. The airport, which is partly on the boundary of the large district town, is only 5 km from the center of the city and 3 km from the Lerchenfeld district away. The planned construction of the third runway , which would bring the airport even closer to Freising, is viewed very critically in Freising. The Attaching district of Freising would be severely affected as it would be overflown at a low altitude.
The tractor manufacturer Schlüter closed its factory in 1993 . This was an industrial ruin on the western outskirts for more than 15 years and was converted into a shopping center in 2009.
When shooting rampage in Eching and Freising by a former student at the School of Economics on 19 February 2002 (shortly before the Erfurt massacre ) died of principals; his wife and a religion teacher were shot. Two other people were shot in the nearby community of Eching .
After a little over 200 years, the last soldiers left the garrison town of Freising in 2004. The General von Stein barracks were the last to be closed. All three barracks areas were or are being rededicated as residential areas, with parts of the development being retained.
On September 14, 2006 Pope Benedict XVI visited at the end of his trip to Bavaria the city of Freising. He drove through the old town of Freising and met in the cathedral with the assembled clergy of the archdiocese. As Josef Ratzinger, he had studied theology and philosophy at the Philosophical-Theological University of Freising from 1946 , had been ordained a priest in the Freising Cathedral in 1951 and was professor of theology in Freising and Munich from 1954.
The population of the city of Freising has been increasing steadily for years - thanks to the Munich Airport, which opened in 1992 just outside the city of Freising, and the Weihenstephan University and Science Center. From 1991 to 2016 the population increased from approx. 38,500 to approx. 50,000. The city grew by 38.2% between 1988 and 2018 or by 13,433 inhabitants. After Munich, Freising is the second largest city in the Munich planning region .
|Main or sole place of residence:||49,304|
|of which male:||20,044|
|of which female:||20,377|
|of which male:||5,635|
|of which female:||4,877|
Inhabitants of the city of Freising:
|December 01, 1803||3,195|
|December 01, 1840||7,361|
|December 01, 1871||12,116|
|December 01, 1900||14,653|
|December 31, 1991||38,433|
|December 31, 1995||38,674|
|December 31, 2000||40,890|
|December 31, 2005||42,854|
|December 31, 2010||45.223|
|December 31, 2015||46,963|
|December 31, 2016||47,848|
|December 31, 2018||48,634|
- The numbers up to and including 1987 are censuses. Different terms of population were used. More detailed information on this in the source.
At the end of 2018, 22,286 (43.8 percent) of the 50,933 inhabitants were Roman Catholic, 5,421 (10.6 percent) Protestant , while 44.4 percent either belonged to other religions or were non-denominational. Freising belongs to the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising . Until 1803 Freising was the seat of the imperial bishopric and prince-bishopric of Freising .
The Romanesque Cathedral of St. Maria and St. Korbinian , which was baroque in 1723/24 by Cosmas Damian and Egid Quirin Asam, has the status of a co- cathedral at the instigation of the former Archbishop of Munich and Freising Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, who later became Pope Benedict XVI. Together with the Neustift Church, built by Giovanni Antonio Viscardi and the Diocesan Museum, it is one of the city's special sights. The latter is considered the second largest church museum in the world after the Vatican Museums in Rome and offers regular, highly regarded exhibitions on sacred art.
In the former prince-bishop's residence, today's Cardinal Döpfner House, the education center of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising is now located. It offers seminars in the fields of theology, education, social politics and music and functions as a conference center in which the Bavarian Bishops 'Conference meets twice a year, which is also known as the Freising Bishops' Conference .
- Religious branches
After the serious changes and cuts in the previously busy religious life in Freising, religious life recovered only with difficulty after secularization and the related dissolution of the monastery. Two orders are currently still active in Freising.
- St. Clare Monastery
was built at the instigation of the pastor at the time in 1850 by the "poor school sisters of our dear lady" in the former episcopal courtyard garden. It is the only women's monastery in which 31 nuns still live and work. The church of St. Clare is attached to the monastery .
- Pallottine Monastery
In 1919 the Pallottine community came to Freising. The Pallottine Church of St. John the Baptist (Freising) was built as a modern church in 1928/30. A mission seminar was attached to the church building.
A first Protestant cell was formed in the mid-1520s, which is recorded in the so-called bacon dumpling uprising .
There have been Protestants in Freising since the first half of the 19th century . For the growing congregation, the town church, the Ascension Church, which was destroyed in 1945, was inaugurated in 1864. On May 22, 1952, seven years after the destruction of the old, the new, simple church was given its purpose. The church only got a tower again in 2002. Lerchenfeld only received its own Evangelical Lutheran meeting place in 2003 with the Epiphany Center and the neighboring rectory. Another center for community life is the Paul-Gerhardt-Haus in General-von-Stein-Straße.
Since 1999 there has been a dean's district in Freising in the Munich church district of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria . The dean has his seat in the rectory on Martin-Luther-Straße. The Protestant Christians in Freising have a share of more than 15%, and the trend is growing.
- Free Churches
There has been an ICF community in Freising since 2016 . ICF stands for International Christian Fellowship . This is a non-denominational free church which is part of the ICF movement. The location in Freising is one of four locations of the parent community in Munich.
A Free Evangelical Congregation has also existed since 1997, with the founding time going back to 1969. This is part of the Federation of Free Protestant Congregations in Germany .
For several years there has been an Islamic cultural center in Freising, where the Muslims of the city and the surrounding area can gather for Friday prayers.
In February 2009, a Buddhist monastery named Bodhi Vihara was established on Toompea. In May 2011, a branch was opened in Fischergasse. The settlement of Buddhist monks and the emergence of a small Buddhist community represent the most recent development in the city's religious culture. Due to the small number of Buddhist monasteries in Germany, Freising quickly gained national recognition as a monastery seat.
Culture and sights
The Cathedral of St. Maria and St. Korbinian - often called Mariendom for short - was the cathedral church and bishopric of the former diocese of Freising , before this seat was moved to Munich for the archbishopric of Munich and Freising in 1821 and the civil Frauenkirche (Munich) to the cathedral of the archbishop was raised. The Freising Cathedral is now a co-cathedral. The priestly ordinations of today's archdiocese take place here. The origin of the cathedral goes back to a St. Mary's Church around the year 715, which was rebuilt twice after fires (860 and 1159) and redesigned in the baroque style (1619 and 1724). It owes its massive construction to the stone masons of the Romanesque , the vaulting of the nave (1481) to the Gothic and its rich furnishings to the Baroque . It is considered a national monument of the first order. The cathedral bells in Freising, which has been restored since 2007, are also unique and represent an international cultural object of the first order. Other buildings on the Domberg are the Andreasbrunnen and the St. Benedict Church, which is connected to the cathedral by a cloister. Grouped around the cathedral courtyard, next to the cathedral, is the church of St. John , the prince's corridor above it , which leads from the cathedral to the former prince-bishop's residence . The Cardinal Döpfner House and the seat of Renovabis are located in the residence .
The parish church of St. Georg is the main church of the Catholic parish of St. Georg and is located in the middle of the old town of Freising . Together with the town hall and Marienplatz , it forms the urban center. In the 13th century, pastoral care was transferred from Domberg to the city and the then parish church “St. Jörg im Moos ”. Today's church goes back to a previous building, the beginnings of which are unknown, and was built around 1440 in the late Gothic style. The 84 meter high tower with the lantern dome was built until 1689. In the 19th century the parish church was furnished in a neo-Gothic style, but it was restored to its version from 1497 by 2003. The Gottesackerkirche St. Maria is located in the cemetery of St. Georg . The parish church of St. Georg, the Stauberhaus and the town hall are grouped around Marienplatz . The south side of the square is dominated by the former Prince-Bishop's Lyceum with the Asam theater . In the center of Marienplatz is the Marian column from 1674. A few meters north of the square is the Ziererhaus , a rococo building that now houses the registry office.
The parish church of St. Peter and Paul was the monastery church of the former Neustift monastery , a Premonstratensian monastery , which was founded in 1141 by Bishop Otto von Freising and dissolved in the course of secularization . After 1803 the church was a branch church of St. Georg, since 1892 it has been its own parish church . It was designed by Giovanni Antonio Viscardi around 1700 and is one of the most beautiful Rococo churches in Bavaria.
From the chapel St. Korbinian on the southern slope of the mountain Weihenstephaner a ruin is still standing. The brewery of the same name is also located in Weihenstephan . The Wieskirche is halfway between Freising and Tüntenhausen . The Way of the Cross leads there to the Wies .
The Protestant Church of the Ascension of Christ and the Parish Church of St. Lantpert in Lerchenfeld replaced previous buildings that had been destroyed or had become too small. The Altöttinger Chapel stands on Bahnhofstrasse above the Moosach . The Mohrenbrunnen is only a few meters away . The statue of this fountain originally stood in the cathedral courtyard. At the eastern end of the old town is the Heiliggeistspital with the Heiliggeistkirche.
The Bavarian Monument List lists more than 250 listed buildings in Freising.
The Hofgarten lies to the east of the former monastery building of the Weihenstephan Monastery (today TU Munich). It is the core area of the former monastery garden. In the south the terrain drops steeply towards the Moosach . There are two viewing terraces and the newly built central library of the Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences. In the east and north, the garden is bounded by buildings belonging to the university and the Bavarian State Brewery Weihenstephan. In the center of the eastern part is a meadow surrounded by flower beds, the planting of which changes seasonally. There are further beds and hedges in the south and east. From the path on the south side, the eastern viewing terrace can be reached, which is already a little down the slope. To the west of it, half embedded in the slope, is the library. The western part stands on a site on which the monastery church and other monastery buildings stood until they were demolished after secularization . The floor plan of the monastery church can be seen in the floor. The eastern viewing terrace occupies the entire south side of the garden. The ruins of the St. Korbinian Chapel can be reached via a staircase .
To the north of the Hofgarten and a few meters lower is the Parterregarten (formerly Buchsgarten ). Its floor plan is based on baroque models, even if they are not known there from this period. The planting, however, is deliberately not that of a baroque garden. The seasonally changing plantings are mostly designed as top view plantings, which are best accessed from the higher courtyard garden. Originally, fruit trees were grown at this point in the form of trellises. As early as 1920 there were plans to redesign, after which the Buchsgarten was finally built in 1982. In 2014, the box planting was cleared due to infestation with Cylindrocladium buxicola and replaced with pure flower arrangements.
The Oberdieckgarten was originally only separated from the Hofgarten by the monastery wall. However, with the construction of the Lion Gate Building in 1925, the gardens were separated. The facility is named after Johann Georg Conrad Oberdieck , one of the most important German pomologists of the 19th century.
All of these gardens are maintained by Weihenstephaner Gardens (a central operating facility of the Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences). Other public gardens of the institution have allotment gardens and balcony plants as their theme. There is also an educational trail on plant protection. Some of the gardens are closed in winter. Further gardens are available for teaching at the university, but they are not open to the public.
The district court garden is only a few meters northeast of Marienplatz . It is located next to the former building of the local court, which today houses parts of the city administration.
Today's Neustift monastery garden was the garden of the monastery of the same name. Today this is a green area with a population of large trees. The Freising Garden Days have been taking place there since 1997 . The garden market with over a hundred exhibitors attracts more than 10,000 visitors during one weekend.
Monasteries and pens
Up until secularization there were a large number of monasteries and monasteries in and around Freising. The monasteries St. Paul , St. Johannes and St. Andreas existed on the Domberg . The cathedral monastery of Freising already existed there in the 9th century . To the west of the Vitus Gate was St. Vitus Abbey . In the old town were the Franciscan monastery Freising and the monastery of the Franciscan Terziarinnen . The Weihenstephan and Neustift monasteries were no longer part of the Freising monastery , but were located in what is now the city . Since 2009 there is the Bodhi Vihara, a small Buddhist monastery on Toompea. The women's convent of the poor school sisters with the monastery church of St. Klara is the only Christian monastery .
The Diocesan Museum Freising , the Diocesan Museum of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising are located in the building of the former boys' college. Since July 2013, however, the Diocesan Museum has been closed "until further notice". The museum of the Freising Historical Society is housed in the building of the Prince Bishop's Lyceum (Asamsaal). It is primarily dedicated to the city's history. In the citizen tower , a renovated tower of the former city wall, changing exhibitions on the city's history take place. The European artist house in the Schafhof is just outside .
Theaters and venues
The baroque Asamaal is located directly on Marienplatz, in the former Prince-Bishop's Lyceum . The former auditorium of the Lyceum (around 1700) was renovated at the end of the 1970s and is used for theatrical performances, concerts, lectures and city celebrations. On the ascent to Weihenstephaner Berg, west of the old town, there is the Lindenkeller, a restaurant with cabaret and concert stage , on the site of the former St. Veit Abbey . The Luitpoldhalle is available for larger events.
In addition to the cathedral choir, which mainly accompanies services in the cathedral, there are several other choirs in Freising. Teachers, students and parents of the music school form an orchestra that has been called the Freising Symphony Orchestra since 2011 . Nationally known bands from Freising are Blumentopf , RPWL and Schein .
The outdoor pool in the Lerchenfeld district was opened on June 4, 1902. The original two pools were remodeled into three new pools in 1969. A competition pool and a diving pool were built as early as 1964. Before the 1972 Summer Olympics , the swimming pool was renovated by the Olympic Construction Company and it served as a training camp for swimming teams. Freising did not have a municipal indoor swimming pool for many years. The public could use the school swimming pool of the Josef-Hofmiller-Gymnasium if there were no school lessons there. The discussion about building a new indoor swimming pool and its location occupied the policy of Freising for many years. The indoor pool has been built since 2015 on the site of the outdoor pool, which will also be converted in the course of the construction work. On March 1, 2019, the new indoor swimming pool was put into operation under the name Fresch .
In the vicinity there are three swimming lakes, the Vöttinger, the Pullinger Weiher and the Stoibermühle in the area of the municipality of Marzling, all of them former gravel pits . There are several other gravel pits that have not been converted into bathing lakes. However, bathing is usually not officially allowed there. Since the retrofitting of some sewage treatment plants, the Isar can be used for bathing again, even if it is not bathing water and is therefore not monitored.
The stadium in the Savoyer Au offers space for 5000 spectators (1132 seats, 510 of which are covered). In addition to two other football and basketball courts, there is the "Rot-Weiß Freising" tennis club with several outdoor courts and a tennis hall. There are other sports facilities in the Luitpold facilities, in Vötting, Pulling and in Attaching. The Sportpark Attaching is also home to the Freising Grizzlies , one of the few German baseball clubs.
The SpVgg Freising can show nationwide success in wrestling and weightlifting . The Freising Section of the German Alpine Club operates a climbing hall near the train station . In addition, the team sports volleyball and handball are organized at SC Freising . The first team in the volleyball department has been playing in the third division since 2014 . In addition, TSV Jahn Freising offers gymnastics, archery, fistball and basketball.
SE Freising was founded in 1996 and today plays in the fifth -rate Bavarian ice hockey league . The club's successes include the two championships of the Bavarian Regional Ice Hockey League Group East in 2005 and 2016 (BBzL runner-up 2016) and the associated promotion to the "Bavarian State League" . The Black-Bears achieved the greatest success in the club's history in 2017 with the championship of the ice hockey regional league Bayern Group II and their entry into the BEV Cup final .
In the Luitpoldanlage there was an artificial ice rink that was last renovated in 2010 . This was only in operation a few months a year. In 2013, after years of discussion, the city of Freising decided to build a covered ice rink at the same location. The Weihenstephan-Arena, completed in 2014, has a capacity of 400 spectators and is the home ground of SE Freising - Black Bears.
Traditions and festivals
The Korbiniansfest attracts numerous pilgrims from all over the world to the Freising Cathedral every year . The Korbinian shrine in the crypt of the cathedral is only brought into the church during this festival, except for the annual priestly ordination, which always takes place in Freising for the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising. At Vespers, which closes the festival, the shrine is solemnly carried through the cloister of the cathedral. On the weekend before the Korbiniansfest, thousands of young people from all over Bavaria and far beyond its borders come together on the Domberg to celebrate the Korbiniansfest. In addition to church services, there are also workshops and discussion groups.
Every year in September the ten-day Freising Festival takes place in the Luitpoldanlage. The spring festival in the same place was replaced by the Uferlos Festival with a mixture of gastronomy, handicrafts and performances by artists on several stages. The old town festival, organized by Freising sports clubs, takes place on a Saturday in July.
Live well and stereo , the Open Air at Vöttinger Weiher has been taking place in Freising on the first weekend in August since 1991. The open air with alternative guitar music is visited annually by 4,300 guests per day (a total of 8,600) and has been sold out regularly for many years. It is organized by the cultural association Prima leben und stereo (PLUS) . The same association also organizes the Night of Music , the Freising Advent and the Kino am Rang , where films are shown in the open air on the Weihenstephan campus for a week.
Every Wednesday and Saturday there is a weekly market on Marienplatz and every Friday on Kirchplatz in Neustift .
|2020||4th||3||5||10||3||2||1||11||AfD : 1||40|
|2014||6th||4th||5||7 (9)||2||2||1||12 (11)||non-attached : 1 (0)||40|
|2008||5 (11)||5 (6)||8th||9 (9)||3||2||1||FSM: 7, non-attached: 1||40|
|1990||14th||10||6th||1||2||1||U 2; FB 4||40|
|1984||16||10||3||1||1||UFB 3; FB 6||40|
|1966||12||8th||3||2||GDP / BHE 1||26th|
|1960||10||9||2||2||GDP / BHE 2; UF 1||26th|
|1956||8th||7th||2||4th||UF 2; BHE 2; HB 1||26th|
|1952||7th||8th||5||LH 4; FDW 2||26th|
|1948||8th||7th||11||KPD : 1, FLÜ 3; WAV 1||31|
|1946||19 (15)||11 (8)||1||KPD: 1||31 (24)|
- 2011, 8 city councilors from the CSU parliamentary group and one city councilwoman from the Greens formed the new parliamentary group in Freising Center. Two of its members have since left the city council (Tobias Eschenbacher was elected Lord Mayor, Florian Notter became head of the city archive). Successors were always members of the CSU, since the Freising Center did not yet exist in the 2008 election. In brackets the original number of seats after the election. A city councilor of the SPD switched to the Greens in 2012. A city council of the FSM later left the parliamentary group and remained in the city council as non-attached.
- The city council was subsequently enlarged by order of the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior. The additional seats went to the CSU and the SPD.
The city of Freising is run by a lord mayor and two mayors . Tobias Eschenbacher of the Freising Center has been Lord Mayor since 2012 . Second mayor is Eva Bönig (Greens) and third mayor Birgit Mooser-Niefanger (Freising center).
With an election result of 56.9% in the mayoral election in 2012, Tobias Eschenbacher , candidate of the Freising Center voters' association , prevailed on March 25, 2012 in the runoff election against Sebastian Habermeyer from the Freising Greens. He has been in office since May 1st and was inaugurated on May 3rd.
|person||Term of office||Political party|
|Tobias Eschenbacher||since 2012||Freising center|
|Adolf Schäfer||1970-1994||SPD, from 1978 independent / free voters|
|Andreas Rasch||April 30–2. May 1945|
|Stephan Bierner||1899-1933||independent, later BVP|
|Joseph Albin Parth||1839-1842|
|Johann Nepumuk Götzl||1833-1839|
|Johann Nepumuk Einsele||1825-1832|
Representatives in the Land and Bundestag
The city of Freising is part of the Freising constituency , which includes the districts of Freising and Pfaffenhofen. Erich Irlstorfer has been a member of the Bundestag since 2013 . Florian Herrmann has been a member of the Freising district of the Bavarian State Parliament, consisting of the Freising district, since 2008 .
coat of arms
The upper part of the coat of arms shows the Bavarian diamond . The bear in the lower part first appeared in 1340 when it was pictured between two city towers. The Korbinian bear is the symbol of the first bishop of Freising Korbinian . Originally the Freising Mohr and church towers were also shown on the coat of arms. From the end of the 18th century the bear was the sole motif. After secularization, Freising became part of Bavaria and accordingly the Bavarian diamonds were integrated into the coat of arms in 1806. The current city coat of arms was established in 1819.
The city colors of Freising are red and white. The bundle of bears in the city's coat of arms shows those colors (or heraldic silver instead of white). The street signs in Freising have been designed in these colors since 1938 .
As the first of the archbishops of Munich and Freising, Josef Ratzinger, in memory of his time in Freising, added the Korbinian bear to his bishop's coat of arms in addition to the usual Freising Mohren, which has appeared in the coat of arms of the bishops since 1286. He led Bär like Mohr as Pope Benedict XVI. still in his coat of arms.
Partnerships and sponsorships
Location of Freising's twin cities. With the exception of Arpajon south of Paris, these are all in the eastern Alpine region.
The first town twinning was made in 1963 between Freising and Obervellach. Another five cities followed by 2004. While Arpajon is considered the birthplace of the founder of the bishopric Korbinian, the other places used to be on the property of the Hochstift Freising.
|Innichen / San Candido||Italy||1969|
|Waidhofen an der Ybbs||Austria||1986|
|Bischoflack / Škofja Loka||Slovenia||2004|
An Airbus A320neo (D-AINM) delivered by Lufthansa in 2018 is named Freising. Previously, an Embraer ERJ-195LR (D-AEBH) of Lufthansa CityLine delivered in 2011 and a Boeing 737-500 (D-ABJD) delivered in 1991 had the same name. The latter was supposed to make the first official landings at the newly opened Munich airport on May 17, 1992 together with its sister aircraft Erding . However, an Aero Lloyd MD 83 landed 10 minutes earlier .
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2010 there were 38,600 employees subject to social insurance contributions in Freising. About 17,600 of them also lived in Freising. Accordingly, the commuter balance was 21,000 workers. The vast majority of jobs are in the area of "trade, transport and hospitality" and other services. Around 4,000 people are employed in the manufacturing industry. The number of payroll and income taxpayers increased between 1992 and 2007 from 16,200 to almost 24,000. The unemployment rate in the Freising-Erding district has been around 3% for years and is therefore close to full employment .
In 2010 there were 134 farms in Freising, cultivating 4,154 hectares of land. The area was divided into about a third of grassland and two thirds of arable land . The dominant cereals were wheat (around 800 ha) and barley (around 440 ha). The remaining area was mainly used for growing rapeseed and forage plants. In the declining animal husbandry, cattle and chicken husbandry dominated. About a third of the almost 3,000 cattle were dairy cattle. The Technical University of Munich operates several agricultural research stations in the vicinity of Freising, of which Gut Dürnast and the Veitshof are located in the area of the city of Freising.
Companies of supraregional importance
The largest employer in the region is Munich Airport with the companies located on the airport site, but only part of it is in the area of the city of Freising. Among other things, Deutsche Post AG operates one of the largest mail branches in Bavaria here. Another major employer is Texas Instruments . Today more than 1,000 employees work at the European headquarters in Freising. The semiconductor manufacturer opened its branch in Freising in 1966 and is active in both development and production. Krones manufactures brewery systems in the Attaching district . Krones took over the local machine factory Anton Steinecker in 1983. HAWE Hydraulik operates a plant in Lerchenfeld . Another mechanical engineering company was the tractor manufacturer Anton Schlueter Munich until 1993 . The Fixit Group , an international building materials manufacturer, is based in the Neustift district. In 2012 it became known that Volkswagen is building a training and qualification center in Freising for the areas of sales and service in the Munich and Bavaria area.
In addition to the Bavarian State Brewery Weihenstephan , the oldest brewery in the world (since 1040), the Hofbrauhaus Freising also brews beer. On the Schlütergut , the former estate of the Maschinenfabrik Schlüter, which operates under the Theo Müller Group , the dairy Weihenstephan .
Three banks have their headquarters in Freising. In addition to the Sparkasse Freising and the Freisinger Bank , this is the Ludwig Sperrer bank , one of the few private bankers in Germany. There are also branches of the usual national banks.
The largest and most broadly based local business association is the Freising trade association in the Confederation of Self-employed - Gewerbeverband Bayern e. V. with well over 100 member companies. For a long time, retail in the center was represented by the Freisinger Innenstadt shopping center association. In 2014 the new association, Aktive City Freising, was founded, which, in addition to retail trade, also independent professions, associations and residents of the Freising city center can join. At the Wirtschaftsjunioren Freising mainly young self-employed, entrepreneurs and executives are involved. The Chamber of Commerce ( ICC ) for Munich and Upper Bavaria is represented by the CCI body Erding-Freising, the Chamber of Munich and Upper Bavaria by the Kreishandwerkerschaft Freising. The Federal Association of German Dairy Farmers is based in Freising.
Two daily newspapers appear as local editions in Freising : the Freisinger Tagblatt as part of the Münchner Merkurs and the Süddeutsche Zeitung . The two advertising journals, Forum and Wochenblatt, appear weekly . The city magazine fink has been published monthly since 2007 . Freising is in the transmission range of the local radio station Rock Antenne , which took over the transmission frequency from Radio Hitwelle .
The main attractions are the historic old town and the Domberg, and in particular the numerous churches such as the Freising Cathedral . Another destination is the Weihenstephan district, with the facilities and gardens of the two universities and the Weihenstephan brewery . City tours on various topics are offered. Among other things, through the election of Benedict XVI. on the Pope and his earlier work in Freising, the number of visitors has increased in recent years. Freising is located on the Isar cycle path and is the end point of the German Hop Road through Hallertau to the north . A point of attraction, which is also on the territory of the municipality of Freising, is the airport's visitor park , with the visitor's hill and an exhibition of historical aircraft. Visitor tours of the airport area also start here.
Due to the proximity of the city of Munich and the airport, there are a large number of overnight accommodations in Freising. The Hotel Bayerischer Hof is not far from Marienplatz . Since the airport opened, several hotel chains have opened new establishments in Freising ( Mercure , Marriott International , Novotel ). There are also some smaller hotels, as well as guest houses and pensions. In 2011, 24 companies with more than 9 beds offered a total of 2,125 guest beds. The 201,179 guests who arrived led to 319,399 overnight stays. More than a third of the guests come from abroad.
The federal motorway 92 , which connects Freising to Munich and Lower Bavaria, crosses the south of the urban area . The A 9 runs a few kilometers west of Allershausen . The federal highway 301 runs from Freising through the Hallertau to Abensberg . The federal road 11 from Krün to Bayerisch Eisenstein ran through Freising but has since been downgraded to State Road 2350 . It runs between Munich and Landshut parallel to the A 92, east of Freising, however, on the other side of the Isar, so that it is still very busy. At Achering, the St 2350 meets the A 92 at the Freising Süd junction. State road 2084 connects Freising with Allershausen on the one hand and with Erding on the other. The national road 2339 leads to the national highway 13 at home Hausen. The Munich Airport junction is used to connect the airport to the A 92. There are only connections in the direction of Munich. On the first kilometer to the Hallbergmoos junction, the access road is dedicated as a motorway. It then turns into state road 2584 , which leads to the east airport tangent and is the main entrance to the airport. Up to the junction to Terminal 1, the street is in the area of the city of Freising. Except for a roundabout in the east of the airport, the road is free of height and has separate lanes up to this roundabout. The road on the airport site is not dedicated , so that from a purely legal point of view, State Road 2584 consists of two sections. The western of the two, in the area of the city of Freising, is only a few hundred meters long (between the end of the motorway and the airport border).
The district road FS 44 is very busy . The Freising Mitte motorway junction is right next to it. It leads from the St 2350 in the south of the city over the Schlüterbrücke to the Hallbergmoos motorway junction at the airport feeder, where it continues as the B 301 to the B 388. The section of the B 301 between Hallbergmoos and Fischerhäuser was opened in 2013 and relieves the existing state road on the east side of the Isar, on which traffic had risen sharply due to the airport.
In order to reduce the traffic in the city center, several bypass roads were built. In the east, the St 2350 is led over the motorway slip road to the Freising Ost motorway exit, where it merges into state road 2084 towards Erding. The Südring, which runs parallel to the A 92 in the south of Lerchenfeld and leads over the Schlüterbrücke (FS 44) to the St 2350 in the south of Freising, also begins nearby. In the north, the Weihenstephaner Ring, the Wettersteinring and the Karwendelring connect the state road 2084 with the B 301. The gap between this northern bypass and the southern bypass is to be closed with the western bypass . For this purpose, a tunnel is to cross under the district of Vötting and the tangent at the Schlueter bridge will meet the St 2350 and the southern bypass. The construction work for this controversial project began after decades of discussion in 2015. There are plans to remove the B 301 from the city area in the form of a northeast bypass. The bypass will branch off from the previous road south of Zolling and meet the St 2350 at Marzling.
The oldest Isar crossing in Freising is the Korbinian Bridge, which is only approved for city buses, pedestrians and cyclists. Most of the traffic today runs over the Luitpold Bridge, a few hundred meters away. Other bridges are located on the southern bypass (Schlüterbrücke) and in the east (motorway feeder). The Isarsteg Nord , which crosses the Isar in the eastern part of the city, was opened for pedestrians in 2015 . The motorway bridge at Achering and the parallel railway bridge on the route to Munich Airport are still in the municipality. There is another narrow bridge made of wood and steel near the latter two bridges, which is mainly used by pedestrians and cyclists.
The public utility Freising operate a city bus with a plurality of lines, in the Munich Transport (MVV) is integrated. This network also includes a bus line to Marzling and one to the airport. On the nights before Saturdays, Sundays, public holidays and larger festivities (folk festival, etc.), a night bus runs every hour. All lines start at the train station. There is also a bus station for regional buses.
Freising is on the Munich – Regensburg railway line , which was put into operation on November 3, 1858 by the Actiengesellschaft der Bavarian Eastern Railways . At Freising train station ( DS100 : MFR), regional trains of the DB Regio and ALX run from Munich via Landshut in the direction of Passau, Regensburg, Nuremberg and Hof. Trains run every two hours between Munich, Freising and Prague. The travel time to Munich Central Station (without stops) is just under 25 minutes. There is also a direct connection to Munich Airport via the airport express (ÜFEX = national airport express, Regensburg - Landshut - Munich Airport) . Since 1972 Freising has also been connected to the state capital of Munich by S-Bahn line 1 of the Munich Transport Association (MVV) . There is another S-Bahn stop in the Pulling district. Next to it is the airport visitor park S-Bahn station in the Freising city area. In addition to the second branch of the S 1, which runs from Neufahrn via Neufahrner Spange to the airport, the S 8 runs here, which uses the Munich East – Munich Airport railway line to Munich. Until the 1970s there was still a stop in the Neustift district . There the trains stopped, which ran via Langenbach and on via the Hallertau local railway to Mainburg. After their setting, the breakpoint was abandoned. After completion of the Erdinger ring closure is u. a. an extension of the S-Bahn line 2 is planned, which will connect Freising to Erding via the airport.
The Munich Airport , which is part of the northwest to the visitor parking to the municipality of the town of Freising is just 6 km from the center of Freising removed. With around 41 million handled passengers (2015), it is the second largest German airport and one of the 10 largest in Europe.
Until the advent of the railroad, rafting on the Isar played an important role in transportation.
The most important distribution network operator in Freising today is the Stadtwerke Freising. Only the network in the attachment area is supplied by E-Werk Schweiger. The Weihenstephan network also forms its own network area. Electricity generation in Freising is limited to a small hydropower plant and two agricultural biogas plants, as well as photovoltaic systems. The largest of these systems is in the form of a noise protection wall 1200 m along the A92. On the airport grounds, the airport operates a combined heat and power plant with an output of 18.5 MW ( Munich Airport combined heat and power plant ). The Zolling power plant is located a few kilometers northeast of Anglberg . A hard coal-fired power plant, gas turbines and a biomass cogeneration plant (BMHKW) are operated at this location. A 110-kV high-voltage line runs through the north of the city and branches off the connection line from the Zolling power plant to the Neufinsing substation east of Marzling and leads to Unterschleißheim. At several substations in the city of Freising (Freising Nord substation 1969, Freising West substation 1990), electricity is fed into the 20 kV medium-voltage network. An earth line with 110 kV leads from the Freising Nord substation to the Freising-Ost substation in Lerchenfeld, which went into operation in 2002 to supply this district, the Texas Instruments facilities there and the Clemensänger industrial park. Another DB Energie high-voltage line for traction current runs parallel to the high-voltage line through the north of the city . The Pulling substation is supplied via a junction, which feeds electricity into the railway lines to Munich and at the airport.
Freising is a operated by the district heating Freising GmbH since 1988 district heating network . Stadtwerke Freising and Bayernwerk AG are shareholders of the GmbH . The network extends over the municipalities of Freising, Zolling, Hallbergmoos and the airport . The following connections are supplied:
- Administration building of the Zolling power plant
- TU Weihenstephan
- Freising East
- Munich Airport
The largest heat source in the network is the Zolling power plant . In addition to the 150 MW th of the hard coal block and the 30 MW th of the BMHKW ( combined heat and power ), an electric boiler ( 35 MW th ) and a start-up boiler (40 MW th ) are available. In addition, there is a district heating storage facility on the power plant site, which has a storage capacity of 400 megawatt hours and can deliver an output of 18 MW th . Outside the power plant area, a heating plant in Weihenstephan (39.5 MW th ) and one in Hallbergmoos (32 MW th ) are integrated into the district heating network to cover peak loads. The largest consumer in the network is Munich Airport , with a connected load of 31 MW th . Munich Airport also operates its own block -type thermal power station and uses it to produce heat and electricity for its own use.
The supply of gas began in 1864 with the construction of a private coal gasification plant on Wippenhauser Strasse. After a few changes of ownership, the plant came into the hands of the city of Freising in 1907. The gasworks was shut down in 1957 and from then on, city gas was obtained from Stadtwerke München . In 1975 the network was converted from town gas to natural gas . The local supplier is the Freising municipal utility. The gas network extends over the city of Freising and the districts of Pulling, Hohenbachern and Altenhausen. Furthermore, the Stadtwerke Freising operate the gas networks in the nearby towns of Marzling and Langenbach, which are no longer in the Freising municipality. The gas network has a total length of 160 kilometers. The gas is taken from the upstream network of Energie Südbayern . The airport has its own connection to this network.
The Stadtwerke Freising, in whose hands the water supply has been since 1959, supplies the entire community area with two exceptions. The districts of Pulling and Achering belong to the water supply group Freising-Süd , which covers the area of several communities in the south of the Freising district. The airport obtains its water from the Moosrain water supply association (municipalities of Eitting, Finsing, Moosinning, Neuching and Oberding)
In the Middle Ages, the population used their own domestic wells or public wells. For some large consumers, including breweries, there were pumping stations that pumped river water. The higher areas of the city (Domberg, Weihenstephaner Berg) also required the use of pumping stations. In the 16th century, the Domberg was supplied with water from a pumping station from the Moosach. The large tower of the Prince-Bishop's Residence served as a water tower. After the outbreak of epidemics (Asiatic bruising in 1836, cholera in 1854, typhus in 1880), the city of Freising received the order in 1883 to improve the state of the water supply. During the tenure of Mayor Martin Mauermayr , a central drinking water supply was planned and put into operation in 1888. The fountain was built near the railway line to Munich. The water was pumped into an earth container on Prinz-Ludwig-Straße via a pumping station on the Moosach near Veitshof. With the construction of the Jägerkaserne ( Vimy barracks ), a new pumping station and a Freising water tower were built at the same location . Since then, the water network has been steadily expanded and additional water storage facilities have been added, most recently in 2006 an elevated tank near the forest settlement . Today the water is pumped from shallow and deep wells near Vötting.
In addition to the elevated tanks and the water tower of the Stadtwerke, there were and still are several other water towers in the city. The two water towers of the Weihenstephan brewery, which can be seen from afar, are still in operation. Both towers were built in the 1920s. The tower, which is 20 meters high, serves as an intermediate storage facility for softened water for the brewery. It was built in 1924. The tower, which is 32 meters taller, supplies the Weihenstephan district with drinking water from two tanks with a capacity of 99 m³ each. The Schlüter tractor factory operated other water towers. This needed the water both for production and to supply the workers' houses. The first tower was built in 1916 and the second one year later. Both towers are identical and about 30 meters high. The iron and concrete structure has a base area of 6.60 m × 6.60 m each. On the top floor there is a water tank with a capacity of 100 m³. On the former test farm of the Schlüter company (today the Weihenstephan dairy) there was also a water tower that is now used for office space.
Stadtentwässerung Freising , a company owned by the city of Freising, is responsible for the urban drainage of most of the municipality . The exception is the airport site, the operator of which belongs to the Erdinger Moos wastewater association and is connected to the Eitting sewage treatment plant. The rest of the municipality (except for a few small towns with small sewage treatment plants) and the neighboring municipality of Marzling are connected to the sewage treatment plant in the Neustift district . This was built in 1958/59 and, after several extensions and modernizations, has a system capacity of 110,000 population equivalents . The purified water is released into the Isar . As in other sewage treatment plants on the Isar, the water is treated with ultraviolet radiation before it is discharged in order to reduce the number of germs in the water and enable bathing in the river. Two drainage systems are used in the sewer system. North of the Isar, 61 km of the sewer system are designed as a mixed system . To increase the efficiency of this system, a storage canal (bypass collector) with a length of 4.1 km was built between 1994 and 1998 . South of the Isar, the sewage system is designed as a separation system with 89.3 km of wastewater sewer and 21.2 km of rainwater sewer .
Education and Research
There are several primary schools in the city of Freising. The St. Korbinian elementary school is located in the city center, the Neustift elementary school in Neustift, the St. Lantbert elementary school in Lerchenfeld and the Paul-Gerhardt elementary school in the north of the city. Another primary school is the Vötting primary school, which also includes the school in Pulling.
The secondary schools include the three middle schools Neustift, Paul-Gerhard and Lerchenfeld. The first two are located at the locations of the primary schools of the same name. The Karl Meichelbeck Realschule is located in the immediate vicinity of the Paul Gerhard School . At Guten Änger in Lerchenfeld, the new Montessori school was opened in 2015 and a second secondary school opened in 2018. The business school and the technical college / vocational school are located in Wippenhauser Strasse . The oldest of the three Freising grammar schools is the Dom grammar school on the Domberg. The Camerloher grammar school is one of the few arts grammar schools. The Josef-Hofmiller-Gymnasium , which emerged from the Dom-Gymnasium, is the largest high school in Freising.
The Freising vocational school and the vocational school for child care are located in a shared building. The latter trains nanny as a full-time school in two years. The vocational school for nursing is connected to the Freising Clinic. The Staatliche Fachschule für Blumenkunst Weihenstephan offers advanced training courses to become a state-certified designer for flower art.
The special needs school of Lebenshilfe Freising is located in Gartenstraße. Another special needs school is the special needs educational center Freising-Pulling in the Pulling part of the municipality (planning Schunck -Ullrich). There are two music schools in Freising, the Freising City Singing and Music School in the Eckher House and the private music school of the 3klang association . The Freising Adult Education Center is located in the former hospital on Kammergasse .
Universities on the Freising-Weihenstephan campus
The Freising-Weihenstephan campus is an extensive complex of university facilities and research institutes in the western urban area of Freising, in the Weihenstephan and Vötting districts . It has been developed into the so-called “Green Center of Bavaria” for decades and will continue to be modernized and designed as a “Science and Research Campus”. It not only includes the “Center of Life Sciences”, the Weihenstephan Science Center for Nutrition, Land Use and Environment of the Technical University of Munich , but also the most important part of the “University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf”, ie the Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences .
The universities emerged from the forestry and agricultural schools that were set up in the buildings of the Weihenstephan monastery when they were empty at the beginning of the 19th century (after secularization).
These higher education institutions are joined by other institutes, two state institutes and various organizations that are thematically linked to the “Green Center” of Bavaria or see location advantages in this “cluster” within the campus area.
Research and Education Centers
Several research centers were established in the vicinity of the two universities, i.e. mostly located on the campus . The Technical University of Munich includes the TUM Research Center Weihenstephan for Brewing and Food Quality , the TUM Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research and the TUM Hans Eisenmann Center for Agricultural Sciences . The Bavarian State Institute for Agriculture and the Bavarian State Institute for Forests and Forestry are authorities of the Free State of Bavaria. Other non-university institutions are the German Research Institute for Food Chemistry , the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging , DEULA Bavaria and the start-up center for green biotechnology IZB Freising-Weihenstephan. The research center of Degussa Food Ingredients GmbH was closed in 2006 after Degussa withdrew from this area.
In addition to the scientific and technical areas, there are institutions in the area of religious education. The Institute for Theological and Pastoral Training in Freising is dedicated to the training of pastors. The Kardinal-Döpfner-Haus education center is also located in the former residence on the Domberg. The Catholic district education center and the Pallotti-Haus , a Christian education center and therapy center, offer additional services .
The oldest library in Freising is located on Cathedral Hill Dombibliothek Freising . This was founded by Bishop Arbeo († 784) and is the central library of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and one of the largest church libraries in Germany. The city library was founded in 1959. After several changes of location, it has been in the old fire station in Untere Hauptstrasse since 2006 . This was extensively renovated for this purpose. The central library of the Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences is located in the Hofgarten in Weihenstephan . A branch library of the University Library of the Technical University of Munich is also located in Weihenstephan . Since May 2011 these four libraries have been offering a common library catalog in Freising. This allows the approximately 850,000 media in the libraries to be searched from an online interface. The library of the Buddhist monastery Bodhi Vihara has also been located on Toompea since 2009 .
The Freising City Archives are a scientific institution of the City of Freising. It keeps documents from the 14th century until today. It has existed as an institution since 1909. It is a public institution, is open to all citizens and offers a reference library with around 4500 volumes in a reading room.
The main task of the city archive is to organize and secure the city's files - all documents of the city administration that are of cultural, historical or legal importance are stored here. But archives of non-urban origin are also kept, such as B. Personal bequests, company and club archives as well as extensive collections. It is also of importance for scientific research into the history of the city, the Diocese of Freising and the former Hochstift Freising.
Since 2003 the Freising City Archives have had their provisional location in the “House of Clubs”, a barracks building of the hunter barracks built in 1906 and now abandoned (from 1938 Vimy barracks). It will remain in this listed building until a new building is completed in Fischergasse, east of the former prison.
Baroque hall of the cathedral library
Formerly the prince-bishop's residence , today Cardinal Döpfner House (14th century core)
Cathedral high school in the former Phillips Castle
The Freising volunteer fire brigade is a fire brigade without full-time emergency services. The Freising voluntary fire brigade was founded in 1863. The Freising fire brigade consists of two fire stations. Fire station 1 (main fire station) primarily covers the urban areas to the left of the Isar. For many years the guard was located in the city center in what is now the city library . In 2002, a new guard was moved to the site of the former slaughterhouse on Dr.-von-Daller-Straße . Fire station 2, which has existed since 1974, is in the Lerchenfeld district .
In the area of the city there is also the Plant Fire Department TUM-Weihenstephan and the volunteer fire departments Achering, Attaching, Haindlfing-Itzling, Hohenbachern, Pulling, Sünzhausen and Tüntenhausen. The Munich Airport Fire Brigade is responsible for Munich Airport, which is partly within the city limits .
In 1705, Prince-Bishop Johann Franz Eckher von Kapfing and Liechteneck ordered the construction of a hospital. This was built east of the city on Landshuter Straße. From 1818 it was the military hospital of the barracks, which existed in the Neustift monastery after secularization . The building served this purpose until the end of the First World War in 1918/19. The city acquired the building in 1929 and furnished apartments there. From 1938/39 it served as a dormitory for schoolgirls. In 1945 it was reopened as an auxiliary hospital. In 1952 an isolation ward was added. After the completion of the new building for the district hospital on Mainburger Strasse, it was closed on June 30, 1972. Today the city music school is located there.
As a replacement for the hospital that had been handed over to the military, the city decided to build a new city hospital north of the city center. The foundation stone was laid in 1829. This was opened in 1834 on the site of the former court garden. After the hospital on Landshuter Strasse was reopened, it became a surgical hospital. After 1972 only the new gynecology and obstetrics department remained in the building. In 1974 this was also moved to the new district hospital and the hospital was finally closed. Today the Freising Adult Education Center is located there.
Due to a law, the Freising district (forerunner of the Freising district ) was obliged to build its own hospital in 1860. For the time being, due to lack of funds, no separate building could be built for this purpose. Until 1884, the district hospital was therefore housed in the building of the city hospital. In 1884 they moved into their own building (a converted farm) on Mainburger Strasse. After several extensions, it was renamed District Hospital in 1919 and District Hospital in 1939. In 1955 a special purpose association was founded to unite the hospitals of the city and district under one roof. This was dissolved again a year later. As a result, the district erected a new building next to the existing building from 1884 by 1958, which was then no longer used, but was only demolished in 1970. After a new association was founded in 1963, it was decided to unite the three houses. To this end, the district hospital was expanded to include two new beds. Since Freising lost its membership in 1972, the Zweckverband dissolved in 1973. The expansion was completed in 1974. From 1993, large parts of the house were renovated or rebuilt. The hospital has been called Klinikum Freising since 2005 and has been an academic teaching hospital of the Technical University of Munich since 2006 .
Eckherhaus , the first hospital in Freising, today u. a. music school
Freising has also had its own local means of payment since 2015: 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 BäRling notes (with a capital R).
The city of Freising or the municipalities incorporated into it have given a total of 25 people honorary citizenship since 1869. Freising's most famous honorary citizen is Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI. who was Archbishop of Munich and Freising from 1977 to 1982.
sons and daughters of the town
The physicist Ludwig Prandtl was born in Freising and made significant contributions to the fundamental understanding of fluid mechanics and developed the boundary layer theory. The best-known athlete from Freising is Hans Pflügler , who became soccer world champion in 1990 and won several national titles with FC Bayern Munich. The auxiliary bishop Wolfgang Bishop of the pastoral care region south of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising also comes from Freising.
Personalities who worked in Freising
Up until secularization, the bishops of Freising and other church dignitaries shaped the history of the city for centuries.
The prince-bishop's court and monasteries also attracted artists such as Cosmas Damian Asam and his sons the Asam brothers . Other artists were Antonio Riva , Johann Baptist Zimmermann , Philipp Dirr , Johann Lorenz Hirschstötter , Christopher Paudiß , Giovanni Antonio Viscardi , Franz Joseph Lederer , Valentin Gappnigg , Johann Baptist Deyrer and Andreas Wolff .
Renowned scientists also worked at the various universities in Freising ( Lyceum , PTH , TUM-WZW , HSWT ). The most famous professors at the Prince-Bishop's Lyceum were Karl Meichelbeck and Ferdinand Rosner . The theologian and professor Johannes Gründel , who taught at the PTH until its dissolution, lived in the Hohenbachern district. The current President of the Technical University of Munich, Wolfgang A. Herrmann , also lives in Freising.
The folk singer Roider Jackl lived in Freising for many years before his death.
The Freisinger Landstrasse in Munich is named after Freising.
Quotes about Freising
- "Freysing, the most elegant town in Upper Bavaria." Michael Wening , 1701
- "Anyone who has not seen a priest in Freysingen must not say that he has been there." Johann Pezzl , 1784
- “If you haven't seen Freising, you don't know Old Bavaria.” Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl , 1866
- “If it weren't for Weihenstephan today, something similar couldn't be created anywhere else.” Paul Kulisch , 1927
- “Freising is the heart and brain of Old Bavaria.” Rudolf Pörtner , 1964
- “The heart of our Archdiocese.” Friedrich Wetter , 2006
- "Freising, home of my heart" Pope Benedict XVI. , 2010
Freising in the media
- The author Roswitha Wildgans sets the plot of her books in Freising. By 2010, 5 crime novels had been published.
- The murder mystery Mord im Moos by Mia Arkelsson and Alexandra Mesmer is set in Freising and under the impression of the construction of the third runway at Munich Airport.
- The two novels Der Franzosenbaum and Justice for Jakob Schmid by Reinfried Keilich are based on real events in Freising and the surrounding area.
- Carl Amery puts Freising, the cathedral and above all the beast column at the center of his novel The Secret of the Crypt .
- Sigmund Benker, Marianne Baumann-Engels: Freising. 1250 years of the spiritual city. Exhibition in the Diocesan Museum and in the historical rooms of the Domberg in Freising, June 10 to November 19, 1989 . Wewel, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-87904-162-8 .
- Wolter von Egan-Krieger: Tradition with dark spots - little historical things from Freising . Spann, Kranzberg 1987, ISBN 3-923775-04-0 .
- Wolter von Egan-Krieger: Jugglers of their time - The last witch inquisition in Freising . Spann, Kranzberg 1992, ISBN 3-923775-16-4 .
- Hubert Glaser (Hrsg.): Freising as a citizen town - commemorative publication for the millennium of the granting of market, coin and customs rights . Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 1996, ISBN 3-7954-1099-1 .
- Hubert Glaser (Ed.): Freising becomes Bavarian . Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2002, ISBN 3-7954-1506-3 .
- Hans Gruber: It happened between the three mountains - stories from Freising . Freisinger Künstlerpresse, Freising 1989, ISBN 3-927067-05-9 .
- Friedrich Fahr , Hans Ramisch and Peter B. Steiner (eds.): Freising. 1250 Years of the Spiritual City II - Contributions to the history and art history of the old Bavarian episcopal city . Wewel, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-87904-125-3 .
- Peter Hacker: Freising What moved the city in the 20th century . Stutz, Passau 2002, ISBN 3-88849-111-8 .
- Joachim Hamberger (Ed.): Pope Benedict XVI. in Freising . Freisinger Verlag, Freising 2007, ISBN 978-3-00-021226-0 .
- Historischer Verein Freising (Hrsg.): Freising from 1945 to 1950. 21. Collective sheet of the Historischer Verein Freising for the year 1950 . Neue Münchner Verlags - GmbH, Munich 1950.
- Norbert Keil: The end of the clerical government in Freising - Prince-Bishop Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg (1790-1803) and the secularization of the Hochstift Freising . Studies on the old Bavarian church history. tape 8 . Seitz, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-87744-035-5 (also dissertation at the University of Munich (1984)).
- Agnes Kellendorfer: City Guide Freising . Galli, Hohenwart 2003, ISBN 978-3-931944-92-6 .
- Rudolf Korbinian, Thomas Goerge (illustration): The bishop and the bear. The life of Saint Corbinian . Ed .: District of Freising. Fink, Freising 2011, ISBN 978-3-00-036564-5 .
- Josef Maß: The Diocese of Freising in the Middle Ages . Wewel, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-87904-153-9 .
- Karl Mayer: Flayer and executioner in the Hochstift Freising . Fink, Freising 2011, ISBN 978-3-00-034978-2 .
- Rudolf Pörtner: The heirs of Rome. Cities and sites of the German early Middle Ages . Econ, Munich 1987, ISBN 978-3-430-17533-3 .
- Britta von Rettberg: Freising city topography and monument preservation . Imhof, Petersberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-86568-354-0 .
- Georg Schwaiger (ed.): The diocese of Freising in modern times . Wewel, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-87904-155-5 .
- Georg Schwaiger (Ed.): The Archdiocese of Munich and Freising in the 19th and 20th centuries . Wewel, Munich 1989, ISBN 978-3-87904-156-5 .
- Freising: Official statistics of the LfStat (PDF; 1.06 MB)
- The suffering of the Freising Jews. Süddeutsche Zeitung, SZ.de November 27, 2013
- "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Süddeutsche Zeitung February 2, 2018
- merkur.de Münchner Merkur January 11, 2017
- German Age Atlas: Freising's youngest city in Bavaria. In: The world. Retrieved May 23, 2017 .
- Isar River (GEK) Middle Isar ( Memento of the original from January 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Explanatory report on the land use plan of the city of Freising from 1998 (PDF; 249 kB)
- Community Freising in the local database of the Bavarian State Library Online . Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, accessed on September 12, 2019.
- Freising: Official statistics of the LfStat
- Sabine Seidel: Kindermund does (not always) reveal the truth - consideration of the role of children in European witch trials (taking into account Southeastern European ideas of magic). Diploma thesis at the Karl-Franzens-University , Graz 2003.
- Britta von Rettberg: Freising city topography and monument preservation . Imhof, Petersberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-86568-354-0 .
- Sebastian Gleixner: The King's Stone. A constitutional monument. In: Amperland. Local history quarterly for the districts of Dachau, Freising and Fürstenfeldbruck 32 (1996), pp. 433–438.
- Library Freising ( Memento of the original from April 6, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- 150 years of the Munich – Landshut railway line from 1858 to 2008 , Siegfried Haberstetter, Erich Bockschweiger, 2008.
- Wilhelm Volkert (Ed.): Handbook of the Bavarian offices, municipalities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 601 .
- Andreas Beschorner: 201 years of the garrison town of Freising . In: FINK . March 2010, ISSN 1869-4225 , p. 22 ff . ( supershit.com (PDF; 6.7 MB)). supershit.com ( Memento of the original from December 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Florian Lehrmann: Freising during the revolution 1918/19 . In: FINK . October 2007, ISSN 1869-4225 , p. 12 f . ( supershit.com (PDF; 5.4 MB)). supershit.com ( Memento of the original from December 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Combat Chronology of the US Army Air Forces April 1945 ( Memento of the original from March 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Historischer Verein Freising (Hrsg.): Freising from 1945 to 1950. 21. Collective sheet of the Historischer Verein Freising for the year 1950 . Neue Münchner Verlags - GmbH, Munich 1950.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 575 .
- Christoph Bachmann: Dieter Zlof and the kidnapping of Richard Oetker. In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria (August 22, 2012)
- muc-ausbau.de ( Memento of the original from July 2, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Action alliance against the third runway
- Facebook post from the city of Freising
- Historical Atlas of Bavaria, Altbayern Row I, Issue 33: Hochstift Freising, page 193 ff.
- Freising population is growing rapidly
- ICF: ICF Freising - Experience the Church anew. Accessed August 30, 2019 (German).
- ICF: ICF Munich - Experience the Church anew. Accessed August 30, 2019 (German).
- Free Evangelical Community Freising. Retrieved August 30, 2019 .
- Parterregarten: Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences. In: www.hswt.de. Retrieved June 1, 2016 .
- Weihenstephan Gardens: Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences. In: www.hswt.de. Retrieved June 1, 2016 .
- Website of the Freisinger Gartentage /
- Diocesan Museum Freising
- Freising Diocesan Museum closes until further notice
- Stadtmuseum Freising ( Memento of the original dated November 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Museum im Bürgerturm ( Memento of the original from April 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- European artist house
- Event locations in Freising
- Renaming of the music school orchestra /
- Chronicle of the Freising outdoor pool. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on April 16, 2013 ; Retrieved February 17, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Bathing waters in the district of Freising ( Memento of the original from September 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 93 kB)
- SE Freising. Retrieved February 17, 2013 .
- Freising Grizzlies
- Section Freising of the German Alpine Club. Retrieved February 17, 2013 .
- SC Freising Volleyball - About us. (No longer available online.) In: volleyball-freising.de. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015 ; accessed on June 22, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Administrator: Turn- und Sportverein Jahn Freising 1861 eV - departments. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 25, 2018 ; accessed on November 25, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- blackbears-freising.de, Chronicle SE Freising
- ref rodi-db.de, leagues belonging SE Freising
- Eisbahn Freising ( Memento of the original from April 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- New ice rink in Freising (SZ, January 24, 2013)
- Korbiniansfest ( Memento of the original from December 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Markets in Freising ( Memento of the original from March 19, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Results of the 2020 City Council Local Election , accessed on March 17, 2020
- 2008 election results ( Memento of the original from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Historischer Verein Freising (ed.): Freising from 1945 to 1950. 21. Collective sheet of the Historischer Verein Freising for the year 1950. Neue Münchner Verlags - GmbH, Munich 1950, p. 69 f.
- Peter Hacker: Freising - what moved the city in the 20th century . 1st edition. Verlag Karl Stutz, Passau 2002, ISBN 3-88849-111-8 .
- Kerstin Vogel: Birgit Mooser-Niefanger changes from the Greens to the Freisinger Mitte . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung (ed.): Sueddeutsche.de . December 21, 2016, ISSN 0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed October 30, 2017]).
- Kerstin Vogel: Rosi Eberhard throws down . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung (ed.): Sueddeutsche.de . January 9, 2017, ISSN 0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed October 30, 2017]).
- Kerstin Vogel: Kaiser goes his own way . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung (ed.): Sueddeutsche.de . March 14, 2017, ISSN 0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed October 30, 2017]).
- Mayor of the City of Freising
- merkur-online.de: CSU dropout wins in Freising , accessed on March 26, 2012
- Carl Meichelbeck, Anton Baumgärtner: History of the city of Freising and its bishops , 1854.
- Entry on the coat of arms of Freising in the database of the House of Bavarian History
- City coat of arms of the city of Freising
- D-AINM at Planespotters.net. In: Planespotters.net. Retrieved March 24, 2019 .
- airport ( Memento of the original from February 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- freising.de ( Memento of the original from April 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Structural data from Freising
- TUM agricultural research stations
- History of the Freising production site on ti.com
- Newspaper article on the construction of the VW training center
- Interview in the city magazine FINK ( Memento of the original from September 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. with the head of the municipal office for culture and tourism
- West bypass Freising ( Memento of the original from March 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- B301 north-east bypass
- Stadtbus Freising ( Memento of the original from March 8, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Regionalbuses Landkreis Freising ( Memento of the original from January 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 725 kB)
- Map ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 173 kB) of the supply area for electricity of Stadtwerke Freising
- Photovoltaic system ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on the A92
- Internet ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Stadtwerke Freising for district heating supply
- Overview map ( Memento of the original from September 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. via the district heating network
- Chronicle ( Memento of the original from May 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. of the Zolling power plant
- Article on energy supply ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 2.6 MB) in the airport magazine muclife
- Map ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 173 kB) of the area covered by the gas network
- Internet of Stadtwerke Freising with data on the gas network
- Map of the ESB supply area
- Website of the Moosrain Water Supply Association
- Information page ( Memento of the original dated December 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. for the drinking water supply of the Stadtwerke Freising
- Brochure ( Memento of the original from April 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 13.5 MB) 100 years of Freising water tower
- Internet ( Memento of the original from June 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. of the Erdinger Moos wastewater association
- Information brochure (PDF; 10.0 MB) on the Freising sewage treatment plant
- Facts and figures on urban drainage Freising
- Schools in Freising
- detail.de: Special school center in Freising
- Closure of the Degussa Research Center
- Libraries and Archives in Freising ( Memento of the original of February 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Chronicle on the Freising Clinic website
- Brochure for the 150th anniversary (PDF; 1.6 MB)
- Mia Arkelsson, Alexandra Mesmer: Murder in the moss . 2011, ISBN 978-3-00-035030-6 .
- Reinfried Keilich: The French tree . A true story of murder and manslaughter from Freising from the last years of the war. Fink, Freising 2012, ISBN 978-3-9815528-0-5 .
- Reinfried Keilich: Justice for Jakob Schmid . A true murder and manslaughter story from Freising / Neustift from the 50s. Fink, Freising 2012, ISBN 978-3-9815528-1-2 .
- The Secret of the Crypt. Novel. List, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-471-77019-4 ; Heyne, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-453-05650-7