|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Lower Bavaria|
|Height :||393 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||65.81 km 2|
|Residents:||73,411 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1115 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0871|
|License plate :||LA|
|Community key :||09 2 61 000|
|LOCODE :||DE LDH|
|City structure:||11 districts or 54 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Alexander Putz ( FDP )|
|Location of the city of Landshut in Bavaria|
Landshut ( independent city in Germany in south - eastern Bavaria . It is the seat of the government of Lower Bavaria and the Lower Bavaria district of the same name , as well as the administrative seat of the Landshut district . With 73,411 inhabitants (December 31, 2019), Landshut before Passau is the largest city in Lower Bavaria and the second largest city in Eastern Bavaria after Regensburg . In a comparison of the population across Bavaria, it ranks 11th after Bayreuth (as of December 31, 2017). The regional center on the Isar is the north-eastern focal point of the Munich metropolitan region .) is an
Already in 1150 the place "Landeshuata" is mentioned in a document ( "Landeshut" for "hat and protection of the land"), in 1204 the city and are Trausnitz officially by the Bavarian Duke Ludwig I founded. In the late Middle Ages, the city was, along with Munich, Straubing and Ingolstadt, one of the capitals of the Bavarian partial duchies, which is still reflected in the architecture today. As the capital of the partial duchy of Bavaria-Landshut , the city experienced its heyday in the 14th and 15th centuries. The splendid Landshut Wedding is a city event that has been famous since the late Middle Ages, at which the marriage of the Bavarian Duke George the Rich in 1475 with the Polish king's daughter Hedwig von Burghausen is re-enacted.
Landshut's valuable Gothic and Renaissance townscape with many monuments and pre-industrial building ensembles is of great cultural and historical importance on a Central European scale. The Landshut Old Town is one of the architecturally important and best preserved historic city centers in Germany and has already experienced a nomination for the World Heritage Site . At 130 meters, the Gothic tower of Martinskirche is the thirteenth highest and the highest brick-built church tower in the world. The Landshut city residence is one of the first Renaissance buildings north of the Alps.
After Landshut housed the Ludwig Maximilians University from 1800 to 1826 , Landshut has been a university town again since the Landshut University of Applied Sciences was founded in 1978. Landshut is one of the economically strongest and most affluent municipalities in Germany, most important for the manufacturing industry are the nearby BMW plant in Landshut- Ergolding , the world market leader in air and drive technology ebm-papst , the glass company Schott AG and the rusk manufacturer Brandt . The service sector is also important, with locations of the energy company E.ON , Sparkasse Landshut , Deutsche Telekom and other providers. With the Landshut trade fair , it is also a supraregional trade fair location. The town's traditional beer breweries are the Landshut brewery from 1493 and the C. Wittmann brewery from 1616.
Landshut is located in the center of the Lower Bavarian hill country (more generally also "Tertiärhügelland"), which extends from the Danube in the north to the border of the Munich gravel plain in the south; the city therefore belongs to the foothills of the Alps . The tertiary hill country in the urban area of Landshut is interrupted by the river bed of the Isar . Most of the built-up area lies on the flat terrace deposits of the river in the Isar valley. The Isar divides Landshut into three large urban areas: a northern part in the Isar-Danube hill country, a southern part in the Isar-Inn hill country and the mill island in the city center. The southern districts of the city are delimited by a chain of hills, some of which rise steeply, of which the Hofberg, with a height of 505 meters above sea level, forms the highest point in the city area. Southwest of the built-up area in the direction of Moosburg is the bird sanctuary Mittlere Isarstauseen , which is one of the most valuable water bird sanctuaries in Bavaria. On the lower Isar, east of the urban area, there are other artificially created lakes, of which the Altheim reservoir, the Niederaichbach reservoir and the Gretlmühle bathing lakes are the most important. To the north of the Isar , the flood basin Landshut runs through the city , which - as the name suggests - is flooded during high water and consequently relieves the actual course of the river in dangerous situations. When not flooded, the flood basin is one of Landshut's most popular parks.
The city is about 70 km south of Regensburg and Straubing , 75 km south-west of Deggendorf , 120 km west of Passau , 60 km north-west of Altötting and 100 km from Traunstein , 85 km north of Rosenheim and 70 km north-east of the state capital Munich .
The city of Landshut is located in the temperate climate zone with continental characteristics. The climate is humid all year round . The annual average temperature is 8.5 ° C, with January being the coldest month with an average temperature of −1.0 ° C and July being the warmest month of the year with an average temperature of 18.1 ° C.
At 824 mm, the mean annual precipitation is in the upper mean compared to other Bavarian cities. The precipitation in southern Bavaria generally increases from the north towards the Alps; The average annual precipitation in Regensburg, north of Landshut, is only 637 mm, while Rosenheim, near the Alps, has 1075 mm of precipitation per year. The rainiest month is July, with over 100 mm of precipitation, while February is the driest with just 43 mm. Most of the snow falls on the days that are grouped around January 8th.
The city of Landshut is an enclave within the district of the same name . The urban area covers a total of 65.7 square kilometers, which is largely based on the course of the Isar, which flows from southwest to northeast. This creates the relatively generous east-west extension, which is a maximum of 21.5 kilometers. In north-south direction, the city area extends at the widest point no more than 7.2 kilometers.
While the built-up area of around 20.3% is in the center of the area, the city in the east and west is dominated by water and forest areas, which together represent around another 20% of the land use. The most pronounced form of land use is agriculture. Over 45% of the total area of the urban district is used for agricultural purposes. About 8.1% of the total area is made up of various traffic areas. Only about one percent of the area is used as a recreational area.
A total of nine communities border the area of the independent city of Landshut, all of which are located within the district of the same name . Starting clockwise, the municipality of Essenbach borders the city in the northeast , followed by Niederaichbach in the far east, followed by the municipality of Adlkofen , followed by Kumhausen and Tiefenbach in the south. Finally, in the extreme southwest of the urban area, there are borders with Eching and Bruckberg . In the north, the communities of Altdorf and Ergolding are adjacent.
The city of Landshut consists of eleven districts . If a district is not represented on the city council, the citizens in their area may, as happened in Münchnerau, convene a local assembly and elect a local spokesman; the districts are not administered individually.
- The eleven districts with information on area and population
|No.||district||Area in ha||Population 1||Inhabitants
|00||Old town||100||4672||4670||historical city center|
|01||Nikola||139||11284||8120||between the old town and the main train station|
|02||west||533||11144||2090||north of the Isar|
|03||wolfgang||340||10674||3140||north of the main train station|
|05||Peter and Paul||308||9074||2950|
|06||Schönbrunn||898||4414||490||Incorporation on July 1, 1972|
|07||Frauenberg||1582||3082||190||Incorporation on July 1, 1974|
|08||mountain||530||4888||920||Incorporation on April 1, 1928|
|09||Achdorf||459||7294||1590||Incorporation on April 1, 1928|
|10||Münchnerau||1381||1954||140||Incorporation on January 1, 1972|
Unofficial districts are for example Auloh (district Frauenberg), Mitterwöhr on the Isarinsel of the same name (district Peter and Paul), Schweinbach (district Schönbrunn) and Zwischen den Brücken on Mühleninsel (district old town).
Regardless of the above list, there are 54 officially named municipal parts distributed across the entire urban district in addition to the city districts , which include parts of the actual city (distributed over the city districts 00 to 05), individual villages as well as hamlets and wastelands . By 1962 there were 57 parts of the municipality in the areas that are now part of Landshut.
|No.||Part of the community||Type||Population
|001||Landshut||main place||41183||Landshut||00 to 05|
|007||Aumühle||hamlet||Wolfsbach||07 Frauenberg||to 054|
|008||Bartreith||Wasteland||5||Hohenegglkofen||08 Berg ob Landshut|
|009||Berg ob Landshut||district||4047||Berg ob Landshut||08 Berg ob Landshut|
|010||Mountain pit||Wasteland||9||Hohenegglkofen||08 Berg ob Landshut|
|015||Ehrnstorf||hamlet||13||Hohenegglkofen (Niederkam)||08 Berg ob Landshut|
|018||Englberg||Village||Hohenegglkofen (Niederkam)||08 Berg ob Landshut||to 009|
|021||Frauenberg||Church Village||83||Frauenberg||07 Frauenberg|
|025||Hagrain||Village||Hohenegglkofen||08 Berg ob Landshut||to 001|
|026||Hascherkeller||settlement||Ergolding||04 industrial area||to 001|
|028||Extinguishing fire||settlement||Altdorf||03 Wolfgang||to 001|
|029||Lurzenhof||Village||Schönbrunn||06 Schönbrunn||to 040|
|030||Moniberg||Village||Schönbrunn||05 Peter and Paul||to 001|
|032||Münchnerau||Church Village||796||Münchnerau||10 Münchnerau|
|033||New building||hamlet||19th||Münchnerau||10 Münchnerau|
|034||New deck||Wasteland||3||Wolfsbach||07 Frauenberg|
|036||Riding school||hamlet||7th||Wolfsbach||07 Frauenberg|
|037||Sallmannsberg||hamlet||14th||Hohenegglkofen||08 Berg ob Landshut|
|038||Salt village||hamlet||45||Hohenegglkofen (Götzdorf)||08 Berg ob Landshut|
|041||Schopperhof||Wasteland||Hohenegglkofen||08 Berg ob Landshut||to 037|
|043||Schweinbach||Church Village||265||Schönbrunn||06 Schönbrunn|
|050||Voglheerd||Wasteland||Schönbrunn||06 Schönbrunn||to 001|
|...||Klausenberg 1)||hamlet||Achdorf||09 Achdorf||to 002|
|...||Metzenthal 1)||hamlet||Achdorf||09 Achdorf||to 002|
|...||Trausnitz 1)||Mountain castle||Berg ob Landshut||08 Berg ob Landshut||to 009|
1) The name for the officially named part of the municipality was canceled in 1962.
|District parts in
|6615||1||Altdorf||177||07/01/1974||Altdorf (0)||Extinguishing fire settlement|
|6619||0||Berg ob Landshut||226||04/01/1928|
|6588||1||Ergolding||141||07/01/1974||Ergolding (0)||Hamlet Hascherkeller|
|6646||1||Götzdorf||84||01/01/1972||Kumhausen (0)||Hamlet of Salzdorf|
|6616||0||Münchnerau||1551||01/01/1972||July 1, 1972 Liebenau area free of parish|
|6645||1||Came down||44||01/01/1972||Kumhausen (0)||Englberg and Ehrnstorf|
|6594||1||Ohu||63||01/01/1982||Essenbach (0)||Untere Au municipality-free area (partial incorporation on July 1, 1972)|
|6605||0||Wolfsbach||732||07/01/1974||Niederaichbach (1), Adlkofen (2)||Partial amalgamation to Frauenberg on July 1, 1971|
The Landshut district is divided between the districts 00 to 05.
The districts of Achdorf, Münchnerau and Schönbrunn roughly correspond to the districts of the same name. The former municipality-free area Liebenau was incorporated into the Münchnerau district. Landshut also belongs to the district Ohu, which corresponds to the former municipality-free area Untere Au, belongs to the Schönbrunn district.
The districts or districts belonging to Landshut Altdorf and Ergolding belong to the districts of Wolfgang and industrial area.
The districts of Hohenegglkofen, Götzdorf and Niederkam and the Hofgarten belonging to the Landshut district form the Berg district with Berg ob Landshut.
The districts of Frauenberg and Wolfsbach (district part) essentially form the Frauenberg district.
Since the Neolithic Age over 7,000 years ago, people from the black earth region of the lower Danube have settled on the middle course of the Isar. Around 5500 BC There is evidence that the first settlers reached the area in which the city of Landshut was to emerge later. On the area of today's north cemetery was built no later than 4700 BC. A stone age settlement. Archaeological excavations from 2006, during which mainly pottery shards and stone tools were discovered, suggest that this village was founded by settlers from Bohemia , whose influence was formative for over a hundred years before the local culture of the Oberlauterbach group was finally adopted. This settlement lasted for about 300 years.
After this time there is no evidence of a possible settlement of the greater area for about 3,500 years. A grave urn made of clay is dated 900 BC. Dated. During this time, one of the largest settlements in Bavaria is said to have emerged in what is now the northern part of the city. Since 15 BC At that time, the densely wooded hill country of Lower Bavaria, which was hardly populated at that time, belonged to the Roman Empire . While numerous fortresses and cities such as Regensburg ( Latin : Castra Regina ) or Passau (Latin: Batavia ) were built on the state border, the Danube, this epoch in Landshut's prehistory passed the area relatively calmly.
From 500 AD, the Bavarian people emerged from different tribes and local populations. The first settlements in the region that still exist today, such as Ergolding and Eching, were founded and the land was cultivated. Up until the 12th century, most families lived on agriculture as self-sufficient . Since the High Middle Ages , many people began to specialize in certain professional activities: trade and handicrafts developed. Representatives of these new professional groups mainly settled in geographically favorable locations in order to gain more customers. Due to its location on an important Isar bridge, the future Landshut was able to develop into an important city.
City foundation and division of states
Even before the city was founded, there was a fortified and wax settlement on the area of today's Trausnitz Castle, which was mentioned in a document around 1150 as Landeshuata (state hat for "hat and protection of the country"), but probably already after excavations in 2002 existed since the 10th century.
The flourishing of trade in Bavaria fell under the reign of the second Bavarian duke from the House of Wittelsbach : power disputes flared up between Duke Ludwig dem Kelheimer , son of Otto I , who was enfeoffed with the Duchy of Bavaria by Friedrich Barbarossa , and the Bishop of Regensburg . As a result, the duke had the episcopal " Strasbourg " north-east of today's Landshut destroyed. It is believed that the castle was built to guard an important bridge.
Shortly afterwards, in 1204, the duke decided to found a city a few kilometers up the Isar and to bridge the river. The settlement, known since then as Landshut , represented the first major city foundation by Ludwig des Kelheimer in Lower Bavaria. The exact year of the foundation of the city and the Trausnitz Castle is only known from the annals of Abbot Hermann von Niederaltaich , in which it says: “ Lvdwicus dux Bawariae castrum et oppidum in Lantshvt construere cepit ”(German:“ Ludwig, the Duke of Bavaria, began to build the castle and town in Landshut ”).
The place was made for a trading post: On the one hand, the Hofberg was a good starting point for the construction of a castle, on the other hand, it was particularly easy to cross the Isar here, as only two smaller bridges instead of one large one were built over the mill island had to. The situation on the river in general, on which shipping was still operated at that time, and the contractual stipulation that all trade routes from Munich and the Alpine region towards Regensburg and the Bavarian Forest should be bundled in Landshut, did the rest and left the young city quickly to grow.
In the first fifty years of its existence, Landshut consisted of a total of three parts: the old town , for a long time one of the widest and most expansive streets in Bavaria, where many rich craftsmen settled, the castle high above the settlement and, from 1232, the Seligenthal monastery , the by Ludmilla , widow of Ludwig des Kelheimer, who was donated after his death. Many Bavarian dukes are buried in Seligenthal.
Landshut was the headquarters of the Wittelsbach family until 1253, so it was de facto the capital of Bavaria. The ducal suburb had shifted in the previous period, first from Regensburg to Kelheim and then to Landshut. As early as 1255, however, the land was divided under the Duke's two sons in Upper Bavaria with the capital Munich and Lower Bavaria with the capital Landshut. Almost a hundred years later, in 1340, Ludwig the Bavarian reunited the two parts of the country - this time with his headquarters in Munich. But only nine years later, the Bavarian territory was divided up again: This time the three areas of Straubing-Holland , Upper Bavaria and Lower Bavaria-Landshut were created under the sons of Ludwig von Bayern . The latter area was ruled by Stephan II , who united two of the three parts of the country after the death of the Upper Bavarian ruler in 1363.
In these historically confused times, Landshut flourished so that the city walls had to be expanded several times: The first expansion took place around fifty years after the city was founded, when the “Lower Old Town” was added to the existing street. Towards the end of the 13th century, the entire area of today's "New Town" was built, which was built parallel to the old town. A good twenty years later, the area around today's “Dreifaltigkeitsplatz” was also built on. Since 1340 the city walls have also been drawn around the new “Freyung” district. As the name suggests, the settlement in this district was associated with great tax advantages; citizens were exempt from all tax payments for ten years. In addition, the city limits were moved to the Isar and more city gates were built.
Since a city fire in 1342, in which over a hundred buildings are destroyed, newly built houses in Landshut have basically been made of stone. As a result of the great fire, it was also necessary to build a new church, as the old, Romanesque church was a good three meters below the newly built city center. However, a new construction was not started before 1380.
With the death of Stephen II , his three sons divided the country again, which went down in history as the Bavarian division of 1392 . This gave rise to the three duchies of Bavaria-Munich , Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Bavaria-Landshut .
The first duke of the economically most successful part of the state, Bavaria-Landshut, was Friedrich the Wise , who ruled from 1375 to 1393 and ushered in the era of the rich Landshut dukes. During his reign, construction began on one of the most glamorous buildings in Bavaria at the time: after a construction period of 120 years, the Martinskirche was not completed until 1500. A few hundred meters northeast, the city afforded the Holy Spirit Church around the same time .
Friedrich's successors, all of whom were nicknamed "the rich", were instrumental in the rise of Landshut. The first of the rich dukes, Henry XVI. , ruled with an iron hand when he captured the Landshut city council at Trausnitz Castle and filled the state coffers by expropriating the 49 richest city dwellers. From a political point of view he was also highly successful, because he was able to significantly expand the Landshut sphere of influence, fought successfully against his cousin, Ludwig VII of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, received parts of the " Straubinger Ländchen " in 1429 and all of Bavaria-Ingolstadt in 1447 as this Line died out. In the following years Landshut, already a political center, also developed into an economic and cultural center of Bavaria and became richer than Bavaria-Munich, which is attributed not least to the trade in the " white gold ", the salt , in cities was operated within the duchy, such as Bad Reichenhall , Kitzbühel , Rattenberg or Kufstein .
Heinrich's successor, Ludwig the Rich , who ruled the duchy from 1450, began to systematically discriminate against the Jews of Landshut, who, if they were not baptized and paid 30,000 guilders , were expelled. The social climax of the reign, which was characterized by tournaments and events, was undoubtedly the wedding of his son Georg to Hedwig of Poland from the Jagiellonian dynasty in 1475, which was one of the most splendid festivals of the late Middle Ages and went down in the annals as the Landshut wedding .
After the death of his father, George the Rich took over the office of Duke four years later, in 1479. Under him the medieval town expansion was completed. With the exception of the Mühleninsel district, all built-up areas of the city were surrounded by a massive wall. In total, the city wall was pierced by gates in only eight places. In addition to the Ländtor, there was the Outer and Inner Isartor, near it the Spitalerturm, on the eastern city limits the Kapuzinertor and the Hagrainertor, in the west the Münchnertor and the Hutertor allowed admission. Numerous well-known artists, such as Hans Leinberger or Mair von Landshut , worked in the city at this time and enriched the cultural life.
Second residence of the Wittelsbach family
With the death of George the Rich on December 1st, 1503, the glamorous period of the Gothic city ended. He left no male offspring from his marriage to Hedwig. As a result, according to the existing Wittelsbach house contracts, Bayern-Landshut should completely fall to Bayern-Munich. Shortly before his death, Georg tried unsuccessfully to appoint his son-in-law, Elector Ruprecht von der Pfalz, as his successor. The Munich line with inheritance rights did not want to accept this breach of contract, which led to the Landshut War of Succession . In the time that followed, numerous settlements around Landshut were burned down before Ruprecht and his wife Elisabeth died in 1505, thus ending the conflict. As a result of an imperial arbitration award, Bayern-Landshut was reunited with Bayern-Munich, and the city lost its political importance.
However, the Landshut Rent Office was established in 1507 , making the city one of the most important administrative centers of the duchy. When Ludwig X then made claims to the ducal office of his brother Wilhelm IV in 1514 , many feared that disputes would flare up again. At the urging of the emperor, Wilhelm agreed to a division of government powers. Ludwig was then awarded the management of the Landshut and Straubing rent offices from Landshut. From 1537 to 1543 he had the first Renaissance palace north of the Alps built with the Landshut city residence . When Ludwig died childless in 1545, Landshut again lost the status of the royal seat, but the rent office remained.
Until he took office in 1579, Hereditary Prince Wilhelm resided for ten years in his native Landshut. Under him, Friedrich Sustris expanded the Trausnitz into a renaissance castle. A detailed city model, which is extraordinary worldwide and which Jakob Sandtner made around 1570 on behalf of Duke Albrecht V for Landshut and the four other Bavarian government cities of Munich , Ingolstadt , Straubing and Burghausen , also dates from this period . The city itself continued to lose political importance in the period that followed.
Descent to the Bavarian provincial town
The city's history was relatively calm in the following decades, far from major unrest. In order to strengthen the position of the Catholic faith in Landshut, Duke Maximilian moved the collegiate monastery of St. Kastulus from Moosburg to Landshut and made St. Martin a collegiate church .
The Thirty Years' War also left its mark on Landshut. A total of three times - in 1632, 1634 and 1648 - the city was visited by the Swedes . The incursion of July 22nd, 1634 put a particularly severe damper on the city and destroyed its relative prosperity. While the mayors and councilors surrendered early in 1632 when the Swedish troops first arrived, and finally accepted the payment of 100,000 Reichstalers and thus averted greater devastation, the second clash took place in a battle. The Swedish troops, who were on their way to break the siege of Regensburg , took the castle and town by storm. In the slaughter that followed, the imperial general Johann von Aldringen was killed in addition to numerous residents and defenders . After the storming, the Swedish generals Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar and Gustaf Graf Horn allowed their armies to plunder Landshut for eight days. Thus the Swedes failed to move on to Regensburg immediately to relieve the city, which had been besieged by an imperial army for three months, and thus had lost sight of the real aim of their campaign. The failure had serious consequences, because as it turned out when the delayed departure from Landshut on July 30th, Regensburg had already capitulated on July 26th, 1634. The Swedes' long stay in Landshut - probably a consequence of the plundering of the city that lasted several days - was a serious, momentous strategic mistake by the two Swedish generals, the cause of which has not yet been clarified. The Swedish commander of Regensburg, who later became Field Marshal Lars Kagg, was so bitter about the absence of the relief army that he did not want to exchange a word when he later met Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar in Nuremberg. The surrender of Regensburg marked the beginning of further serious military defeats for the Swedes. Both Swedish armies under Bernhard von Sachsen Weimar and Gustaf Horn were severely defeated in the battle of Nördlingen by the two imperial Bavarian armies that they had failed to fight at Regensburg after their hasty retreat from Bavaria to Württemberg that became necessary .
As if the exceptionally violent sacking of the city had not brought enough suffering to the city, plague and famine broke out within the city walls as a result of the incursion , and a third of the city's population of that time was killed. In 1648, the city fell again into the hands of foreign occupiers. This time it was French troops led by Marshal Turenne and Swedish troops led by Field Marshal Carl Gustav Wrangel who demanded tribute from the city for a further five months, albeit with far less damage than the occupation fourteen years earlier. The history of the city, which had been on a steady decline in the previous centuries, had thus reached its lowest point. In 1704 Landshut was occupied by the Austrians ( War of the Spanish Succession ). In 1705, Landshut was then briefly the seat of the Imperial Administration in Bavaria .
Less than a hundred years after the great devastation of the Thirty Years' War, the city suffered again from the auxiliary troops of the Austrians during the War of the Austrian Succession in the 1740s. The demolition of the hospital gate in 1771 marked the beginning of the systematic destruction of a total of seven of the eight historic city gates. The facade of the city residence was redesigned in a classical style when Count Palatine Wilhelm von Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen resided in Landshut from 1780–1799.
Another upswing in the city
A trend-setting year for the history of Landshut was in 1800. At that time, Elector Max IV. Joseph moved the oldest university in Bavaria, which was founded in 1472 by Ludwig the Rich in Ingolstadt , to Landshut. The official reason for this move was the direct threat to the well-fortified Ingolstadt from the French troops. In reality, however, relocation of the university had been considered for the first time at least twenty years earlier, since the fortress city on the Danube and the established provincialism had too much impact on university life there. However, because Max I Joseph, who rose to king a short time later, rejected excessive centralization in Munich, the city of three helmets was considered as an alternative. Crown Prince Ludwig lived in the city residence for some time during his studies in the first decade of the 19th century.
In the end, however, Landshut also suffered from Napoleon's campaign , who entered the city on April 21, 1809. As a result of the conflict known as the “ Battle of Landshut ”, three city gates or towers were so badly damaged that they had to be torn down. After a former Jesuit monastery disappeared from the cityscape at the end of the 18th century, the other seven monasteries existed until 1802/1803. However, when secularization began at the beginning of the 19th century, all the monasteries and the collegiate monastery were dissolved. In the following forty years, at least three church institutions were reopened: It started with the St. Joseph Convent of the Ursulines , almost ten years later - more precisely in 1835 - the Seligenthal Monastery of the Cistercian Sisters and the Franciscan monastery (incorrectly referred to as the monastery of St. Peter and Paul ).
In 1826, only a good quarter of a century after the university had been moved to the city, King Ludwig I was responsible for bringing the almost 1,000 students, known as the “reform university” and one of the five largest in Germany, to the tertiary educational institution State capital Munich was relocated and still exists today as the Ludwig Maximilians University . In order to - at least partially - stop the subsequent loss of importance, the Kgl. Bayer. 2nd Chevaulegers Regiment and the Kgl. Bayer. 4th Jäger Battalion and the Court of Appeal moved from Munich to the city and a lyceum (comparable to a university at the time) set up. The latter was relocated to Freising after just under ten years in 1834 , from which the Philosophical-Theological University of Freising evolved.
However, Landshut only played a subordinate role within Bavaria after the short “university epoch”. With the administrative reorganization of Bavaria under Count von Montgelas , the city of Landshut was assigned to the Isar District, newly founded in 1806 , which was administered from Munich. This situation changed at least partially when the city was declared the seat of the government of Lower Bavaria by Ludwig I in 1839 .
In 1858, Landshut was finally connected to the Bavarian railway network with a line in the direction of Munich. In 1874, Landshut's penultimate historic city gate, the Münchner Tor, was demolished to allow the flow of traffic in the upper old town to run free.
From 1869 to 1873, King Ludwig II had magnificent rooms set up on the 2nd floor of the Trausnitz prince's building.
20th and 21st centuries
The first thirty years of the city's history in the 20th century were relatively calm and were shaped by industrialization approaches. One year before Adolf Hitler came to power in 1932, the governments of Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate were merged. The much larger Regensburg was chosen as the administrative seat of the newly founded " Government District of Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate " .
Towards the end of the Second World War , the Todt Organization set up a satellite camp of the Dachau concentration camp at the Kleiner Parzierplatz . Here, 500 Jewish concentration camp prisoners were used for forced labor in armament projects, of which 83 died as a result of the inhumane prison conditions. A memorial plaque in the Landshut-Achdorf cemetery commemorates these victims of the Nazi regime, including 74 prisoners on a death march from the Flossenbürg concentration camp .
On March 19, 1945, a good month before American troops marched into the city on May 1, the station area was devastated by the heaviest bombing raid on the city. There were 300–400 victims. On April 29, 1945 the government councilor Dr. Franz Seiff , at the instigation of Gauleiter Ludwig Ruckdeschel , was publicly hanged on the cattle marketplace by Gestapo men because he had hoisted a white and blue flag on his house in Schweinbach near Landshut. He was the leader of a 30 to 50-strong resistance group that was working on a peaceful handover of the city to the Americans as part of the Bavarian Freedom Campaign . The planned actions could no longer be carried out after Seiff's arrest. At the same time, police officers who had only responded to the radio call from the Bavarian Freedom Campaign, occupied the town hall in order to peacefully hand over the city to the Allied troops. However, this action also failed. The city honored Franz Seiff with a street name in 1946. In memory of those victims of National Socialism who lived in Landshut, a total of 26 stumbling blocks have been laid in Landshut by Gunter Demnig since October 2, 2012 in Theaterstrasse, the “Altstadt” street, in Seligenthaler Strasse and in Innere Münchner Strasse .
After the end of the war and the "founding years" of the Federal Republic of Germany, the East Bavarian administrative district was split into two parts again in 1956 and Landshut was once again declared the seat of the government of Lower Bavaria. Between 1972 and 1974 the urban area increased in the course of the regional reform from approximately 19 km² to almost 66 km². In 1978 the University of Applied Sciences Landshut was founded, which initially comprised the three faculties of economics, social affairs and technology and was expanded over the years to include mechanical engineering and IT. In 1999 the Josef Deimer Tunnel ( Hofberg Tunnel until July 2007 ) was completed. This made it possible for the first time to quickly cross the city area in an east-west direction within the Hofberg below the castle, as well as to calm traffic in the city center. However , it was not until 2006 that city buses were banned from this pedestrian zone . In 2004 the city of Landshut celebrated its 800th anniversary. A special German postage stamp was issued for this occasion.
On April 1, 1928, the previously independent communities of Achdorf and Berg ob Landshut were incorporated. On January 1, 1972, the former municipality of Münchnerau and part of the dissolved municipality of Hohenegglkofen were added. Schönbrunn followed on July 1, 1972. A large part of the dissolved community of Frauenberg was added on July 1, 1974.
In the first century after its founding, the city attracted many residents. By 1500 it already had several thousand inhabitants. In the late Middle Ages , the number of townspeople stagnated . Over the centuries it has been repeatedly decimated by numerous wars and the resulting famines and epidemics . The Thirty Years' War was particularly difficult . Since the 19th century, when Landshut regained importance, the number of inhabitants has increased again. After the Second World War it was over 40,000 and rose continuously to fluctuate between 50,000 and 60,000 residents since the 1970s. Many incorporations during the 20th century led to further growth. On the northern outskirts, the city has grown together with the settlement centers of the communities Altdorf and Ergolding and in the south with the community of Kumhausen . Around 100,000 people live in this agglomeration .
The following population figures have all been converted to the current territorial status (current extent of the urban area):
While in 1997 an average of 9.5 children per 1,000 people were born in Landshut, in 2004 it was only 8.5. It is noticeable that the city is both below the Bavaria-wide average of 8.9 births (2004) and below the average of all urban districts in the state, which in 2004 had 9.4 births per 1000 inhabitants. For years, this development has been contrasted with well above-average death rates . While there were 9.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants across Bavaria in 2004, 11.9 people died per 1,000 inhabitants in Landshut (2004). The city is again above the average of all independent cities in Bavaria, in which an average of 10.0 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants were reported. These statistics clearly show that Landshut is particularly attractive to senior citizens. Despite the negative natural population balance, Landshut was one of the fastest growing independent cities in Bavaria in 2005 due to the positive net migration with a population growth of 0.4%.
In the period from 1988 to 2018, the city grew from 57,194 to 72,404 by 15,210 inhabitants or by 26.6%.
As of December 31, 2005, 11.5% of the city's residents did not have German citizenship , compared to 11.4% in the previous year. The largest percentage of foreigners lived in the Nikola district (18.9%) and in the industrial area (21.2%). In total, their number at the end of 2005 was 6,489, compared to 6,189 in the previous year and 6,353 in 2003. It should be noted that numerous naturalizations have been carried out since 2000 , which resulted in a reduction in the proportion of foreigners.
The 2011 census determined the proportion of foreigners to be 10.7%. The proportion of people with a migration background was 26.9 percent in the same period. The average in Lower Bavaria is 13.4 percent.
|Age||Residents by age|
|younger than 18||15.1%|
|18 to 29||15.1%|
|30 to 49||29.2%|
|50 to 64||19.0%|
|older than 65||21.6%|
The average age increased slightly from 43.3 years in 2000 to 44.2 years in 2010. In 2011, 47.6 percent of the population of the city of Landshut were men and 52.4 percent women. As of December 31, 2012, these proportions were 47.9 percent men and 52.1 percent women.
The city of Landshut is dominated by Catholicism . At the end of 2018, the proportion of Catholics had fallen to 50.9% and of Protestants to 10.3%, the remaining 38.8% were either non-denominational or belong to another religious group. In 2016, the proportion of Catholics fell to 53.6% and Protestants to 11.0%, the remaining 35.4% were either non-denominational or belong to another religious group.
Landshut is a specialty in the division of the Catholic dioceses : the parishes north of the Isar belong to the diocese of Regensburg , the southern parishes, with the exception of the parish of St. Vinzenz von Paul in Auloh, belong to the archdiocese of Munich and Freising . The three Protestant parishes of the city - Christ Church , Church of the Redeemer and Church of the Resurrection - are administered by the Landshut deanery . Landshut also has a Seventh-day Adventist congregation, a congregation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), a congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses, and an Evangelical Free Church Congregation (EFG).
Because a large part of the city's Jewish population was expelled by Ludwig the Rich during the city's heyday in the second half of the 15th century , no independent Jewish community has been able to develop in Landshut to this day. The closest synagogues are in Regensburg , Munich and Straubing.
The city council is the municipal representative body of the city of Landshut. It consists of 44 seats and is re-elected every six years in a local election. The last election took place on March 15, 2020 . A total of 55,579 citizens were entitled to vote. 26,685 people took part in the election, which corresponds to a turnout of 48.0 percent. Compared to the previous ballot in 2014, this corresponds to an increase of 8.0 percentage points.
The CSU , which for decades was the strongest parliamentary group in the city council, lost a lot of votes and sent ten members to the city council. This corresponds to a loss of three seats. In place of the CSU, the Greens became the strongest force thanks to clear gains and provided eleven city councils. The free voters were able to maintain their strong result from 2014 and keep their five seats on the city council. The SPD suffered significant losses and halved from six to three city council seats. The FDP , previously only represented with one seat, and the AfD , which took part for the first time, have just as many seats . The "Landshuter Mitte" could not maintain its strong result of 2014 and shrank from five to only two seats. The ÖDP was almost able to match its result from the previous election and still has two seats. The “Young List Landshut”, the Linke / mut, the “Young Voters”, the “Citizens for Landshut” and the Bavarian Party each received one seat .
In the post-war period, the city was essentially ruled by the CSU . At the age of 33, Josef Deimer took up his post as Lord Mayor of the city on January 1, 1970 . From 1975 he took over the chairmanship of the Bavarian Association of Cities and has been Deputy President of the Association of German Cities since 1994 . For reasons of age, his last term of office ended on December 31, 2004. With a term of 35 years, Josef Deimer was one of the longest-serving Lord Mayors in Germany. In the run-up to the mayoral election on October 10, 2004, there were quarrels within the CSU. Hans Rampf and Ludwig Zellner fought over Deimer's successor in office. When the party stood behind Zellner and chose him as the official candidate, Landshut businesspeople started the “Pro Rampf” initiative, which, after collecting 8,000 signatures, voted the fast food franchisee against Zellner for the newly created list “Citizens for Landshut” to compete; However, he remained a member of the CSU. The result of the election was surprising: Rampf received 50.89% of all votes; Zellner landed in third place with 14.84%; Thomas Keyßner, candidate for Alliance 90 / The Greens , achieved the second-best result with 25.14% .
In 2008, Thomas Keyßner was elected second mayor after the city council election and replaced Ludwig Zellner in this office. In 2014 he was confirmed in this office. The third mayor from 2008 to 2014 was the SPD city councilor Gerd Steinberger, who also ran for the mayoral election in 2004. On May 9, 2014, the City Councilor Erwin Schneck (Free Voters) was elected Third Mayor.
In the Mayor elections on October 10, 2010, Hans Rampf was re-elected as the CSU candidate with 61.10% of the vote. Rampf left office at the end of 2016. For reasons of age he could no longer apply for another term of office. In the runoff election for his successor (three men and one woman had applied in the first ballot) on October 23, 2016, the candidate of the FDP , Alexander Putz , received 63.01% of the votes; Helmut Radlmeier , CSU , came up with 36.99%. The turnout was 45.11%.
He voluntarily shortened his term of office so that the next mayoral election could be held together with the 2020 city council election. On March 15, 2020, none of the candidates prevailed with an absolute majority. In the runoff election on March 29, 2020, incumbent Alexander Putz (FDP) was re-elected with 70.4%; Sigi Hagl (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen) received 29.6% of the vote.
coat of arms
Blazon : "In silver three, two-to-one, blue iron hats with intertwined red storm straps."
Landshut is sometimes called the “three-helmet city” because of the three helmets that can be seen in the city arms.
Justification of the coat of arms: Predecessors of the three helmets coat of arms were already used in the 13th century to represent the city. The three iron hats that have always appeared in the city's official seal can be traced back to 1275. Allegedly, Ludwig the Bavarian is said to have provided Landshut with today's coat of arms after the Battle of Gammelsdorf in order to emphasize the bravery of the Landshut people. The blue helmet color and the silver-colored background make clear the ties between the city and the Bavarian Wittelsbach family , who had a decisive influence on the city for centuries. Since then, the only thing that has changed is the shape of the helmets, which have been adapted to contemporary fashion tastes. In the late 16th century, the original iron hats - and they are used again today - were increasingly replaced by pierced helmets . In rare cases (since 1446) the coat of arms is held up by two men.
The official flag of the city is dominated in the upper part by a white head on which the city coat of arms is depicted; in the lower part the colors white and red are used, which are separated from each other in the longitudinal direction. The origin of the colors white and red on the city flag, which is typical for old Bavarian cities, cannot be conclusively clarified, but is possibly based on the color of the helmet straps.
Landshut has a number of partnerships with various cities in Europe. Of the five currently existing partnerships, the first was in 1956 with the Scottish town of Elgin. Landshut's newest twin town is Hermannstadt ( Romanian : Sibiu ), the town twinning was sealed in 2002.
|Elgin ( United Kingdom )||since 1956||23,128 inhabitants|
|Compiègne ( France )||since 1962||40,199 inhabitants|
|Ried im Innkreis ( Austria )||since 1974||12,055 inhabitants|
|Schio ( Italy )||since 1981||39,162 inhabitants|
|Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt; Transylvania , Romania )||since 2002||147,245 inhabitants|
Since the 1950s, the city of Landshut has taken on a number of sponsorships for smaller towns in the vicinity.
|Bad Kötzting ( Upper Palatinate )||since 1953||7,498 inhabitants|
|Mainburg (Lower Bavaria)||since 1954||15,241 inhabitants|
|Rottenburg (Lower Bavaria)||since 1971||8,267 inhabitants|
|Waldkirchen (Lower Bavaria)||since 1972||10,534 inhabitants|
Participation in regional alliances
The city of Landshut is an official member of the Economic Area of Southern Bavaria, an association that was created for regional cooperation in economic matters. The GMA area covers a total of 21,410 square kilometers and over five million inhabitants, with the average gross domestic product per inhabitant being 3.9% above the Bavarian average. In addition to the Landshut planning region, consisting of the Augsburg , Ingolstadt , Munich and Southeast Upper Bavaria regions , it is one of the most attractive business locations in Germany and even plays an outstanding role in a European comparison.
In addition to Rosenheim ( RO ) and Salzburg ( SA ) , Landshut ( LA ) is one of the founding members of the LAROSA city alliance, which the cities of Kufstein and Freilassing have now also joined. The aim of this partnership is better cooperation on educational issues, the strengthening of the regional economy and cross-border cooperation between various institutions.
The city of Landshut is also a member of the following special-purpose associations:
- Regional planning association Landshut
- Association of vocational schools in Landshut (city and district)
- Special purpose association for rescue services and fire brigade alarms Landshut
- Association for animal carcass and slaughterhouse waste disposal Plattling
- Zweckverband Landestheater Niederbayern
- Schwandorf waste disposal association
- Water supply association Isar-Vils
- Bruckberg-Gündlkofen water supply group
The city administration provides 709 different official services.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, Landshut generated a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 3.853 billion within the city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 55,345 (Bavaria: € 44,215 / Germany € 38,180) and was thus above the regional and national average. In 2016 there were around 56,400 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 3.9% and thus above the Bavarian average of 2.7% (in the Landshut district it was 2.2%).
Landshut is one of the economically strongest regional authorities in Germany. The generally favorable location in southern Bavaria, the proximity to the metropolis of Munich, but also Landshut's function as a transport hub, promote economic success, which is regularly confirmed by various independent studies. In a survey by the Society for Consumer Research from December 2006 on the purchasing power of the 439 rural districts and independent cities, the city took 23rd place and was thus above the national average. The purchasing power index was 117.6 in relation to the reference value 100 for the national average. The annual study by the business magazine Focus Money on the economic strength of the districts and independent cities in Germany attested the city to have a flourishing economy at the end of 2006. Landshut took second place behind the Upper Bavarian Ebersberg , ahead of Regensburg (22nd place) and Munich (23rd place), of the 425 regional authorities examined . This included, for example, population growth, unemployment rate, change in GDP , household income and other factors are taken into account. Unemployment is low.
As of June 30, 2014, there were 35,086 employees subject to social security contributions at the place of work and 25,335 at the place of residence. This means that their total number has increased by 6,593 in the last five years. In 2014 (2013) there were 23,065 (22,478) in- commuters and 13,382 (12,721) out-commuters. This is 3,642 (+19 percent) inbound commuters and 3,278 (+33 percent) outbound commuters more than ten years ago. The commuter balance is positive. As of June 30, 2014 (2013), the in-commuter surplus was 9,683 (9,757) people and has remained almost constant over the past ten years at nine to ten thousand people.
Around 30% of Landshut's employees who are subject to social insurance are employed in the manufacturing industry . In the secondary sector, Bayerische Motoren Werke dominates the city's business world by far. In the automobile manufacturer's production facility, which has been in existence since 1967, around 3,300 people now manufacture cylinder heads, bumpers, plastic components and other individual parts that are used in almost all of the company's products. The second largest employer in the manufacturing industry is the motor and fan manufacturer ebm-papst . The world market leader in ventilation and drive technology employs around 1000 people in its third largest location. Other nationally important companies are Schott Electronics and Brandt rusk chocolates , which each employ almost 600 people at their locations in Landshut. The latter company, which became famous primarily for its rusks , mainly produces chocolate products in its Landshut location, which has existed since 1940 . Schott Electronic Packaging mainly produces seals for electronic components in the city. Also Cine Project as one of the leading cinema equipment supplier is based in Landshut. After further away from the said companies to follow production of Vishay Intertechnology , one of the largest manufacturers of semiconductors and passive electronic components, which in textile management operating Josef Urzinger GmbH as well as the state-wide operating tire dealers tires Wagner each include about 200 employees. Finally, the Landshut-based company Klann Verpackungen , where over 150 people work, and the fittings and tool wholesaler Seefelder GmbH with 110 employees are worth mentioning . The largest employer in the service sector is the Sparkasse Landshut with almost 600 employees. Other important trading and service companies based in Landshut are Deutsche Telekom with around 450 and the energy company E.ON with a total of over 1250 employees. The majority of the employees work at the headquarters of E.ON Service Plus , which currently employs 650 people in E.ON-Allee, named after the company, at Landshut Exhibition Park . Another new building is soon to create additional space for 250 more employees. The German headquarters of E.ON Wasserkraft are also located in Luitpoldstrasse . It is also worth mentioning the sales and marketing headquarters of OMV Germany, which is located on the city limits of Ergolding . The only remaining breweries in the city are the C. Wittmann brewery and the Landshut brewery . An important part of the economy is Landshut's importance as a trade fair location. After the Landshuter Schoch barracks closed, the new Landshut exhibition park, one of the largest in Bavaria, opened in 2003 in the east of the city. The three most important trade fairs are the Niederbayernschau (third largest consumer fair in Bavaria), the Landshut environmental fair, the Bayern-Bau and Future Trend , which take place every two years.
State institutions and authorities
The city of Landshut has two large official buildings: "Rathaus 1" is the city's historic city hall. It is located in the old town and is still the seat of the city council, the mayor and numerous offices. Since it was too small for the city administration, most offices were decentrally distributed over several buildings by the turn of the millennium. In 2004 they were relocated to a building complex called “Rathaus 2” on Luitpoldstrasse and a central citizens' office was set up.
The city of Landshut is the seat of the government of Lower Bavaria , the district council of the Landshut district and the German Pension Insurance Bayern Süd (formerly LVA Niederbayern / Oberpfalz and LVA Oberbayern).
There is an employment agency to which the area of the same name is subordinate, and an office of the social insurance for agriculture, forestry and horticulture (SVLFG). In 1880 a main customs office was established, which has been located on Seligenthaler Strasse since 1895. Both the judicial building and the tax office moved to new building complexes on Maximilianstrasse in the east of the city in the late 1980s. The Landshut Water Management Office has existed since 1913 (formerly the Royal Cultural Building Authority Landshut, Landshut Cultural Building Authority), which is responsible for the city of Landshut and the districts of Landshut, Kelheim and Dingolfing-Landau. The State Office for Finance is represented by an office which, in addition to remuneration and other areas of responsibility, etc. a. the Staatsoberkasse Bayern includes. There is an office for food, agriculture and forestry .
A regional court and a district court have their seat in Landshut. The district court is responsible for the districts of Dingolfing-Landau , Erding , Freising , Landshut and Rottal-Inn as well as for the city of Landshut. The district courts in Eggenfelden , Erding , Freising , Landau an der Isar and Landshut are subordinate to him . In addition to the criminal and civil court, the Landshut District Court has a registry court , a probate court , a family court , an enforcement court and a guardianship court . There is also a social court . The Regensburg Labor Court maintains an independent chamber there. Prisoners are housed in the Landshut correctional facility .
Both as an economic center - trade and industry - and as an administrative center, Landshut is also a center of daily commuter flows (see graphic).
Landshut is an important hub for national road traffic due to the connection to the A 92 via three junctions, whereby the city center (according to the description) is best reached from Munich via the Moosburg- Nord exit and from Deggendorf via the Landshut / Essenbach exit can as well as the intersection of several federal highways that run through the urban area.
B 15 : In the north-south direction it connects Hof with Rosenheim and has four lanes from the A 92 (Landshut / Essenbach exit) to the city limits.
B 11 : It originally linked the Bavarian Forest with Munich and the Werdenfelser Land. After the construction of the A 92, it wassteppedeast of Landshut into a state road and now begins in the west at the "Kupfereck", where it branches off from the B 15.
B 299 : It connects Altenmarkt an der Alz with Amberg on a north-south axis and is the shortest connection between the oil refineries near Ingolstadt and Neustadt an der Donau and the Bavarian chemical triangle . It is located north of Landshut as an offset between the Altdorf and Landshut-Nord junctions on the A 92. It crosses the urban area on Konrad-Adenauer-Straße, where traffic jams regularly occur, as it narrows in both directions from two to one lane per direction. According to the 2010 traffic census, the traffic load there is almost 24,000 vehicles per day. At Landshut-Nord there are around 18,500 and at Landshut Ost in the direction of Weihbüchl around 13,700 vehicles per day.
Source: BAYSIS database
B 15n : This is toconnect Regensburg to Rosenheim via Landshutas the “ yellow motorway ”. The connection to the A 92 near Essenbach should take place in 2019. The Isar crossing east of Landshut and the further construction south of Landshut are disputed. As an east-south bypass Landshut (with connection B 15n / A 92 to B 15 and B 299) it should be registeredfor the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2030 forurgent needs.
The traffic situation in Landshut is characterized by the fact that traffic is routed across the Isar at three points in the city. The areas Hofmark-Aich-Straße / Luitpoldstraße (B 15 with 24,500 to 26,500 vehicles per day) and Konrad-Adenauer-Straße (B 299 with 24,000 vehicles per day) with its two bridges over the large and small Isar are particularly polluted . To relieve the city center, the Josef Deimer Tunnel was inaugurated under the Hofberg in 1999 , which connects the east and west of the city. It is part of an inner city ring to divert the regional traffic around the city center. With the " Osttangente Landshut ", which has been under discussion for more than a decade, an additional Isar crossing is to be created in the east of the city. A traffic report by the Free State of Bavaria should clarify their needs. Likewise, a bypass road in the west has been discussed as the West Tangent Landshut since the 1960s.
The city of Landshut is connected to the northern and southern district of Landshut via State Road 2045 . Ergolding can be reached via state road 2143 , via the district roads LA 26 Altdorf , LA 52 Altdorf or Ergolding and LA 14 at Auloh Niederaichbach .
|Munich - Freising - Moosburg - Landshut - Dingolfing - Deggendorf - ( )|
|Bayerisch Eisenstein - Deggendorf - Dingolfing - Landshut - Moosburg - Freising - Munich - Benediktbeuern - Krün|
|Hof - ( - Weiden ) - Regensburg - ( Nuremberg / Passau ) - Landshut - Dorfen - Haag - Rosenheim - ( - Kufstein )|
|Waldsassen - Amberg - Neumarkt idOPf - Neustadt an der Donau - ( Ingolstadt / Kelheim ) - ( Regensburg / AD Holledau) - Landshut - Vilsbiburg - Altötting - ( Linz / Munich ) - Altenmarkt - ( Traunstein - Freilassing / Berchtesgaden )|
|(under construction) Saalhaupt - Neufahrn - Ergoldsbach - Landshut - Vilsbiburg - Bad Aibling - ( - Salzburg )|
While numerous railway projects , such as the Munich – Augsburg line (opened in 1840), were already being implemented in the first half of the 19th century , Eastern Bavaria was without a rail connection for a long time. Due to the poor financial situation of the Bavarian state, routes could only be built in this part of the country with the help of private commitments. For this reason, the AG of the Bavarian Eastern Railways was finally founded in 1856 . A first line was already completed two years later, on November 3, 1858, and Landshut was connected to the national rail network before the line was continued in a north-easterly direction. Even today, the continuously electrified, double-track line in the direction of Munich is by far the most important rail connection to Landshut. In connection with the further route to the north, the main route Munich – Regensburg was created ( KBS 930 ; VzG no. 5500 ; km 76.1). The electrification between Munich and Landshut was completed on October 3, 1925, and between Landshut and Regensburg on May 11, 1927.
Another important railway line runs from Landshut in a north-easterly direction and extends via Landau an der Isar to Plattling and on to Bayerisch Eisenstein . This line ( KBS 931 ; VzG 5634; km 0.0) is only single-track and electrified as far as Plattling. The first section (41.55 km) of this line from Landshut (km 0.0) to Pilsting was opened on May 15, 1880 and the new Landshut main station was also put into operation. The industrial plants on this route brought so much freight traffic that electrification was necessary. At the same time, a diversion route to the Plattling – Regensburg route was created.
The Landshut – Rottenburg to Rottenburg railway, opened on November 3, 1900 ; (Vzg 5632; 27.46 km), started in Landshut (Bay). Regular public transport has since been discontinued; Goods have not been transported since 1998, so the “Rola Landshut” Rollende Landstrasse project came to an end quickly. A licensed rail transport and infrastructure company (see BayernBahn ) carries out museum railroad traffic on the tracks that exist as far as Neuhausen on a few days a year.
The first Landshut train station was designed as a dead end station on Innere Regensburger Strasse . Almost 20 years later, on May 15, 1880, it was replaced by a new train station outside the city. This was largely destroyed by bombing in the Second World War and replaced by a new building in the first years after the war .
In the southern part of the city, there is another stop, "Landshut Süd" . It is to be significantly modernized as part of the expansion of the Landshut-Salzburg route (since 2007).
Preliminary investigations have already been carried out for Landshut regarding integration into the Munich transport and tariff association . As the network area ends in the neighboring district of Freising , the network tariff is only valid up to the neighboring regional express stop in Moosburg an der Isar . With the introduction of the Danube-Isar-Express for the timetable change in December 2009 and the additional regional trains Freising-Landshut introduced at the same time, a train connection to Munich is to be offered every 20 minutes (sometimes with changes).
As a result of the rail reform, other companies are also offering their services at Landshut Central Station. Work on connecting the Landshut node to the operations control center is in the planning stage and has progressed relatively far from Munich and Regensburg.
In the first twenty years of Landshut's railway history, the city had a sack station near today's city center. However, since this soon became too uneconomical due to the enormous amount of time required, especially because the line had expanded to Regensburg in the following years, the construction of a new train station became necessary, which was finally inaugurated in 1880. However, since the through station was over two kilometers from the city center - i.e. the central old town - the residents of the city soon wanted a better connection between the two places. An important first step to a functioning transport system marked the opening of a horse-drawn tram from the main station to the Dreifaltigkeitsplatz southwest of the Old Town on June 30, 1902. Technical progress accordingly was the tram Landshut to 1913 fully electrified (the first line into operation on 15 February 1913) and two-pronged expansion. After heavy bombing raids on the station area in 1945, large parts of the track system were destroyed so that operation was no longer possible. Instead of making the rails passable again and rebuilding the depot, operations were completely stopped and replaced in 1948 by the Landshut trolleybus , which opened up large parts of the then urban area on three lines. In 1966 the last hour of this mode of transport had finally struck; since then, local public transport has been completely covered by buses.
Currently, thirteen lines of the “StadtLinie” operate, which cover the entire city area, as well as five “ExpressLinien”, which are primarily intended for commuters and connect the main traffic routes with the train station. In addition, special buses have been in use since 2006 that serve the newly created "AbendLinie" on ten lines. Stadtwerke Landshut operates the city buses .
Since January 1, 2019 there is the "LAVV", a tariff association of the city and district of Landshut. This means that city and district buses can be used together with just one ticket.
The future land use plan of the city of Landshut (status: 2005) adheres to the "option" of using the rail network to a greater extent for local public transport in the future, thus considering the development of a light rail system . Although an imminent realization is to be classified as very unlikely, reference is made to smaller cities such as Nordhausen , which have such systems despite their small population. In addition to the existing stops in Landshut (Bavaria) Hauptbahnhof and Landshut Süd, there will be new stops in Münchnerau, at the Hans-Leinberger-Gymnasium, near the clinics and in the Bayerwaldsiedlung, as well as further stops on the routes towards Ergoldsbach and Dingolfing and the reactivation of a section in the direction of Rottenburg considered.
In the western city area, more accurately in the district Münchnerau, is the airfield Landshut Ellermühle ( ICAO code: EDML). As early as the late 1950s, efforts were made to build a landing pad for small and glider planes in the vicinity of Landshut. The city of Landshut acquired the necessary land by 1960 before the Landshut air sports club was supervised with the construction in 1961. After the construction of the first hangars and a tower, the airfield officially opened on August 26, 1962. In later years the runway was concreted; today it is 900 meters long and 20 meters wide. In the run-up to a Europe-wide change in take-off and landing regulations for commercial air traffic on January 1, 2005, it was planned to extend the runway to 1,320 meters and to widen it to 23 meters. However, this project was brought to a standstill last year as a result of a referendum , which is valid for one year. The Landshut city council is currently negotiating new measures to maintain commercial air traffic up to 5.7 t.
There are several hospitals in Landshut: The Landshut Clinic (care level II), the Landshut-Achdorf District Hospital (basic and standard care), the St. Marien Children's Hospital and the Landshut District Hospital.
At the end of the Middle Ages, Landshut - as in the rest of Bavaria - did not have any hospitals in the modern sense. However, there were two independent leprosy hospitals , St. Nikola (first mentioned in 1252) on the left and St. Lazarus (since 1403) on the right of the Isar. In the following centuries, different institutions alternated, but all of them had only limited reception facilities. The Hl.-Geist-Spital, built in 1673 with a total of only 12 beds, served as a teaching hospital from 1802 until the so-called Liebsbund Hospital began operations. The municipal hospital in Ländgasse, inaugurated in 1810, served as a university clinic in the following years. After the educational institution was moved to Munich, however, most of the health facilities fell into disrepair. In the decades that followed, there was a lack of staff and adequate premises, and from 1910 more and more voices were heard in favor of a new building. However, the two world wars destroyed these plans for the time being. The number of patients in the municipal hospital increased many times over. As a result, the city was forced to set up a total of three so-called auxiliary hospitals.
It was not until a new building, started in 1960 and inaugurated in 1965, that eased the situation in the precarious situation of the Landshut health care system. In the year the new hospital opened, all auxiliary hospitals were closed. Known under the name of Klinikum Landshut since 1990 , it is a hospital for specialized care (care level II) and is one of the largest hospitals in western Lower Bavaria and northeastern Upper Bavaria with 583 beds, over 18,000 patients treated annually and a total of around 1,360 employees. The Landshut Clinic is an academic teaching hospital of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich . It has a total of four certified cancer centers: prostate cancer center, breast cancer center, colorectal cancer center, oncology center. In 2011, the hospital's first supra-regional stroke unit in Lower Bavaria was certified (in operation since October 2006). The first clinic for geriatric medicine under the roof of the clinic has existed in Landshut since the beginning of 2012. In addition, a center for pulmonary and bronchial medicine was established.
The Landshut-Achdorf district hospital (basic and standard care), which is also located in the city of Landshut, is a regional trauma center and has, among other things, several medical clinics, surgical clinics, an interdisciplinary palliative care unit and a women's clinic as well as the Lower Bavaria perinatal center (Level 1) . The hospital, which has existed since 1906 and was completely rebuilt in 1977, is the teaching hospital of the Technical University of Munich and is involved in teaching and training medical students in all four main departments - internal medicine, surgery, gynecology and anesthesia. It belongs to the Landshut municipal company for medical care. La.KUMed comprises the three municipal hospitals in the Landshut district: Landshut-Achdorf, Vilsbiburg and Rottenburg Castle Clinic. More than 65,000 outpatients and inpatients are cared for in La.KUMed's hospitals every year. With more than 565 beds and around 1,350 employees, La.KUMed is one of the largest providers of medical care in Lower Bavaria and the neighboring districts of Upper Bavaria. All three clinics united under the umbrella of La.KUMed are fully certified according to ISO 9001: 2008 . In 2010, the La.KUMed clinics received, among other things, the internationally recognized ESMO certification for comprehensive oncological and palliative medical care, as well as certification as a recognized vascular center ( DGG ), as a recognized coloproctology center (CACP) and as a chest pain unit .
In addition to these two dominant facilities, there is the St. Marien Children's Hospital in Landshut , whose history dates back to 1919, when a home was built for infants at risk. In the late 1960s, they moved into a new building. Last but not least, there is the Landshut district hospital for adult psychiatry and child and adolescent psychiatry , which is responsible for the entire district of Lower Bavaria.
According to the current calculation standard, medical care in the central area of Landshut is rated at 119.8 percent. In 2014 there were a total of 125 general practitioners in the city and district of Landshut.
After the city was founded in 1204, the parish of St. Martin was for centuries the most important - and initially the only - institution that endeavored to educate the city's residents. There is evidence that a first schoolmaster was active in the city from 1257. As a result of the establishment of the Dominican and Franciscan monasteries in 1271 and 1280, the opportunities for training young people expanded. Until the early 17th century, individual schoolmasters were active in the two largest parishes in the city (St. Martin and St. Jodok), and their classes were attended by an average of only 50 children. A relevant date in the city's educational system is the year 1629: In the middle of the Thirty Years War , Duke Maximilian I sent Jesuit monks to Landshut, who began to build the first Landshut grammar school. This educational institution was looked after by the Jesuits until 1773, when the order was dissolved. As a result, school operations continued with the help of secular teachers. At the same time, the Ursuline Order, which had lived in the city since 1668, was confronted with the task of educating the secular city dwellers. In the 19th century, 400 children were taught there. The year 1800 marks another milestone in Landshut's educational history: The Bavarian Elector Max IV. Joseph (later King Maximilian I ) relocated the only Bavarian university, the University of Ingolstadt , where it was founded by Duke Ludwig the Rich in 1472 the capital of Lower Bavaria (see also Landshut University ). In the following quarter of a century, numerous respected and well-known professors taught at this tertiary educational institution. During the reign of Ludwig I , the educational institution known today as Ludwig Maximilians University disappeared from the cityscape in 1826 and has since had its headquarters in the state capital of Munich.
As a result of the general compulsory education introduced in 1801 and the slow onset of industrialization, the educational system in the city also experienced an upswing. During the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, numerous educational institutions were opened or significantly expanded. These included, for example, the industrial school founded in 1812 , which trained girls in the use of fabrics, the agricultural and trade school that had existed since 1833, the district agricultural school, which opened its doors for the first time in 1854, and the "pottery school" that had existed since 1873. In addition, the first elementary and secondary schools were built. Even if the two world wars hit the schools hard, the city's educational system soon recovered after 1945. Just two years later, the Landshut Adult Education Center opened its doors. Nowadays there is a broad school system with a total of eleven primary schools , five secondary schools , three secondary schools and two business schools . There are also numerous vocational ( technical ) schools , two vocational schools , two technical colleges , the Sparkassenakademie Bayern , an agricultural training center and numerous other facilities.
There are three grammar schools , of which the Hans Carossa grammar school , which emerged from the Jesuit school of 1629, is the oldest. It was named after the doctor and author Hans Carossa , who graduated from high school there in 1897 and who drew a symbolically charged, transfigured portrait of the city of Landshut in his later, autobiographical work. The Hans-Leinberger-Gymnasium , named after the famous sculptor Hans Leinberger, is the largest of the three grammar schools with 1,348 students and was founded in 1833 as the Royal Trade School . The Seligenthal Gymnasium , which is run by the Seligenthal School Foundation, was based on a girls' lyceum and was founded in 1838 as an "educational institute". Up until the 2008/2009 school year it was an all- girls high school .
They are currently (2014/2015 school year) attended by 3,010 students. In the 2013/2014 school year the number was 3,141. For the fourth year in a row, the number of students decreased from its peak of 3,650 in the 2010/2011 school year.
According to the 2011 census , an average of 25.3 percent of students in Bavaria attended grammar school. In the administrative district of Lower Bavaria this proportion was 21.6 percent and in relation to the city of Landshut it was 29.4 percent (Landshut district 20.7 percent). The proportion of people over 15 years of age with a university entrance qualification ( Abitur or Fachabitur ) averaged 26.1 percent in Bavaria; in Lower Bavaria this rate was 17.5 percent.
Landshut University of Applied Sciences
In 1978 the Landshut University was opened. 4,900 students were enrolled in the 2018/2019 winter semester. The University of Applied Sciences, originally founded as a university of applied sciences, comprises the six faculties of computer science , business administration , electrical engineering and industrial engineering , mechanical engineering , social work and interdisciplinary studies.
Landshut was a garrison town for the Bavarian Army , Reichswehr and Wehrmacht until 1945 . During the Cold War , US Army units were initially stationed. After the establishment of the Bundeswehr , the city housed an important army garrison (most recently Panzerbrigade 24 ), which existed until the Schoch barracks were abandoned in 1994.
Landshut is the seat of several broadcasters . The public broadcaster, Bayerischer Rundfunk , maintains a radio and TV correspondent studio on Innere Münchner Strasse. In addition, the city's regional television station: Isar TV broadcasts regularly from its studios in the old town of Landshut and reaches a total of 170,000 viewers in its broadcasting area, which extends to the Landshut district and parts of the neighboring districts of Kelheim , Dingolfing-Landau and Freising . The station is a member of TV Bayern , an association of 15 broadcasters from the Free State, as well as ONTV , to which five East Bavarian television stations belong. Radio Trausnitz occupies an important position in the area of radio . The youth broadcaster Radio Galaxy also has a regional studio in Landshut. By far the most important print medium in the city is the Landshuter Zeitung, which has been part of the Straubinger Tagblatt / Landshuter Zeitung newspaper group since 1951 . There are also the two free, weekly newspapers Landshut aktuell and Landshuter Wochenblatt. The latter publishes a total of sixteen regional editions from its headquarters in Landshut for almost all of Eastern Bavaria from Schwandorf to Berchtesgaden .
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Culture and sights
The city of Landshut developed from three settlement centers: At the highest point of the steep slope above the Isar, at an altitude of over 500 m above sea level. NN , towers the Trausnitz Castle , the forerunners of which have been mentioned since 1150 and should give the future city on the Isar its name as "hat and protection of the country". The oldest parts of the fortifications still standing today date back to the time the city was founded in 1204. For centuries the seat of the Wittelsbach family , the castle underwent numerous alterations and extensions to a castle with an arcade until the late 16th century. In the 1870s, King Ludwig II had numerous rooms in the complex lavishly decorated and furnished. On October 21, 1961, however, parts of the castle furnishings fell victim to a major fire. The other two settlement centers were Seligenthal and today's old town.
At the foot of the fortress, the construction of the Gothic St. Martin's Church under Hans von Burghausen began in 1380 , after the previous church was three meters below the city center as a result of the great city fire of 1342. However, the building , which was made entirely of brick , was not completed until 1500. According to a legend, the wealthy townspeople of Landshut wanted to be able to see the dukes in the castle right down to the soup bowl, so they could meet them at "eye level". The result of this wish can still be seen today in the impressive church tower of St. Martin, which with a height of 130.6 m represents the highest brick tower in the world as well as one of the highest church towers . In 2001 the collegiate church of the collegiate monastery of St. Kastulus was elevated to a basilica minor and has since been referred to as the "Stiftsbasilika".
Together with the Gothic Holy Spirit Church , which was completed in 1461 , it delimits the old town, framed by Gothic town houses, one of the widest street markets of all. A few meters further to the east, the next street market - known as Neustadt - joins, and again to the east, the square-like Freyung joins. The Gothic Jodok Church, which was first mentioned in 1338, is one of the best preserved brick churches of its time. Like the Holy Spirit Church, it is one of the most famous representatives of the Gothic Stethaimer School around Hans von Burghausen. The Gothic parish church of St. Nikola in the district of the same name is the oldest church in Landshut north of the Isar.
At the time of its founding, the Seligenthal monastery was on the other side of the two arms of the Isar, far outside the city center and even outside the fortification ring. The facility was founded in 1232 by Ludmilla, widow of Ludwig I des Kelheimer, the city founder of Landshut. In the 18th century, the Cistercian monastery was rebuilt in the Rococo style before it was dissolved in the course of secularization - like the other Landshut monasteries. Seligenthal, however, was rebuilt in 1836 under Ludwig I of Bavaria . Today the facility is almost in the city center. In addition, the baroque St. Joseph Convent of the Ursulines and the building for the Franciscan convent exist in Landshut . Some former monasteries and their monastery church are also worth seeing, for example the early baroque Jesuit church St. Ignatius in the new town or the Dominican church St. Blasius with rich rococo furnishings and classicist façade. The medieval Theklakapelle and St. Sebastian were also redesigned in the Baroque period, while the small Rochuskapelle still shows its originally late Gothic appearance.
The monastery complexes include the Dominican monastery , which today houses the government of Lower Bavaria, the Heilig-Geist-Spital (today old people's and nursing home), which was united with Seligenthal in the 13th century, the Capuchin monastery , the Maria Loreto monastery , which has been used by the Romanian Orthodox Church since 2002 , as well as the St. Peter and Paul Monastery .
In order to protect these three important places that made up Landshut from enemies in the late Middle Ages, an extensive system of walls and ditches was built around the entire city. Equipped with numerous watchtowers, the protective wall was only broken in eight places, where magnificent city gates gave access to the city on the Isar. On the basis of a city model from 1570 made by the master turner Jakob Sandtner , numerous details of the fortifications are still known. Of the total of eight historical city gates, only two have been preserved, the Ländtor and the lower storey of the Burghauser Tor , as well as the Röcklturm . There are still short parts of the city wall at Orbankai and Hofberg. Until 1809, the city was still completely surrounded by fortifications. The demolition of the city began with the demolition of the Blue Tower and was continued in the course of the 19th century to the present state.
In the middle of the old town is also the historic town hall , the origins of which date back to 1380, when the town acquired the middle of the administrative building, which today consists of three buildings. Since 1880, motifs of the Landshut princely wedding of 1475 have been on view in the town hall's grand hall, which is important for architectural history.
The most famous urban secular building is the Landshut city residence, built between 1536 and 1543 in the old town. The building commissioned by Ludwig X. represents the first Renaissance palace north of the Alps and was used as the residence of the Wittelsbach family. The German building in the style of the time on the old town side is facing the Italian building based on the Palazzo del Te at the rear of the building.
Numerous old residential and commercial buildings are located in the main line of the medieval city known as the old town. This also applies to the Neustadt, which runs parallel to the east and on which the Palais Pfetten is located. The lavishly painted facade of the landscape or country house in Old Town 28 dates back to 1599. The Lower Bavarian estates met here in the 16th century . In addition to the numerous other Gothic houses in the old town, the Crown Prince's House, built in the middle of the 15th century in Old Town 29, is of particular historical importance and served as a ducal or electoral government building from 1505 and later as an inn.
The Palais Etzdorf , built around 1745 in rococo style, is a former residence of the noble family of the same name near the Martinskirche. The Palais Pettenkofer , built at the beginning of the 17th century in Schirmgasse, also near St. Martin, went down in history as the Hofbräuhaus Landshut from 1870.
The city theater with a late Classicist facade from 1841 is located on Ländtorplatz.
The late Classicist building of the government of Lower Bavaria is located on Maximilianstrasse.
Above the southern Old Town on the flanks of the so-called Hofbergs Balsschlössl in 1839 Biedermeier style built, originally served as a beer cellar, later, when it in honor of Otto I in Ottonianum was renamed as boarding school for high school students. Today the city's youth hostel is located there .
The war memorial was erected in 1928.
Museums and galleries
In 2007 the Landshut City Museum occupied several rooms in the residence. Since the permanent exhibition was in need of renovation and the space was limited, ways out for the future were sought. An expansion of the exhibition in the residence and a new museum building were discussed. With a new building, the city would have been independent of the Free State of Bavaria as the owner of the city residence, but further use of the residence would strengthen Landshut's inner city and would have lower costs. After about ten years of discussions, the city of Landshut and the Free State of Bavaria agreed at the end of 2007 to renovate the residence and set up a city museum in it.
In 2004, the “Chamber of Art and Wonder”, a branch of the Bavarian National Museum , was opened at Trausnitz Castle . The exhibition, which is divided into the four areas Artificialia, Naturalia, Exotica and Scientifica, shows a wide variety of exhibits that Wilhelm V , son of Duke Albrecht V , had collected since the mid-16th century. In 1579 it was merged with his father's collection, the exhibits were separated according to historical tradition, and Wilhelm's exhibits were brought back to Trausnitz Castle.
A third important museum in Landshut is the sculpture museum opened in 1998 in the Hofberg . The building was laid out below the Hofberg and Trausnitz Castle near the Gothic city center. The north side of the museum is bounded by the historic city wall. The rest of the building is almost entirely underground. In an alternating cycle, various exhibits from the Fritz and Maria Koenig Foundation are shown, which include numerous works by the sculptor Fritz Koenig or an important collection of African art.
In the old Franciscan monastery , the museum was set up in the cloister, in which exhibitions on Landshut's art and cultural history have been held regularly since 1999.
The Heilig-Geist-Kirche , built between 1407 and 1461, is used as a building for various sacred exhibitions, for example by the Landshut sculptor Hans Leinberger , after a thorough renovation that was completed in 1998 .
Finally, there are also numerous galleries in Landshut: The Röcklturm , which was completely renovated in the 1990s and which belongs to the city's former fortifications , is used for changing exhibitions by the city of Landshut and continues to be the location of the literary café. There is also the Neue Galerie in the Gothic barn on Mühleninsel, the Kunstkreisgalerie, the Galerie Rose, the Litvaigalerie for photography, the Städtische Galerie Rochuskapelle in the sacred building on Orbankai, built in 1497, as well as the Large and Small Town Hall Gallery and the Town Hall foyer in the historic town hall as exhibition space .
The KASIMIRmuseum, the first youth and children's museum in the city of Landshut, has existed in the Old Franciscan Monastery since 2014. In addition to the themed rooms “Archeology you can touch” and “Landshut Wedding” there is a lot to discover about the construction of the Martinskirche, numerous Landshut and Bavarian lions as well as works by Marlene Reidel .
Parks and recreation areas
All of the city's parks and green spaces together cover an area of 235 hectares. The central park of the city of Landshut is the only six hectare city park which was renamed Albin-Lang-Stadtpark in honor of the former mayor Albin Lang . The facility is divided into two large parks by Luitpoldstrasse. While the eastern area extends to the Kleine Isar, the western area takes up the generously dimensioned area south of the clinic.
The western tip of the mill island was - due to its proximity to several watercourses - dominated by different mills for many centuries . In the middle of the 20th century , one of the aforementioned companies still existed with the rose mill . Because a planned expansion was not approved for infrastructural and urban planning reasons, the company was completely relocated to nearby Ergolding in 1977 . The resulting open spaces were redesigned in the following years into the largest green spaces in the city with numerous bike and footpaths that connect the city center with the city park and are summarized under the name of the Mühleninsel recreation park.
The Landshut flood basin is part of the flood protection concept of the city of Landshut and represents one of the largest parks in the Lower Bavarian capital. The seven-kilometer aisle was completed in 1955 and protects the city center with the Great and Small Isar from flooding or excessive water levels because when there is a risk of flooding, excess water from the Isar is channeled into the flood basin, which can absorb up to 400 cubic meters of water per second. At normal times, there are hiking trails next to a tree-flanked stream through the entire northern urban area.
On the Hofberg, in close proximity to Trausnitz Castle, you will find one of the oldest parks in Bavaria, the Hofgarten . On an area of more than 27 hectares, it was already used by the early Landshut dukes as a recreation area. Together with the adjacent Herzogsgarten , the Hofgarten takes up almost the entire Hofberg and is one of the most important green spaces in the city.
Last but not least, the Gretlmühle recreational area located outside the densely built-up city center should be mentioned . The recreation center, about seven kilometers downstream from the city center, consists of almost 290,000 m² of water. this includes a windsurfing lake and several swimming lakes. The total area of the area, which includes large lawns as well as alluvial forests, is 526,000 m².
Undoubtedly the most important regular event in the city is the Landshut Wedding , which is one of the largest historical festivals in Europe. The historical background of the usually three-week event is the marriage of Duke Georg the Rich and Hedwig Jagiellonica in 1475. At that time, tens of thousands of people are said to have celebrated in Landshut, to be fed 320 oxen, each well over one and a half thousand sheep and lambs, around 500 Calves and about 40,000 chickens were needed. After Munich artists painted scenes from the splendid wedding in the town hall in 1880, the townspeople were so inspired by it that they decided to repeat the ceremony every year from 1903. The organizer of the festival, which now takes place every four years, is the association "Die Förderer", founded in 1902. The highlight of the festivities is the traditional wedding procession through the old town, which in 2005 each attracted over 100,000 visitors; a total of well over 500,000 spectators were counted.
The Landshut Court Music Days , which took place in Landshut for the first time in 1982, are also well-known across the region. The European Festival for Early Music, which takes place every two years, was the first festival for early music in the 1980s - initially mainly from the Gothic , Renaissance and Early Baroque periods - and consequently set impulses for the rest of Europe. In 1996 Roman Herzog even described it as "one of the most innovative German music festivals". In the last few years attempts have been made to incorporate more modern music. The initially revolutionary music event has meanwhile been held in a similar way in numerous other cities, such as Regensburg, due to its great success.
Another event that has become famous in recent years is the garden festival at Trausnitz Castle. The annual sales exhibition made its debut in 2001. Every year the mostly four-day event has a different motto, such as “Vacation in the garden” (2006) or “Young vegetables and fragrant beauties” (2007). In total, over 130 exhibitors are now presenting their contributions on the castle grounds, which attract over 30,000 visitors every year.
Every year in March, the Landshut Short Film Festival takes place, which was first held in 2000 in the city of three helmets. At that time, 12 films were shown to a total of 300 viewers. In 2006 600 films were registered and 134 short films were shown in front of a total audience of 3,000 people . In this context, Jugend filmt is also held, a film festival held annually at the end of June, at which works by young directors (up to 24 years of age) are shown. The day has been held annually since 1997 at the Landshut Adult Education Center.
The Landshut Literature Days are also very well known . The history of the almost ten-day event every year goes back to 1996. The aim of the literary days initiated by Mayor Josef Deimer at the time was to make Landshut's city history accessible to a wide audience in a varied way. This project was finally implemented by bringing music, visual arts and theater into literature. Then as now, each year the focus is on a certain author who is in some way linked to the city, such as Bettina von Arnim , Lena Christ or Ludwig Thoma .
The most popular annual events include two folk festivals , two weeks after Easter the Spring Dult and the Bartlmädult in August. They are among the more contemplative folk festivals in Bavaria and, in terms of the number of visitors, are surpassed throughout Lower Bavaria by the Gäubodenvolksfest (in Straubing ), the Gillamoos (in Abensberg ) and the Karpfhamer Festival (in Bad Griesbach ). However, both events can look back on a very long history. The demonstrably first Bartlmädult, which bears its name after St. Bartholomew's Day on August 24th, took place in 1339 and was donated by Duke Heinrich dA for the newly built Freyung district. The exact year of origin of the spring cult is not known; but it is said that it is related to the Dominican church consecrated in 1386. Soon after the independent foundings, however, the influences mixed. Today both Dulten will be held on the Grieserwiese, the largest central Landshut festival area.
Every year during Advent , the Landshut Christmas market takes place in the Freyung in front of the Jodokskirche, which lasts almost the whole of December. At the same time, the Landshuter Krippenweg has been held since 1999. Numerous historical nativity scenes are exhibited throughout the city center, which attract around 50,000 people every year (as of 2003).
In addition, there are numerous other regular events in the city on the Isar, which are enjoying increasing popularity. These include the music festival “Rock in der Villa”, which is held every year in the Poschinger Villa youth center , and the “Night of Blue Miracles”, in which many bands can be heard in numerous bars, pubs and restaurants throughout the city. The latter event will also take place with a delay in Wasserburg and Bad Tölz . Also worth mentioning are the Old Bavarian Antiques Week and the Africa Festival.
Film and theater
The institution that dominates the theater world in Landshut is the “City Theater in the Bernlochner Complex”. Its history goes back to the 19th century. In 1841, the hotel and theater building right next to the Isar was completed by Johann Baptist Bernlochner . After the end of the Nazi era, the city of Landshut decided in 1947 to resume pure acting. Almost five years later, in 1952, the theater in Landshut merged with the theaters in Passau and Straubing with the involvement of the Niederbayern district to form the “Niederbayerisches Städtetheater”, which is now known as the Lower Bavarian State Theater . The acting department is based in Landshut.
There is also the small theater in Landshut - Kammerspiele Landshut . In 1992, artistic director Sven Grunert and his ensemble founded the second theater for the city of Landshut and the cultural region of Lower Bavaria together with the city of Landshut and the sponsoring association. Invitations to national and international theater festivals followed, including in Zagreb, Luxembourg, Sibiu, Leipzig and Munich. In 1996 the Culture and Building Senate decided to renovate the Rottenkolberstadl for the purposes of the small theater. In 1999 the new building was recognized by the German Architecture Prize. In 2007 Beckett's production Happy Days was invited to the 17th national theater festival in Bucharest together with the Berlin Schaubühne. In addition to these two professional theater establishments, there are several other amateur theater groups in Landshut, such as the Nikola Theater and the Hofberg Theater.
The year 2003 represented a milestone in Landshut's film and cinema history: the eight cinema halls previously distributed over the entire area of the old town were closed without exception until 2005, when the City Center Landshut, built in 2001, became a large multiplex cinema in the Kinopolis -Group was opened. It consists of a total of eleven cinema halls and offers a total of more than 1,500 spectators.
As a counterpoint to Kinopolis Landshut acts cinema Kinoptikum, which was founded by the 1970 film center e. V. is run on a voluntary basis. The cinema, which offers space for 55 spectators, has been located on the Nahensteig near the old town since 1977. Current art-house films as well as artistically valuable, extraordinary and historically interesting films are shown. The association also organizes open-air cinema every summer in the city residence and at the sculpture museum.
Since 1999 the Landshut Short Film Festival has been taking place regularly in the city, which is well known in the media .
Since 2002, the city has served as the backdrop and location for the series Um Himmels Willen .
The Trausnitz Castle served as a filming location for 1 1/2 Knights - In Search of the Ravishing Herzelinde
Some of the Franz Eberhofer films were shot in Landshut.
The film The Lonely Hearts Club was shot in Landshut.
- List of nature reserves in Landshut
- List of landscape protection areas in Landshut
- List of FFH areas in Landshut
- List of geotopes in Landshut
By far the most important sport in the professional field is ice hockey . Landshut is one of the traditional Bavarian ice hockey cities. The historical roots of ice sports in Landshut go back to the 1930s, when a private team was founded in the city in 1934, from which the Landshut ice skating club emerged in 1948 . Its professional team won the championship title of the ice hockey league in 1970 and 1983 , and he was a founding member of the German ice hockey league, which had existed since 1994 . Due to financial difficulties, the club sold its DEL license in the spring of 1999 and continued playing in the major league until it was promoted to the 2nd Bundesliga in 2002. The club is widely recognized for its youth work, which is often referred to as the best in Germany and which has produced ice hockey legends such as Alois Schloder and Erich Kühnhackl and younger talents such as Marco Sturm . The club plays its home games in the municipal ice rink on Gutenbergweg , which functions as a state-level ice hockey center.
Another flagship of competitive sports in Landshut is the Landshut Automobile Club in the area of rail sports , especially in the speedway . AC Landshut was German champion eleven times between 1977 and 2000, making it the most successful team in the Speedway Bundesliga . After five years in lower leagues, the traditional club has been back in the first division since the 2007 season. The home races will all take place in the Ellermühle Speedway Stadium , which was inaugurated in 1975. With a capacity of over 20,000 it is one of the largest stadiums of its kind in Germany and an ADAC driving practice area was built there.
In addition to these two clubs in Germany known also other sports in Landshut Find great attention: In the field of football, there is the SpVgg Landshut , in the since the season 2006/2007 Landesliga center plays and their home games at close to the ice rink - to the sports center West belonging - Hammersbach Stadium with 10,000 spectator seats. The game association is the district's most successful football club. A second well-known football club that is also active in other sports is ETSV 09 Landshut , which has played in the Lower Bavaria regional league since the 2006/2007 season. In basketball , the men of the TG Landshut played in the basketball league in the 1995/96 season and, after a few years in fourth and third division , achieved promotion to the ProB in 2008 - the lower part of the double-track 2nd basketball team. Bundesliga. The ETSV 09 Landshut and the TG Landshut are active in handball and currently play (2010/2011 season) in the regional league of old Bavaria. In the sport of fistball , the TG Landshut women's team has been taking part in the 2nd Bundesliga since 2009/10 (indoor season) and 2010 (field season) .
Until 1975 there was not a single triple gymnasium in the entire city area, which highlights the niche existence of popular sports at the time. From this point on, massive investments were made in sports in the city: For example, 17 indoor units were built in just ten years. The opening of the West Sports Center marked the end of this financially expensive project. The project, which is still home to the game association and the gymnastics community and whose center is the Hammerbach Stadium, was built for the equivalent of around 19 million euros by 1984. The investments made back then have had a positive effect on the city's sports landscape to this day: Today (2004) there are 72 sports clubs in Landshut with a total of 29,500 members. Well-known events for popular sport are, for example, the Blade Night or the Tour de LA through Landshut's old town.
The city of Landshut has given 45 people honorary citizenship since 1829.
sons and daughters of the town
Personalities who have worked on site
The city has been a member of the German Language Association since autumn 2008 .
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- official homepage
- Interactive city map (Flash Player required)
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- Homepage of La.KUMed
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- Hans Carossa as a student website of the Hans-Carossa-Gymnasium Landshut
- Hans Carossa: Metamorphoses of a youth , first edition Leipzig 1928.
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- Bavarian Administration of State Palaces, Gardens and Lakes: Preliminary contract signed for the use of the Landshut city residence as a city museum . December 19, 2007, press release, online at www.schloesser.bayern.de, accessed on June 5, 2016.
- The first: Shooting of the ARD Degeto film "Club of Lonely Hearts" about three strong best-ager women: With Hannelore Elsner, Uschi Glas, Jutta Speidel and many others . Presseportal.de. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- All seasons at a glance . In: Basketball Bundesliga GmbH (Ed.): 50 Years of the Basketball Bundesliga . Cologne, ISBN 978-3-7307-0242-0 , pp. 205-209 .
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