|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 47 ° 44 ' N , 12 ° 53' E
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|County :||Berchtesgadener Land|
|Height :||473 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||41.92 km 2|
|Residents:||18,443 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||440 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||83435|
|Area code :||08651|
|License plate :||BGL, BGD, LF , REI|
|Community key :||09 1 72 114|
|City structure:||10 districts|
City administration address :
|Rathausplatz 1 (Old Town Hall)
Rathausplatz 8 (New Town Hall)
83435 Bad Reichenhall
|Lord Mayor :||Christoph Lung ( CSU )|
|Location of the city of Bad Reichenhall in the Berchtesgadener Land district|
Bad Reichenhall is a large district town and the district town of the district of Berchtesgadener Land in the administrative district of Upper Bavaria . Today, the city looks back on four thousand years of settlement history, most of which are closely linked to the extraction of salt from brine . The Bad Reichenhall Alpensalz has a market share of over 50% and enjoys a special position among the edible salts. Since the middle of the 19th century, the city has been known far beyond the borders of Germany as a spa and holiday resort, since 1890 it has had the bath in its name and in 1899 the city was awarded the title of Royal Bavarian State Bath . The spa town is located in the Saalachtal , framed by the foothills of the Berchtesgaden and Chiemgau Alps .
Bad Reichenhall forms a joint regional center with Freilassing and has been a Bundeswehr base since 1958 .
The city is located in the Reichenhall basin on the Saalach . It is framed in the south by the Predigtstuhl and in the east, a little further away, by the Untersberg massif, both of which belong to the Berchtesgaden Alps, in the north and northwest of the Hochstaufen with the Fuderheuberg and the Zwiesel , in the southwest of Gebersberg and Müllnerberg they belong to the Chiemgau Alps. The Predigtstuhl and the Hochstaufen are considered to be the local mountains of the city.
The district of Marzoll is located northeast of Staufen and Fuderheuberg, where the valley widens.
The station is 470 m above sea level. NN , the highest building in the city is the Reichenhaller Haus below the summit of the Hochstaufen at 1750 m, the highest district of the city is Auf dem Predigtstuhl at over 1500 m, but this only consists of the mountain station of the Predigtstuhlbahn with restaurant and hotel.
So-called swarm quakes occur time and again in the Hochstaufens area . These are usually too weak to be consciously perceived, but sometimes reach noticeable strengths of up to 3.5 on the Richter scale .
The Saalach , which used to flow in several arms through today's inhabited urban area and transformed it into a widely ramified marsh area, flows through the Bad Reichenhall area over a length of almost 9 km, almost 4 km of which it is the border river to the neighboring municipality of Piding . The first efforts to protect the town and the brine springs from the water of the Saalach and, above all, from flooding after thunderstorms or melting snow began as early as the Roman times. That is why the river now flows in an arch in the area of the Luitpold Bridge past the historic city center. The Saalach also fed several mill and city streams, for which there was no water after the construction of the Saalach power station and the dam in Kibling and which were then filled in. The Kirchberger Mühlbach, which branched off at the Salzburg weir , supplied not only several mills in Kirchberg but also the Reichenhall electricity works with water power. The Elektricitäts-Werke were the first public AC power plant in Germany and the first E-Werk in Bavaria and supplied electricity for 2000 light bulbs to Karlstein and Bad Reichenhall from May 15, 1890 . The water of the Saalach has also been used to provide much-needed firewood and timber for the salt to Reichenhall, by former pasture plants still many remains of walls, locks and the weir on the drift Luitpoldbrücke are preserved. The tributaries of the Saalach within the urban area are the Hosewasch , the Grabenbach and the Wasserbach .
The Grabenbach was artificially created from 1520 to divert fresh water, which would have diluted the brine springs in the saline, as well as impact water from water wheels from the spring construction. Until the 1960s, the Grabenbach came to the surface in the area of today's Münchner Allee at the level of today's Klingerweg; when the Münchner Allee was built, the canal was extended to the Nord Verkehrsverteiler.
The Thumsee is the largest lake in the city, is located in a nature reserve in the Karlstein district and is a popular bathing lake between May and September. The lake is mainly fed by underground springs. The process takes place via the Seemösl (also the ) Seemösl, a small marsh pond with a water lily farm, in which up to a dozen different water lilies were previously grown, and the Seebach, which joins the Hammerbach for Hosewasch on Schönauer Weg.
The Listsee is located in the Nonner Oberland and is only fed underground. The process takes place over the Hammerbach.
Other streams in the urban area are the Kesselbach in the Lattengebirge ; Amerangbachl, Gfallgraben and Kirchbergquelle am Müllnerberg , the Wappach from Bayerisch Gmain and Weißbach , Kohlerbach, Sandbach and Schwarzbach in Marzoll . The Kirchberg spring is a healing spring that was the basis for the health resort in Kirchberg . The spring, which belonged to the then independent municipality of Karlstein, is historically documented as a healing spring from 1713 - more than 100 years before the then neighboring Reichenhall slowly became a health resort.
Due to its protected location in the Saalach river valley , Bad Reichenhall has a gentle climate despite its alpine location . Because of its location and climate, Bad Reichenhall is sometimes advertised as the Meran of the North .
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Bad Reichenhall
Source: climate-data.org , wetteronline.de
Bad Reichenhall is divided into five districts and has been shown in the statistics including the core city since 2015 with a total of ten districts.
The total area of the urban area is 42.04 km², of which 568 hectares are settlement and traffic areas, 2547 hectares are forest areas, 588 hectares are agricultural areas, 171 hectares of water areas and 35 hectares are recreational areas. The largest extension is 8.18 km from northwest to southeast and 13.08 km from northeast to southwest.
Türk , the former district of Marzoll, is no longer officially identified today, but is still used in various publications - including by the city. The districts of Froschham and the hamlets of Vogelthenn and Traunfeld, which were all part of the municipality of St. Zeno, can still be found in street names today, but are no longer shown and can no longer be seen in the cityscape due to continuous development.
|Bad Reichenhall||518.52 hectares||Bad Reichenhall, on the Predigtstuhl|
|St. Zeno||290.10 hectares||St. Zeno|
|Karlstein||2553.59 ha||Karlstein, Kirchberg , Nonn , Thumsee|
|Marzoll||581.56 ha||Marzoll, Weißbach , Schwarzbach|
|Forest of St. Zeno||260.50 ha||-|
|City of Bad Reichenhall||4204.27 ha||10 districts|
Bad Reichenhall cannot grow indefinitely due to its geographical location and towards the end of the 19th century it was rather small compared to other health resorts such as the Bohemian Karlsbad . Therefore, at that time, the idea was to let the city grow through incorporations. At this point in time, it was obvious to include Kirchberg with the local spa and spa business in order to be able to make even better use of the economic and infrastructural commonalities. However, the city's application in 1890 failed because of the house and villa owners in Kirchberg, who feared a higher tax burden.
The first incorporation took place on December 1, 1905. The main station was in the then still independent community of St. Zeno and the spa town of Bad Reichenhall had grown in its heyday around the turn of the century into the area of the neighboring community. In order to prevent losses due to lost tax revenue, the city was encouraged to incorporate it. A large part of the Leopoldstal , then still a district of St. Zeno, now belongs to Bayerisch Gmain , on January 1, 1981 part of the parish -free area of Kirchholz was added to the district of St. Zeno.
In the course of the territorial reform in 1978 Karlstein and Marzoll were incorporated. Since then, Karlstein has also included a part of the Karlstein Forest, which was previously free from municipalities.
On January 1, 2011, the district of Forst St. Zeno was added to the city, parts of which were previously unincorporated.
Landscape protection areas
The district office of Berchtesgadener Land identifies five landscape protection areas for Bad Reichenhall , all or part of which are located in the area of the city.
- The Kirchholz landscape protection area encompasses all of Kirchholz , some of which is part of the municipality of Bayerisch Gmain .
- Part of the Lattengebirge landscape protection area belongs to Bad Reichenhall, including the high elevations of the Lattengebirge between Bad Reichenhall, Bayerisch Gmain, Bischofswiesen , Ramsau and Schneizlreuth .
- The Saalachauen protected area runs along the Saalach between the Kretabrücke in Bad Reichenhall and the state border near the Buchenhof. In addition to the floodplains directly on the Saalach in Bad Reichenhall, Nonn , Marzoll and Piding , the eastern part of the Fuderheuberg, especially the Strailach , is a protected area.
- The Thumsee landscape protection area stretches from Thumseestrasse near the Gasthof Kaitl in the east over large parts of the Müllnerberg in the south, Schneizlreuth over the Weißbachschlucht to the Mauthäusl in the west and from there over the Höllenbach, the Siebenpalfen, the Listsee in the north to the Nonner Oberland and from there over the Langackertal to Karlstein . The centerpiece is the Thumsee , a local recreation area and popular swimming lake.
- The landscape protection area Tumpen and Krumbichl connects directly to the protection area Kirchholz in the southwest , runs along the border with Austria to Marzoll, from there it follows part of the Roman road and includes the undeveloped area south of the Olympiaring and around the Obermühle .
The Bavarian State Office for Statistics gives the official number of inhabitants as of December 31, 2019 at 18,443. According to the update of the registration office, the city of Bad Reichenhall has 19,322 residents as of December 31, 2018, of which 9,220 are male and 10,102 are female as well as 832 registered second residences.
Between 1988 and 2018 the city grew from 16,365 to 18,278 by 1,913 inhabitants or by 11.7%.
At 48.8 years, the city's average age is one of the highest in Germany.
|Age in years||Residents||of which male||of which female|
|6 to under 15||1116||570||546|
|15 to under 18||417||216||201|
|18 to under 25||1179||650||526|
|25 to under 30||1108||602||506|
|30 to under 40||2013||1044||969|
|40 to under 50||2061||1021||1040|
|50 to under 65||3537||1653||1884|
|65 or more||5535||2276||3259|
|all in all||17752||8450||9302|
On the occasion of the census on May 25, 1987 it was found that of 16,342 inhabitants 11,790 (72.1%) were registered as Roman Catholic and 3311 (20.3%) as Evangelical Lutheran (including free churches); the remaining 1241 (7.6%) inhabitants were of another denomination or without a denomination (twelve of them were Jewish , 364 belonged to "other religious and Christian communities" and 865 were "not legally affiliated with any religious society").
According to the results of the 2011 census , the proportions of their two largest Christian church communities in particular have decreased remarkably since 1987: only 53.7% of the residents of Bad Reichenhall were registered as Roman Catholic and 17.7% as Protestant , furthermore 1.9% belonged to an Orthodox church and 26.4% to another or no religious community under public law.
Several Roman Catholic parishes are now united to form the town church of Bad Reichenhall . In addition to the main churches of St. Zeno , St. Nikolaus and St. Valentin in Marzoll, this also includes the churches in the neighboring communities of Maria Hilf in Schneizlreuth and Nikolaus von der Flüe in Bayerisch Gmain . The branch churches St. Aegidien , St. Johannes , St. Georg , St. Pankraz and several chapels such as the Brunnhaus Chapel are also looked after by the city church .
In addition to an Evangelical Lutheran parish ( Evangelical City Church ), Bad Reichenhall also has the Evangelical Free Churches of the Mennonite Brethren Congregation and the Free Christian Congregation .
There are also Jehovah's Witnesses and the New Apostolic Church in Bad Reichenhall .
The Buddhist Community Jodo Shinshu Germany (BGJD) has its headquarters and temple in Bad Reichenhall and looks after the ShinDo meeting place there.
- Rupert von Salzburg (around 650–718), legend has it that he rediscovered the disappeared brine springs and is now the city patron of Reichenhall
- Hanns Reiffenstuel (1548–1620), together with his son Simon , built the brine pipeline from Reichenhall to Traunstein between 1617 and 1619
- Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach (1771–1826), Bavarian engineer and designer of the water column machine ; modernized the brine pipeline to Traunstein and extended it to Rosenheim
- Friedrich von Schenk (1785–1866), during his tenure as director of the city's saltworks management , the great fire of 1834 fell . He played a key role in the reconstruction of the brine production and the design of the old saltworks
- Mathias Mack (1801–1882), pharmacist and mayor, inventor of mountain pine oil distillation , is considered to be the founder of the health resort together with Ernst Rinck
- Josef Gung'l (1809–1889), first chief conductor of the Bad Reichenhaller Philharmonie, which he founded
- Georg von Liebig (1827–1903), doctor and climatologist, set up the first functional pneumatic chamber in Dianabad
- Franz Ritter von Brandl (1833–1896), royal senior building officer
- Gustav Ortenau (1864–1950), pulmonologist in Bad Reichenhall
- Angelo Simonini (1867–1932), bacteriologist and Dr. chemistry, after which the Simonini reaction was named
- Alfred Nathan (1870–1922), died in Bad Reichenhall, donated money a. a. for the construction of the centaur fountain in front of the main train station, the Bildstöckl Chapel and a military rest home; in memory of his mother he had the Amalienhöhe built
- Theodor Thürmer (1890–1962), headed the Reichenhall-Nord forestry office from 1937 to 1955 and lived near Bad Reichenhall until his death
- Draga Matković (1907–2013), concert pianist
Early history, Roman imperial times and the first salt processing
Finds in the Reichenhall area indicate that a permanent settlement and extensive trade routes existed as early as the bell beaker culture (2600 to 2300 BC). However, this was only properly proven by the finds of numerous graves from the Urnfield Period (1600–750 BC) in the area of today's district of Karlstein. In the La Tène period (450–15 BC) there was also a Celtic cult center at Langackertal and a mint on the “Haiderburgstein”.
To what extent the salt production lasted in pre-Roman times is still unclear. Until the appearance of the Romans in 15 BC It is believed to have been a salt production of local importance.
Finds of a demanding villa culture in Marzoll and Fager (district of Karlstein) date from the Roman Empire (15 BC – 480 AD ); the settlement belonged to the Roman province of Noricum . The Romans pushed salt production and made ad salinas the most efficient salt works in the entire Alpine region. The brine springs , which arise naturally from the ground , were captured and the brine soaked in clay ovens.
A Bavarian settlement from the Merovingian period (480 to 700) is documented by numerous graves in the Kirchberg district. Traces of an associated settlement from this time have not yet been found, the old town area or the Kirchberg, but also other areas in the vicinity, come into question.
From around 700 onwards the place had the name Hal , from Germanic * hel - / * hal- "slope, inclination, incline", from which the word saline is derived.
Due to a donation from the Bavarian Duke Theodo to the first bishop of Salzburg and later canonized Rupert , the diocese of Salzburg owned a third of the saltworks. Thus Reichenhall was the most important business location for the Salzburg church for about 500 years. (According to legend, St. Rupert would have rediscovered the brine springs that were forgotten during the Migration Period in 696 and thus brought the saltworks to a new economic boom.) The trade in salt from Reichenhall resulted in the " Goldener Steig " trade route before the turn of the first millennium , which developed into the most important in southern Germany and Bohemia .
Around 1070, under Count Arnold von Dießen, a separate Hallgrafschaft was formed that organized and monitored the salt trade. It stayed in the family until Hallgrave Engelbert von Attel and Reichenhall died in 1161 and his son Gebhard II entered the Reichersberg monastery in 1169 . Then Duke Heinrich the Lion himself took over the Hallgrafschaft and thus control over a large part of the southern German salt production.
In 1144, in a document from St. Zeno, a "castrum Halla" can be documented for the first time, in 1159 the designation as civitas , from 1285 as stat . In 2009, the city of Bad Reichenhall took the designation as civitas as an opportunity to celebrate the city's 850th anniversary.
Development of territorial states and competition for salt pans
The epoch was shaped by the development of territorial states and by competition for the Reichenhaller Saline. On the one hand, Salzburg became independent from the Duchy of Baiern , on the other hand, the Duchy also developed into a territorial state. The duke immediately took over many of the counties that had become free due to the dying out families . In this area of tension, another independent clerical principality began to be established south of Reichenhall, the later prince-provost of Berchtesgaden .
In the Middle Ages , besides the Archbishop of Salzburg, citizens from Reichenhall as well as the St. Zeno Monastery owned the brine springs and the brazen brew pans that had replaced the old clay ovens.
In 1156, Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa confirmed various rights, in particular forest sovereignty, to the Berchtesgaden monastery in the Golden Bull . The monastery also operated increasing salt production and began selling its salt beyond its own area. In 1185 the Archbishop of Salzburg, Adalbert III. of Bohemia opened the salt deposits on the Dürrnberg and resumed salt production there. The monopoly of the Reichenhaller Saline was broken.
In 1193 armed men from Reichenhall (today's Bad Reichenhall) penetrated the area of the Berchtesgaden monastery through the Hallthurm pass , walled up the mountain tunnels on the Gollenbach and destroyed the salt pans. In addition, Reichenhall refused the monastery the interest for its fountain shares in the Reichenhaller salt springs. At the same time there were also disputes between the Archbishop of Salzburg and the Berchtesgadener Stift.
Three years later, in 1196, a punitive expedition by the Archbishop of Salzburg against Reichenhall resulted in almost complete destruction due to missing tithes , from which only the monastery of St. Zeno was spared. The city was later rebuilt on a smaller area and received its city wall (still partially preserved today) as protection and the Hallburg am Streitbichl, which no longer exists, to monitor the city through Salzburg . Since the saltworks in Reichenhall had now been completely destroyed, the Salzburg saltworks in Hallein, which processed the Dürrnberger salt, now had the best prerequisites to take over the market leadership in the salt trade. However, this strengthened the Reichenhallers in their quest for independence from the Salzburg sovereignty.
After the line of the Counts of Peilstein with Friedrich VI. (IX.) Had expired in 1218, the Duchy of Bavaria (presumably under Ludwig I ), which sought to consolidate its rule over Reichenhall more and more, got into a dispute with Salzburg over the relapsed goods. After mediation by the Regensburg Bishop Konrad IV and the Count Palatinate Rapoto II of Ortenburg , the rights in and around Reichenhall were divided, with the Duke then being awarded the district court up to the "Steinbach behind Melleck ". By a later agreement (July 11, 1228), however, the Plain County of Mittersill ( Oberpinzgau ) and Unterpinzgau were also transferred to Salzburg .
Naming and ducal Bavarian investments
In 1323 the city was first mentioned under the name Reichenhalle .
From 1493, Duke George the Rich began to buy up most of the Reichenhall brewhouses. After his death, his successor Albrecht IV continued the nationalization and thus the monopoly of salt production in Reichenhall. He also commissioned Erasmus Grasser to build a new salt well and a new stone well with a chapel. The work was completed in 1512.
After the bath maid Christine set fire to her neighbor's apartment in revenge, around 200 people died in the city fire that followed.
The unwanted fresh water in the brine well under the salt works was diverted by the Grabenbach, which was artificially created from 1520 . The water still flows over four kilometers, partly underground and partly above ground, to the Marzoll district, where the Grabenbach meets the Saalach .
After an extensive forest inspection and lengthy negotiations, the Mühldorf Treaty was signed in 1529 . An essential part of the contract was the forest book, in which the boundaries of the saline forests were defined and which contained all the provisions and guidelines to ensure the regulated and sustainable felling of wood and thus the supply of the saline with firewood.
Ducal Bavarian state monopoly
In 1619 only the monastery of St. Zeno still had its own salt works. The salt industry had largely become a ducal Bavarian state monopoly and thus again Bavaria's most important branch of industry, which secured enormous tax revenues for the duchy.
In 1613, when repairs were made to the well shaft in the salt works, another rich source of brine was discovered. Since the salt works - especially because of the supply of firewood - was already working at its capacity limit, it was decided to direct the excess brine to a branch salt works via a pipe system. The choice fell on Traunstein , as the forests on the upper reaches of the Traun were rich in wood and owned by Bavaria. The brine pipeline was built between 1617 and 1619.
As a measure to save energy, graduation towers were built from 1745 , which finally reached a length of 720 meters and thus shaped the landscape of the Reichenhall Valley.
Due to increasing complaints about serious quality defects in the salt, a decision was made to carry out extensive modernization measures for the Reichenhaller Saline under the direction of Johann Sebastian von Clais . Between 1782 and 1784 he had a. a. set up a new brewhouse with new brewing pans that make better use of the waste heat. Thanks to the resulting increase in productivity, including the considerable savings in firewood , the immense construction costs of 100,000 guilders amortized within a short time.
In 1801 the first pharmacy was opened in Reichenhall. This still exists today and has been known as the Kur-Apotheke since the late 19th century .
From 1808 to 1810 the brine pipeline to Traunstein was extended by Georg von Reichenbach to Rosenheim . There you could fall back on the forests of the 1803 secularized monastery Tegernsee. The salt production should thus be distributed over several locations and increased by 75%.
During the Tyrolean popular uprising , the town, where the population, cattle and food were brought to safety from the surrounding villages and remote farms, was besieged in September and October 1809 by the Tyroleans under Josef Speckbacher . The city wall proved its military value one last time and saved the city from conquest and pillage. On October 17, 1809, the defenders counterattacked. All available foresters , hunters , lumberjacks and mountain riflemen under the command of the district forester Ferstl, the Jaga-Steffi and the Kugelbach farmer Paurögger circumvented the opposing positions and attacked them, supported by the troops of the city. The Tyroleans were defeated that day.
After Berchtesgaden was incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1810, Georg von Reichenbach was commissioned in 1817 to build a 29 km long brine pipeline from the Berchtesgaden salt mine to Reichenhall. Some of the salt produced in Bad Reichenhall still comes from there today.
Big city fire of 1834
The town fire of 1834 broke out on November 8, 1834 at around 10:30 p.m. when burning soot, which had escaped from the chimney of the Karl Theodor brewhouse , set the wooden roof of the brewhouse on fire. This spread - aided by a strong wind from the southwest - to a large part of the city and went down in history as the last major city fire. The fire could not be extinguished until the following day.
278 of the city's 302 houses, as well as the salt works including the Brunnhaus, Brunnhaus Chapel, brewhouses and the salt works administration, were completely destroyed. Parts of the medieval city fortifications were also affected, and Achselmannstein Castle, 800 paces from the city, was destroyed by flames. The graduation towers , which were located outside the city walls, were spared from the flames, as were the saline's important handicrafts such as the buyer's saw and the hammer mill. There are different sources about the death toll. About a dozen people died in the city that night.
According to the wishes of King Ludwig I , the new building of the salt works should not only be functional, but also a representative one. In his favor were the architects Friedrich von Gärtner and Joseph Daniel Ohlmüller , who were significantly involved in the reconstruction of the saltworks building. King Ludwig I also made 10,000 guilders available as additional financial aid to purchase town houses adjacent to the saltworks. On the one hand, generous open spaces were to be created in order to prevent a fire from spreading to the rest of the city or at least to make it more difficult and on the other hand to enable the representative size of the facilities. A total of 51 fire sites were acquired. Gärtner and Ohlmüller were subordinate to Friedrich von Schenk , who was director of the salt works administration at the time. Gärtner was solely responsible for the planning and construction of the official staff , which became the seat of the saltworks administration. The groundbreaking was on April 30, 1836, and after three years of construction, the building was completed in 1839 as the first construction of the new facility.
Friedrich von Schenk and Daniel Ohlmüller planned the new construction of the salt works. It is not known who was responsible for which part of the facility. This ensures that Schenk the technical equipment in the main Brunnhaus - particularly the powerful overshot waterwheels and pumps - designed and Ohlmüller mainly for planning the new Brunnhaus Chapel responsible showed. The foundation stone of the main fountain was laid in 1838, and the pumps were in operation from 1840. The first brewhouse went into operation in 1844, the last was completed in 1851.
The saltworks, now known as the Alte Saline , were in operation until 1929 and can still be viewed as an industrial monument today . On Florianiplatz , the residents built the Florianibrunnen in 1885 as thanks for the fact that their houses were again spared the fire.
Development to a world health resort
In the neighboring Kirchberg , which is now part of Bad Reichenhall, the Kirchberg spring was first documented as a healing spring in 1713. In 1846 Ernst Rinck opened the first spa in Reichenhall with the Achselmannstein brine and whey spa. Two years earlier, Mathias Mack took over what is now the Kur-Apotheke . Mack was also elected mayor in 1844. In his capacity as a pharmacist, mayor and businessman, Mack founded the spa in Reichenhall together with the hotelier Rinck. It was probably thanks to Mack that King Maximilian II took a spa stay in Reichenhall in the summer of 1848. Mack had invited the king to visit the city earlier this year . The king was soon followed by the nobility of Germany, Austria-Hungary and above all Russia . In 1856 Mack succeeded in extracting mountain pine oil for the first time , which subsequently became an important therapeutic agent. Up to the turn of the century, countless villas, hotels and health resorts were built, especially in the spa district . In 1854 the museum's first exhibition was presented, for which Mack donated his collection of fossils and minerals. From 1868 the spa garden was gradually designed by Carl von Effner and the spa orchestra was founded. In 1866 the railway line from Freilassing to Reichenhall was opened. This made it easier for the spa guests to arrive and for the Reichenhaller salt to be sold. Between 1878 and 1880 a modern hospital was built near the Trift complex. In 1888 the extension of the railway line to Berchtesgaden was completed. Between 1889 and 1890 the Luitpold Bridge was built over the Saalach , which replaced the former Long Bridge . On May 15, 1890, the Reichenhall electricity works started operations. At Kirchberger Mühlbach, hydropower was used to generate electricity for 2000 light bulbs in Karlstein and Bad Reichenhall. It was the first public alternating current power plant in Germany and the first public power plant in Bavaria.
Since June 7, 1890, the city has been allowed to use the addition of bath at the request of the Bavarian Prince Regent . Nine years later it became a royal Bavarian state spa . In 1892 the firing of the brewing pans in the old salt works was switched to hard coal. A flood damaged the city's Trift system on September 14, 1899, and an arch of the Luitpold Bridge was so badly damaged by the flood that it collapsed. In 1900 the Kurhaus was built, which is directly adjacent to the spa garden and still exists today as the Altes Kurhaus . On December 1, 1905, the main part of the dissolved parish of St. Zeno was incorporated into the city of Bad Reichenhall and the other part of the parish of Gmain . In 1911 the first sanatorium was opened in Bad Reichenhall. On January 1, 1914, the Saalach power plant started service. The electricity generated there was used to electrify the railway line from Freilassing to Berchtesgaden. Electricity is still generated there today, making the Saalach power plant one of the oldest rail power plants in Germany that is still in operation.
During a spa concert in the garden of the Axelmannstein , the telegram message of the murder of the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne in Sarajevo was posted. On that day, Archduke Ludwig Viktor , the youngest brother of Emperor Franz Joseph , was present in the garden of the Axelmannstein, who then immediately left the city for Salzburg . During the First World War , the number of guests in the city fell significantly, and hospitals were set up in many health resorts and hotels.
Time of the Weimar Republic
There was intensive construction activity in the early interwar period. Today's Neue Saline was built in the industrial area, the Predigtstuhlbahn and the Kurmittelhaus in the spa and tourism sector, and the city invested in the city hospital . This led to an economic upswing in Bad Reichenhall from the mid-1920s. The own airport "Mayerhof" provided the connection to the emerging air traffic, which was operated from 1926 by the German Lufthansa .
time of the nationalsocialism
The Reichenhall-Berchtesgaden airport, commissioned by Adolf Hitler for his second seat of government near Berchtesgaden, was to be established at the existing Reichenhaller airfield “Mayerhof”, but was then officially inaugurated on January 21, 1934 in the neighboring Ainring .
As part of the armament of the Wehrmacht , Bad Reichenhall became a garrison town from 1934 . In the then independent western neighboring community of Karlstein , a new barracks was built for this purpose , which, as planned from the beginning, was incorporated into the Bad Reichenhall district by a government resolution "with effect from July 1, 1937" and remains structurally almost unchanged to this day. In 1939 the barracks was the location of the III. Btl. Of the Gebirgsjäger-Regiment 100 with regimental staff and 16th anti-tank department under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Utz. In addition, the I. Department of the Mountain Artillery Regiment 79 and a medical team were housed in Bad Reichenhall.
Shortly before the end of the war, the Allied bombing raid of April 25, 1945 claimed at least 215 lives. The barracks with their numerous hospitals, however, did not suffer any significant damage.
post war period
After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Bad Reichenhall belonged to the American zone of occupation . The American military administration set up a DP camp in the barracks, which were no longer used by soldiers, to accommodate so-called displaced persons .
The Reichenhaller honorary citizenship granted to Paul von Hindenburg and the prominent representatives of National Socialism Adolf Hitler, Franz Ritter von Epp , Ernst Röhm and Adolf Wagner was revoked on January 4th, 1946.
In 1955 Bavaria's first casino was built in Bad Reichenhall .
In 1958, three years after the Bundeswehr was founded, a mountain troop moved into the Bad Reichenhaller barracks. Named after the anti-Semite and former Wehrmacht general of the mountain troops Rudolf Konrad in General-Konrad-Kaserne from June 13, 1966 , after decades of protests it was named " Hochstaufen-Kaserne " on August 1, 2012 .
From the territorial reform
In the course of the regional reform in Bavaria , Bad Reichenhall lost its status as an independent city on July 1, 1972 and was incorporated into the newly created district of Bad Reichenhall . In addition to the city of Bad Reichenhall, this included the district of Berchtesgaden and the southern part of the district of Laufen . As a formerly independent city, Bad Reichenhall was elevated to a major district town . Whether Bad Reichenhall would become the district town of the new district was initially open. The newly met district council spoke out in favor of Freilassing , and Berchtesgaden was also in the running. The Bavarian state government finally decided in favor of Bad Reichenhall. On the other hand, on May 1, 1973, the spa town had to accept that its name did not remain the district name. The district got its current name ( Berchtesgadener Land district ). The Bad Reichenhall District Court was repealed on July 1, 1973 and the previous court district was added to that of the Laufen District Court .
In the course of the regional reform at the community level, the previously independent communities Karlstein and Marzoll were incorporated on May 1, 1978.
In May 1980, work began in the newly established district office in Bad Reichenhall and, in return, the branch office of the district office in Berchtesgaden was closed. However, the district town did not receive all the central facilities of the district and the district-wide authorities of other regional authorities remained in other places (e.g. tax office, general vocational school, boys' secondary school or the district court mentioned above), in particular in the former district capital Berchtesgaden and the former district town Laufen .
On January 1, 1981, the municipality-free area Kirchholz was dissolved and divided between Bayerisch Gmain and Bad Reichenhall (district St. Zeno). The district of Kirchholz was also dissolved.
In November 1982 there was a fire disaster with a tanker truck on the B 20 in the through-town near the gas works. It claimed a fatality and seven residents were injured, some seriously. A spread to the gas station could be prevented.
In September 1993, the couple who ran the Reichenhaller Haus am Hochstaufen were victims of robbery and murder. The two 14- and 16-year-old Croatian offenders were sentenced in 1994 by a Croatian court to eight and 14 years' imprisonment, respectively.
After the 1996 health reform
With the health reform of 1996 u. a. also cures the performance of the statutory health insurance very limited. In Bad Reichenhall, this led to a noticeable decline in the number of spa guests and thus also to large losses with what was previously a large source of income for the city. Lord Mayor Wolfgang Heitmeier and the spa director tried to address a new target group as guests of the city with offers aimed at "rejuvenation" and public investments amounting to 50 million DM. Although Heitmeier had completed the renovation of the city's pedestrian zone by the end of his term of office in 2006, opened a new thermal bath and set about building an internationally renowned research center for high pressure chambers in the historic Kurmittelhaus, he had to put up with criticism that the "once fashionable health resort" "To have realigned too slowly" after the health reform.
On November 1, 1999, there was a rampage in Bad Reichenhall , in which a 16-year-old killed four passers-by and seriously injured five other people, including the actor Günter Lamprecht and his partner Claudia Amm . After the fact, the gunman died by suicide .
In 2001 Bad Reichenhall was named Alpine City of the Year and a few years later a member of Alpine Pearls . In 2005, the Rupertustherme was built at a cost of 32 million euros in order to adapt the city to the changed health market. At the same time, however, the maintenance and renovation of existing facilities and buildings often had to take a back seat to the creation of new prestige buildings.
On January 2, 2006, the collapse of the Bad Reichenhall ice rink claimed 15 lives, including 12 children and young people; 34 people were injured, some seriously. Despite a civil Entscheides in which 53% of the voting Reichenhaller for the construction of a new ice and swimming pool at this location were in favor, the city stopped planning a tourism college at the site determined that from September 2009 as a Campus Bad Reichenhall the IUBH School of Business and Management should be established. However, the campus is now located at the hotel management school, after the university did not extend the long-term lease for the area of the collapsed ice skating and swimming pool in 2013 due to foreseeable insufficient occupancy. Most of the site is still undeveloped.
A burning mountain forest at Thumsee demanded eleven days from April 13, 2007 the emergency services. For three days, the District Office raised a disaster alert in order to coordinate the international civil, military and private forces, including up to twelve helicopters. People were not harmed.
From the end of 2007 a discussion was in progress about a 50 m high statue of Christ initiated by Harry Vossberg and designed by Angerer the Elder on the local mountain Predigtstuhl . The newly planned statue would have been 22 m higher than the model in Rio de Janeiro . The project was rejected by the city council in September 2008.
A referendum from 2013 on the federal road bypass of Bad Reichenhall in two tunnels that had been planned for years did not achieve the necessary quorum. Just over a third of those eligible to vote went to the vote. And without the consent of Bad Reichenhall's citizens, Peter Ramsauer (CSU), who was responsible at the time as Federal Transport Minister and Member of the Bundestag, considered the chances of implementing such a federal highway bypass to be very slim.
In July 2014, Bad Reichenhall came into the public eye when a Bundeswehr soldier stationed in the Hochstaufen barracks stabbed a local pensioner almost 30 times with a combat knife and fatally injured him in the night after the final of the soccer World Cup . He seriously injured another 17-year-old when he stabbed her in the eye and chest. After an international manhunt, the perpetrator was caught in Trondheim, Norway, almost three weeks after the crime and sentenced to 14 years in prison in July 2015.
Bad Reichenhall belongs to the Traunstein Bundestag constituency and the Berchtesgadener Land constituency for state and district elections.
The city council of Bad Reichenhall consists of 24 city councilors and the mayor. The distribution of seats since the last local election on March 15, 2020 has been as follows:
|CSU :||9 seats (including OB)|
|GREEN :||4 seats|
|FWG :||4 seats|
|Citizen list Reichenhall:||3 seats|
|Lackner list:||3 seats|
|SPD :||1 seat|
|AfD :||1 seat|
Compared to the 2014 election, the CSU lost another seat. The Greens and the FDP have also lost one seat, the FDP losing the last seat on the city council. The SPD and FWG have each lost two seats. The new groupings of the Citizens List and the Lackner List each have three seats on the city council. For the first time, the AfD is represented with one seat in the city council of Bad Reichenhall. Songwriter Hans Söllner ran the Friends of Hans Söllner list only for election to mayor.
In the runoff election on March 15, 2020, Christoph Lung from the CSU prevailed with 53.8% of the votes against Monika Tauber-Spring from the citizens' list and took office on May 1, 2020. The previous incumbent, Herbert Lackner, was no longer nominated as a candidate by the CSU and entered the race for the post of Lord Mayor with List Lackner . In the first ballot, he achieved only 19.3% of the votes behind Lung with 32.6% and Tauber-Spring with 20.5% and thus failed to make it into the runoff election. About a year before the election, the city council factions of the FWG, SPD, FPD and Greens had presented Boris Bregar, a joint candidate and challenger to the incumbent mayor. A few months later, in September 2019, however, he announced that he would not run for election as mayor. As a result, most of the parliamentary groups put up their own candidate for mayor election, including two new parties that were previously not represented on the city council. In addition to the new mayor Christoph Lung for the CSU, these were Dr. Pia Heberer for the Greens, Guido Boguslawski for the SPD, Ania Winter for the FWG, Monika Tauber-Spring for the citizens' list, the songwriter Hans Söllner for the Friends list Hans Söllner and the previous incumbent Herbert Lackner for the Lackner list .
Blazon : “Split; in front the Bavarian diamonds, behind in gold a soaring, red armored black panther. "
The diamond pattern and the panther are a reference to the city's close ties with the Wittelsbachers . The diamond pattern originally comes from the coat of arms of the Counts of Bogen , the panther comes from the coat of arms of the Spanheim Count Palatine , but has been a subsidiary coat of arms of the Wittelsbach family since at least 1260.
In front of a coat of arms, the city had a seal with a refusing lamb with a flag, which was handed down in an imprint from 1279. Lozenges and panthers can be found in a second seal before 1300. Since 1323 a third seal shows diamonds and panthers in a split shield with the current place name in the legend. From around 1530, a lion instead of the panther appeared in coats of arms, and around 1600 also in the seal. Since the 19th century, the lion has mostly been depicted as a winged griffin and used as a seal image. In 1929 there was a return to the coat of arms with the diamonds and the black panther.
Culture and sights
A spa music was first mentioned in 1858 as "bathing music" under the direction of the mayor master. In 1868 Joseph Gung'l founded the Bad Reichenhall Philharmonic, which still exists today . Today the Bad Reichenhall Philharmonic is a recognized cultural orchestra that plays all year round and has a broad repertoire.
The local history museum is housed in the former grain store , which was built in the first half of the 16th century. The museum has been closed for renovation since 2006. The salt museum is located in the old salt works , which was built after the great city fire of 1834 according to the plans of Friedrich von Schenk and Joseph Daniel Ohlmüller . In Bad Reichenhall there is also a Mardi Gras Order Museum.
In the city of Bad Reichenhall, five areas are defined as building ensembles and entered in the Bavarian list of monuments. A large part of the buildings of the ensemble are also entered as individual monuments in the list of monuments.
The Obere Stadt ensemble around Florianiplatz forms the oldest part of the city, which was spared more than once from city fires - most recently during the great city fire of 1834 - as well as from the bombing in 1945 . Most of the houses on Florianiplatz date back at least to the Middle Ages, and it is sometimes even assumed that parts of the houses date from Roman times.
Directly to the north of the Obere Stadt ensemble is the Alte Saline ensemble , the core of which is the Alte Saline , which was rebuilt after the town fire in 1834 and is now the old saltworks with brewhouses, magazines, brine reserves and the Brunnhaus chapel . The ensemble also includes the Salinenstrasse, the civil servants' floor opposite the Saline and the Obere and Untere Lindenplatz.
Another ensemble is the Rathausplatz ensemble , which connects to the west of the Alte Saline ensemble and includes the houses on Rathausplatz and the square itself with the Wittelsbacherbrunnen. Like most of the houses in the ensemble Poststraße to the north , Rathausplatz was also a victim of the flames of the town fire of 1834. Most of the houses there therefore date from the period of reconstruction around the middle of the 19th century.
Somewhat isolated from the other ensembles is the Kurviertel ensemble , which extends between Bahnhofstrasse and Salzburger Strasse to the north of the spa garden. Most of the villas there were built during the heyday of the spa town of Bad Reichenhall around the turn of the century.
Spa, health and tourism
The Grandhotel Axelmannstein and the spa pharmacy date from the beginning of the spa business in Bad Reichenhall . Hotelier Ernst Rinck and the pharmacist and mayor Mathias Mack were the driving force behind the establishment of a spa in the city from the middle of the 19th century. The initial brine and Molkenkuranstalt Axelmannstein was demolished from 1909 to 1911 by the then owner Alois Seethaler and rebuilt in its present form, the cure Pharmacy is the oldest pharmacy in the city, since a move in 1872 it is located in the former Bauernbräu in Ludwigstrasse.
The spa garden was laid out from 1868 by Carl von Effner . The spa garden today includes the graduation house from 1910, which replaces the previous graduation works as an open-air inhalatorium , as well as the entrance hall with concert rotunda from 1912. Graduation hall, entrance hall and rotunda were built by Eugen Drollinger . The royal spa house from 1900 is directly connected to the spa garden . The Staatlich-Städtische Kurmittelhaus was built in 1928 as part of a reorientation of the health resort after the First World War . Max Littmann planned both buildings .
The Predigtstuhlbahn is the oldest originally preserved large cable suspension railway in the world and was put into operation in 1928. The valley and mountain stations and the technology of the cable car are almost unchanged in their original state.
The town's landmark is the old salt works , which was built between 1838 and 1851 according to plans by Joseph Daniel Ohlmüller and Friedrich von Schenk . The old salt works is now considered an industrial monument of European standing, but the salt production was relocated to the new salt works from September 1926 .
The brine pipeline was built between 1617 and 1619 to process excess brine into salt in a branch saline in Traunstein and later in Rosenheim . Along the former route of the brine pipeline, which was finally shut down in 1958, a hiking trail leads from Bad Reichenhall to Traunstein. The Fager and Seebichl wells are still preserved from the former wells in Bad Reichenhall .
Also closely linked to the Saline were the pasture plants , of which several more remains are preserved today. The most striking part of the facility is the Trift weir in the Saalach above the Luitpold bridge . The New Saline was built on former parts of the Trift system, there are still remnants of bank walls and sluices as well as a listed saltworks barn of the Old Saline.
When the construction of the Saalach power plant began at the beginning of the 20th century , the Holztrift to Bad Reichenhall also ended. The power plant was built to electrify the Freilassing – Berchtesgaden railway line and officially went into operation on January 1, 1914. It has largely been preserved in its original form and is one of the oldest rail power stations in Germany that is still in operation.
- Parish church of St. Nikolaus , a three-aisled Romanesque basilica from the second half of the 12th century, with frescoes in the apse and stations of the cross by Moritz von Schwind.
Church of St. Zeno from the 12th century; Largest Romanesque basilica in old Bavaria with a magnificent portal made of red Adneter and white Untersberg marble , with an attached
- Cloister with relief of Friedrich Barbarossa and that
- St. Zeno Monastery , former Augustinian Canons.
- St. George's Church , a "Gothic gem" in Nonn , houses an altar from the workshop of Gordian Guckh .
- Pilgrimage Church of St. Pankraz , built as a new building in 1689 on the Pankrazfelsen in Karlstein .
- Spitalkirche St. Johannes , the oldest church in Bad Reichenhall, mentioned in a document as early as the 8th century.
- Parish church of St. Valentin in Marzoll , mentioned in a document in the 8th century; Gothic structure, baroque design.
- St. Egidi Church , built around 1159.
- Evangelical town church , built in 1881 in neo-Gothic style.
- Karlstein ruins from the 12th century, castle of the Counts of Peilstein
- The Upper City , the originally preserved old town quarter of the city, with the Peter and Paul Tower , one of the 14 defensive towers at the time
- The medieval Gruttenstein Castle , to the south of it rises in the course of the historical city wall the second still-preserved defense tower, the Powder Tower .
- The Marzoll Castle in the district Marzoll, 1527
- The old town hall from 1849, painted in 1924 with frescoes by Josef Hengge .
- Numerous listed villas from the Wilhelminian era and Art Nouveau
In addition to the architectural monuments in Bad Reichenhall, there are also many ground monuments , almost 50 of which were also entered in the list of monuments for Bad Reichenhall in 2018 .
Many archaeological monuments are located in the area of the churches and castles in the city area. Foundations and remnants of walls from previous buildings, finds of everyday objects and graves are the most common finds there. Existing buildings - regardless of the time in which they were built - make it difficult to find and research ground monuments. In the area of the Upper City , which is likely to be the oldest settlement area in the city itself, few or no ground monuments are known. Today's buildings, most of which date from the Middle Ages , also prevent a targeted search. The situation is different with ground monuments that were not built over in later times. One example of this is the Burgstall Vager above the "old" Thumseestrasse on the eastern foothills of the Müllnerberg . For a long time the system was suspected to be elsewhere and only localized and archaeologically researched in 2001 by the Association for Local Lore Bad Reichenhall and the surrounding area in the forest on a rock ridge.
Important ground monuments are also the prehistoric settlement areas of Karlstein and Langackertal . These date from the Bronze Age , the Urnfield , the Hallstatt period , the Latènezeit and the Roman Empire , providing important insights into the settlement history of today's Bad Reichenhall. Finds from the time of the bell beaker culture document a settlement history of over four thousand years in the Reichenhall Valley.
In the area of the Marzoll district, there are many important traces of Roman settlement, including a villa rustica . Two Celtic entrenchments and extensive traces from the Bronze Age and the Urnfield Age were also discovered in Marzoll .
In the 4-hectare Royal Spa Garden is the graduation house , in which the brine falls over 200,000 bundles of blackthorn twigs 14 meters deep over a length of 162 m in order to increase the salt content. The graduation house in its current form serves as an open-air inhalatorium, next to it there is a drinking hall, a walkway and a walkway by Eugen Drollinger from 1912.
The name of the Dr. Ortenau Park is reminiscent of the Jewish spa doctor Gustav Ortenau , who worked in the village until 1938.
Other facilities are the Rupertuspark on Luitpoldstrasse, the Wittelsbachergarten behind the Kurgastzentrum, the Karlspark in St. Zeno and the Kurpark in Karlstein.
Sports and sports clubs
One of the largest clubs is TSV 1862 Bad Reichenhall eV with a total of 21 departments. In addition to classic ball sports (basketball, soccer, handball, hockey, volleyball, badminton, tennis and table tennis), martial arts (judo and taekwon-do), athletics, swimming and niche sports such as boxing, cricket, fencing and triathlon are offered. Further sports clubs are the SV Marzoll eV, the AC 1901 Bad Reichenhall eV (wrestling), the Radsportverein Berchtesgadener Land eV, the Reichenhaller Tennisclub eV, the SSG Bad Reichenhall eV (swimming group), the Paragliding Club Albatros, the diving club Bad Reichenhall-Thumsee eV and the windsurfer club BGL eV
The Bad Reichenhall eV ski club (alpine skiing), the SV Marzoll eV (alpine skiing and cross-country skiing), the Bad Reichenhall ice hockey athletic club, the 1st ice stock club Bad Reichenhall eV and the ice stock club Karlstein are all involved in winter sports. Thumsee.
The shooting clubs include the Böllerschützen Karlstein, the Böllerschützen Bad Reichenhall, the Gebirgsschützenkompanie Reichenhall eV, the Königlich Privilegierte Feuerschützengesellschaft Bad Reichenhall, the Schützengesellschaft Karlstein-Kaitl eV and the Schützenverein Marzoll.
- Sports hall and sports field Münchner Allee
- Nonner Stadium
- Multipurpose hall Karlstein primary school
- Sports hall and sports field of the Bundeswehr on Nonner Strasse
- Marzoll outdoor pool
- Rupertustherme with sports pool
- Tennis courts TSV 1862 (Reichenbachstraße)
- Tennis courts TC Bad Reichenhall (Nonner Au)
- Ice stock rinks in Karlstein and Bad Reichenhall
- Sports hall of the Karlsgymnasium
- Sports hall and sports field in Marzoll
- Marzoll golf course
TSV 1862 Bad Reichenhall eV organizes both the Thumsee Triathlon and the Rupertusthermenlauf once a year .
SK Bad Reichenhall holds the city championship in alpine skiing as well as the Anderl-Hinterstoißer memory run . Anderl Hinterstoißer was a member of SK Bad Reichenhall and carried out several sensational first ascents in the Alps in the 1930s . Hinterstoisser had an accident while attempting a first ascent on the north face of the Eiger . The ski club still remembers the mountaineer with a competition consisting of ski mountaineering and a downhill run. In the past, the Pewo-Pertsch run would also be held. Johannes “Pewo” Pertsch was one of the best German downhill skiers in the late 1930s. He fell at the foot of Mount Olympus in Greece on April 9, 1941, at the age of only 21 . His record time of 6.42 minutes for the north-facing descent of the Predigtstuhl was not achieved until 1951.
The Albatros Bad Reichenhall paragliding club has organized the "Grazi-Man" once a year since 1993, usually in August. It is an alpine three-way battle consisting of a bicycle race on a mountain bike, a mountain run and a paraglider flight . The competition can be contested by teams as well as individual competitors. On the first section between the officers' home on the Langen Gasse and the Höllenbachalm, cyclists have to overcome a distance of around 6.5 km and 400 meters in altitude. It is handed over to the runners who have to overcome a running distance of almost 5 km and a difference in altitude of a good 600 m between the Höllenbachalm and the Zwieselalm. Paragliders take off from the Zwieselalm and land precisely on the meadow. The name of Grazi-Man goes back to the former host of the Zwieselalm, who was never called by his first name Pankraz , but always Grazei .
One of the greatest successes for a sports club from Bad Reichenhall was the victory at the European Ice Stock Championships in 1971. The EC Karlstein-Thumsee team, consisting of Dieter Holzner, Alois Kink, Manfred Scheidsach and Harald Strobl, fought against in Tarasp, Switzerland the competition through.
Regina Häusl , who competed for SK Bad Reichenhall, won the Downhill World Cup in the 1999/2000 Alpine Ski World Cup and is two-time junior world champion.
Stefan Holzner from Bad Reichenhall is a five-time Ironman winner . He won the Ironman New Zealand twice, once the Ironman Austria and twice the Ironman Germany .
Economy and Infrastructure
A spa and bathing resort since 1846, Bad Reichenhall lives not least from tourism and spa operations. At the turn of the millennium , fundamentally new decisions were made for this:
- In 1997 the state spa was converted into a private legal form - the state spa administration was dissolved and the spa GmbH Bad Reichenhall / Bayerisch Gmain was founded.
- In 2005 the marketing company Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus was founded. This marketing company is promoting the entire district as a tourism region for the first time. Since then, the marketing company has been financed and controlled by its shareholders, who are representatives of the district and its cities and municipalities as well as representatives of the three regional tourism associations active in the district - including the Bad Reichenhall / Bayerisch Gmain spa and tourist office .
- The RupertusTherme was opened in March 2005 in accordance with the demand and in order to be able to keep up with the corresponding offers of other spa and wellness destinations .
- The city became a member of Alpine Pearls, a cooperation founded in 2006 by 27 tourism communities from six Alpine countries . a. seeks to offer its guests the possibility of a car-free arrival and departure and the easy use of local public transport as well as other climate-friendly holiday offers.
- 2001 Bad Reichenhall was for his outstanding commitment to the implementation of the Alpine Convention , the main international protection and support for the Alpine region to, Alpine Town of the Year chosen. The association which was founded in 1997 and which awards this prize is based in Bad Reichenhall.
The Reichenhall brand salt is known throughout Germany . This is boiled in the Bad Reichenhall salt works owned by Südwestdeutsche Salzwerke AG .
The pastry products of the Reber company are known worldwide , most likely the Mozart balls , of which Reber is the largest producer today. The oldest mountain pine oil distillery in the world, Josef Mack, has its headquarters in the city.
The public utility company is the Bad Reichenhall public utility company , which has been the local electricity supplier since 1898 and which also supplies the city with natural gas and drinking water. In 2016 and 2017, the municipal utilities also set up their own fiber-optic network to provide customers in the outskirts of Bad Reichenhall with “fast internet”. Depending on the residential area, the Stadtwerke offer FTTC , FTTB and FTTH , i.e. laying in the vicinity of the customer when using the existing (copper) lines for the remaining distance, laying into the customer's house (when using the existing lines in the house) and Laying in the house with a direct connection to the fiber optic network. With FTTH, the municipal utilities also offer television and radio programs. The Stadtwerke also operate the city's local transport and the outdoor swimming pool in Marzoll.
There is also the Karlstein eG electricity cooperative for the districts of Karlstein and Kirchberg .
After moving in for the first time from 1934 to 1945, since 1958 the mountain troops stationed in Bad Reichenhall have been an important economic factor in the region. The site has been called the Hochstaufen barracks since 2012 , previously it was named after the Wehrmacht general Rudolf Konrad .
Other public institutions
The town of Bad Reichenhall has been the seat of the District Office since the Berchtesgadener Land district was founded.
In 2015 it was decided to relocate the headquarters of the State Office for Weights and Measures from Munich to Bad Reichenhall. Since then, the “head office assembly unit” has been located in Bad Reichenhall.
The prehistoric settlement areas of Karlstein , whose archaeological finds go back to the time of the bell-cup culture , as well as the Bronze Age settlement in the Langackertal were larger than the agricultural potential of the area would have allowed. It is assumed that the settlers of the Bronze Age were already producing salt from Reichenhaller brine and trading with it. The salt could be exchanged for copper from today's Tyrol and tin from the Ore Mountains , from which goods and tools made of bronze were made in the foundries archaeologically examined by Josef Maurer . Later the Celts maintained an extensive trade network, for which the settlements in Karlstein were an important hub. The Romans also used the Celtic trade routes and partially expanded them as paved Roman roads .
Due to the size and importance of the prehistoric, Celtic and Roman settlements, the prosperity achieved through the salt trade and linguistic similarities between Vocario and today's Vager / Fager in Karlstein, Hubert Vogel suspects that the Vocario given on the Peutinger tablet is not in Pfarrwerfen but in Karlstein found. This assumption is supported by the lack of archaeological evidence of a corresponding settlement in Pfarrwerfen.
The routes of the ancient trade routes through the Thumsee and Antoni Berg further about today's Weissbach at the Alpine Road to the north and on the wine Kaser resulted in the Tyrol, were later also for the construction of the brine line to Traunstein and the construction of the alpine road used .
In 1866 the first part of the Freilassing – Berchtesgaden railway between Freilassing and Reichenhall was completed, in 1888 the line was extended to Berchtesgaden and the railway station in Kirchberg was built. The line was electrified in 1914, and the Saalach power plant built for this purpose is now one of the oldest railway power plants in Germany still in operation.
Transit traffic from and to Salzburg , Salzburg's Pinzgau and Tyrol, as well as from and to Berchtesgaden and in the direction of Inzell , Ruhpolding and Traunstein used to move via Salzburger Straße, Ludwigstraße, Salinenstraße, Tiroler Straße and the Tiroler Tor. In the direction of Austria and Traunstein, the road crossed the Freilassing – Berchtesgaden railway at the level crossing at Kirchberger Bahnhof, then traffic flowed over the B21 in the direction of Schneizlreuth and Tyrol and over the Luitpold bridge in the direction of Karlstein , Thumsee and Traunstein. With the construction of the bypass road ( B20 / B21 / Loferer Straße) between 1951 and 1968, long-distance traffic was gradually diverted past the city. Parts of Salzburger Strasse and Ludwigstrasse have been a pedestrian zone since the early 1970s, the level crossing at the Tiroler Tor was omitted without replacement. In the late 1960s, with the construction of the Crete Bridge over the Saalach and the 2101 state road between Reichenbachstrasse at the Neue Saline and the Weinkaser junction, the B 305 . In the 1990s, Poststrasse between Rathausplatz and Kaiserplatz was converted into a pedestrian zone and the new North traffic distribution center was built at the former Gablerkot .
With the federal highway 8 , the city has a highway connection. The junction Bad Reichenhall, with the greatest traffic importance for the city, is, however, in the northern neighboring municipality of Piding. The city is connected to them via the B 20 . In the Bad Reichenhall city area itself there is only a quarter junction in the district of Schwarzbach with access from the B 21 towards Munich.
The B20 connects the district town with the other larger towns and communities in the district, in the south Bischofswiesen and Berchtesgaden and in the north Piding , Ainring , Freilassing and Laufen . The B21 runs through the city from east to west. It is part of the small German Eck and connects the Salzburg Central Region with the also the province of Salzburg belonging Pinzgau . Both federal roads circumnavigate the city center as a bypass road on the same route from the traffic distributor at the former Gablerknode northeast of the inner city via the traffic distributor north to the traffic distributor south at the eastern end of the Crete Bridge. Due to the high volume of through traffic and heavy goods traffic, for 40 years now, unsuccessful considerations have been made to build a new bypass in Bad Reichenhall. The "new bypass road Bad Reichenhall" project was supported by the Federal Ministry of Transport again in the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2030 recorded and classified as an 'absolute priority'.
The first section of the Freilassing – Berchtesgaden line to Bad Reichenhall was put into operation in 1866. From 1888 the route was expanded to its present length as far as Berchtesgaden. Next to the Bad Reichenhall train station there is the Kirchberg stop . This was established because Kirchberg - which at that time was still part of the independent municipality of Karlstein - was an important spa and tourist resort at that time. The line was electrified from 1914 onwards; the electricity was supplied by the Saalach power station in Bad Reichenhall, which is still in operation today.
The train traffic between Freilassing and Berchtesgaden has been handled mainly by the Berchtesgadener Land Bahn for several years . The route is integrated into the Salzburg S-Bahn system in local transport . The S3 line connects Bad Reichenhall with Schwarzach im Pongau via Freilassing and Salzburg, the S4 runs every hour between Berchtesgaden and Freilassing via Bad Reichenhall. Thanks to the two lines, the frequency between Bad Reichenhall and Freilassing is reduced to half an hour during rush hour.
In Freilassing there are several transfer options to connections in the direction of Salzburg, Munich and Mühldorf.
With the IC Königssee - which is, however, designated as a local train in this section of the route - from and to Hamburg there is also an intercity stop at both stations in Bad Reichenhall .
Further local public transport
Stadtwerke Bad Reichenhall has always been responsible for city bus traffic. Line 1 between Bayerisch Gmain and the Reichenhall district of Schwarzbach as well as line 2 between Thumsee and Piding have been reinforced since the 1990s by city bus lines 3 and 4, which complement the local transport offer within the city.
Even before the turn of the millennium, the municipal utilities began to replace the vehicles in their fleet with environmentally friendly natural gas vehicles . Today, the majority of Stadtwerke's vehicles run on natural gas; currently there are nine buses, ten commercial vehicles and six cars.
Bus connections to the neighboring towns within the district as well as the neighboring district of Traunstein , the Pinzgau and the city of Salzburg are offered by Regionalverkehr Oberbayern , the ÖBB-Postbus and the buses of Salzburg AG .
The closest German commercial airport is the "Franz Josef Strauss" airport in Munich. This is about 110 km away as the crow flies , the fastest road connection via the A 8 , A 99 , A 9 and A 92 is about 170 km long and can be covered in a good one and a half hours. The journey time by public transport takes about three hours. In terms of the number of passengers, the airport is Germany's second largest airport.
Much closer to Bad Reichenhall is Salzburg Airport in neighboring Austria, which, however, only has 4% of the passenger volume at Munich Airport. Only 12 km away as the crow flies, the airport, which is located west of Salzburg and therefore close to the state border, can be reached from Bad Reichenhall by car in around 15 minutes. The direct bus connection from the main train station in Bad Reichenhall with the ÖBB buses to the airport takes between 18 and 37 minutes. The easy accessibility makes Salzburg Airport a popular travel airport in neighboring Germany, there are direct flight connections to important holiday destinations such as Greece , Egypt , Israel and Turkey , and islands such as Mallorca , Fuerteventura and Tenerife are also served directly . There are also direct flights to northern and eastern destinations; z. B. to England , Scotland , Ireland , Iceland , Norway , Sweden , Finland , Russia or Latvia . Many winter holidaymakers also use the airport to take a skiing holiday in Austria and especially in the province of Salzburg between November and March .
The first plans for an own airfield in the city were already in 1919. At that time the city council had received an offer from Rumpler-Werke that would set up a scheduled service if a suitable airfield was available. This idea was discussed again in 1922 and the first steps were finally taken in 1924. A suitable field at Mayerhof in St. Zeno was leased, leveled and developed for ten years and a functional building was erected. The airfield was officially opened on May 2, 1925, when a six-seat Fokker F.III with the registration D-542 landed with three members of the state parliament and a Munich newspaper editor. From this point on, Bad Reichenhall was flown to daily from Munich-Oberwiesenfeld on line 35 of the "Süddeutscher Aero-Lloyd" between May and October . The Grandhôtel Axelmannstein parked its own car that took guests from the airport to the hotel. In 1926 a hangar was built for 30,000 RM . However, the airfield was never profitable, as the city council refused to operate several flights a day and during the winter months. In 1926, 1110 passengers were brought to Bad Reichenhall by plane. When Salzburg set up an airfield in Himmelreich in the same year , the location in Bad Reichenhall lost its importance and as a result it was no longer possible to fly to directly, but only via Salzburg. The airport continued to be subsidized by the city, but this was made more difficult during the global economic crisis and in 1931 the Süddeutsche Luft Hansa stopped operating Munich-Salzburg-Bad Reichenhall. Until 1939 the airfield was only used for sightseeing flights. Air traffic finally came to a standstill in World War II and was no longer used after the war.
The hangar of the Mayerhof airfield was roughly where the district office is today. The airfield was southeast of it in the area of today's Froschhamer Weg and the Waldweg.
The Mayerhof airfield was also the starting point for many sightseeing flights by the Bad Reichenhaller aerial photographer Karl Kruse, who took many aerial photographs of the city during this time. In the 1920s, Ernst Udet also flew to Bad Reichenhall Airport several times. Other prominent guests were Eduard von Schleich , Crown Prince Leopold of Bavaria with his wife Gisela of Austria , the Krupp family and Heinz Rühmann , who had a pilot's license and flew several times to Bad Reichenhall himself in his own plane.
Weissbach sports airport
In 1947 a sports airport was established in neighboring Weißbach , which today belongs to the city of Bad Reichenhall. The airport was in operation for a good two decades, as Alpenflug Reichenhall offered sightseeing flights in the vicinity. In 1971 the site was sold.
The Reichenhaller Tagblatt was founded in 1840 and appeared from the beginning of the 1970s to 2015 with the cover pages of the Traunsteiner Tagblatt . It has been part of the Passauer Neue Presse publishing group since 2014 and takes over its supraregional part. The district-wide weekly advertising paper Berchtesgadener Wochenblatt , which has a circulation of 37,200, comes from the same company .
The Bad Reichenhall transmitter in Kirchholz has been supplying the spa town with Bavarian radio programs since 1967 . In Bad Reichenhall are also u. a. the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation , free stations as Antenne Bayern and since 1 January 2009, the local stations Bayernwelle Southeast , based in Freilassing receivable. Bayernwelle SüdOst has taken over the frequency of the station Untersberg , which was discontinued in 2008, live . The radio factory from Salzburg has been operating an outdoor studio in Bad Reichenhall since 2015 and broadcasts several regular formats directly from the city.
In the city there is the Karlsgymnasium and the Realschule of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising in St. Zeno . There is also a middle school (St. Zeno), a special educational support center, a Montessori school and four primary schools (Heilingbrunnerstraße, St. Zeno, Marzoll and Karlstein).
Further educational institutions are the vocational school for nursing at the Bad Reichenhall District Clinic of the Southeast Bavaria Clinics , the Municipal Music School, the Municipal Adult Education Center and the Steigenberger Academy .
In September 2009 the Bad Reichenhall campus of the IUBH School of Business and Management was opened.
- Herbert Pfisterer: Bad Reichenhall in its Bavarian history. Motor + Touristik, Munich 1988.
- Birgit Gruber-Groh: Bad Reichenhall (= Historical Atlas of Bavaria. 57). Lassleben, Kallmünz 1995, ISBN 3-7696-9948-3 .
- Johannes Lang : History of Bad Reichenhall. Ph.CW Schmidt, Neustadt / Aisch 2009, ISBN 978-3-87707-759-7 .
- Toni Schmidberger: Bad Reichenhall - nature conservation in the Alpine Association. Alpine Club Section Bad Reichenhall, new edition from 1992
- includes: Johann Ferchl: Flora von Bad Reichenhall. Reprint from 1992 with 1000 references.
- City of Bad Reichenhall
- Entry on the coat of arms of Bad Reichenhall in the database of the House of Bavarian History
- ↑ "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- ↑ a b statistics . stadt-bad-reichenhall.de. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- ^ Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München / Bavarian State Office for the Environment: Seismological Service Bavaria: Subnet Reichenhall
- ↑ 10th district: Predigtstuhl
- ↑ Landscape protection areas on lra-bgl.de, accessed on October 29, 2018
- ↑ "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- ↑ a b Large district town Bad Reichenhall, statistics communal 2017 on statistik.bayern.de (pdf), accessed on November 15, 2018
- ↑ Bavarian State Office : statistik.bayern.de (PDF, censuses 1970 and 1987, p. 6 of 29.)
- ↑ results.zensus2011.de
- ^ Stefan Rademacher: Religion in Berlin: a handbook, a project of the "Berlin research" of the Free University of Berlin , 2003, p. 449
- ^ Thomas Stöllner : Hallstatt. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde . Volume 13, 1999, pp. 439-441.
- ↑ Andreas Kraus , History of Bavaria: From the beginnings to the present, 1988, p. 88
- ↑ Gruber-Groh, Bad Reichenhall , p. 110
- ↑ 850 years of the city of Bad Reichenhall - A city makes history
- ↑ Herbert Pfisterer: Bad Reichenhall in his Bavarian history , Munich 1988, Motor + Touristik Verlag, p. 105.
- ↑ Stefan Weinfurter, The Foundation of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - Reform Idea and Beginnings of the Canon Regulars in Berchtesgaden , in: History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594), Vol. 1 , Ed. Walter Brugger et al., Berchtesgaden 1991, p 254.
- ↑ Document: Salzburg, Erzstift (798-1806) AUR 1196 XII 11 in the European document archive Monasterium.net . Document of December 1, 1196, Lateran - “Pope Cölestin III. orders Eb von Salzburg and the abbots of St. Peter and Raitenhaslach (Raitenhaselac) at the request of the cathedral chapter to decide the dispute between the same with the Berchtesgaden Abbey over impairment of the saltworks on the Tuval, which Eb Konrad I gave him . " ; Source Regest: Salzburger Urkundenbuch, Volume II, documents from 790 to 1199. Willibald Hauthaler and Franz Martin. P. 683.
- ↑ Certificate: Salzburg, Erzstift (798-1806) AUR 1198 in the European document archive Monasterium.net . Certificate from 1198, Salzburg - “Eb Adalbert III. decrees that all yields from the newly discovered salt works on the Tuval, from Barmstein (Pabensteine) to (Nieder-) Alm (Alben) and Grafengaden (Grauengadamen), should be divided equally between the archbishop, the cathedral chapter and the Berchtesgaden Abbey, as well as the yield a new building undertaken by one of the parties. " ; Source Regest: Salzburger Urkundenbuch, Volume II, documents from 790 to 1199. Willibald Hauthaler and Franz Martin. P. 706.
- ↑ A. Helm : Berchtesgaden in the course of time , keyword: history of the country, pp. 108-109.
- ^ Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld : History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works , Volume 1. Salzburg 1815; P. 84 and before that also from p. 80 ( full text in the Google book search).
- ^ Karl Heinrich Ritter von Lang : Baiern's old counties and areas as a continuation of Baiern's Gauen , Nuremberg 1831, Riegel and Wießner, pp. 99-100.
- ^ Karl Heinrich Ritter von Lang : Baiern's old counties and areas as a continuation of Baiern's Gauen , Nuremberg 1831, Riegel and Wießner, pp. 99-100. Lang writes of a "Leudold V." as the last Peilsteiner - this may be confused with Luitold III, who died in 1219. from the Plainer House .
- ^ Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works , Volume 1. Salzburg 1815; Pp. 100-101. Koch-Sternfeld emphasizes the extinction of a line of the planners, but according to more recent literature the extinction of the Peilsteiner was decisive here (see Fröhlich in "Marzol").
- ↑ Herbert Fröhlich: Marzoll, p. 98. Fröhlich only mentions the extinction of the Peilsteiners as the starting point for the comparison between duke and archbishop.
- ^ A b Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works , Volume 1. Salzburg 1815; Pp. 100–101 ( full text in Google Book Search).
- ^ Manfred Niemeyer (ed.): German book of place names. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, p. 515 f .; according to Thomas Stöllner: Hallstatt. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde . Volume 13, 1999, p. 439, however, not until 1353.
- ^ Herbert Pfisterer: Bad Reichenhall in its Bavarian history; Saalforste and Holztrift; P. 193ff
- ^ Hanns Freydank: On the history of the Saline Traunstein in Bavaria. In: Journal for the mining, metallurgy and saltworks in the German Empire. Volume 83, No. 10, 1935, p. 535
- ↑ a b Wilhelm Volkert (Ed.): Handbook of the Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 434 .
- ↑ Austrian National Library -Anno, Salzburger people sheet 1 March 1926
- ↑ J. Lang: 50 Years of Bad Reichenhall Casino - The history of Bavaria's first casino. 2005.
- ^ Bad Reichenhall: New name for the barracks. BGLand24.de from September 17, 2012
- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes for municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 597 .
- ^ Tank truck accident in Bad Reichenhall on November 22, 1982 Website of the Bad Reichenhall volunteer fire brigade, accessed on May 12, 2012
- ↑ Fountain of youth for the cure. In: Die Zeit from October 10, 1997, accessed online at merkur.de
- ↑ Süddeutsche Zeitung of January 4, 2006: Wolfgang Heitmeier - Town Hall chief under public pressure
- ^ Rampage in Bad Reichenhall. Report in the Spiegel from November 2, 1999
- ↑ a b website for Bad Reichenhall on alpine-pearls.com
- ↑ a b dpa: University on the area of the collapsed Reichenhall ice rink , report in Münchner Merkur , online from May 7, 2009 at merkur.de
- ↑ No new campus on Münchner Allee , online at heimatzeitung.de on October 7, 2013.
- ↑ City Council meeting of September 18, 2008 (PDF; approx. 300 kB) Item 3; P. 12.
- ↑ Kirchholztunnel referendum fails due to the quorum , online at www.wochenblatt.de on April 21, 2013.
- ↑  Results of the city council election on stadt-bad-reichenhall.de, accessed on May 2, 2020
- ^  Election results runoff on stadt-bad-reichenhall.de, accessed on May 2, 2020
- ↑ a b The results of the mayoral election on stadt-bad-reichenhall.de, accessed on May 2, 2020
- ↑ Boris Bregar withdraws his candidacy on bgland24.de, accessed on May 2, 2020
- ↑ Large district town Bad Reichenhall - coat of arms on hdbg.eu - House of Bavarian History
- ↑ Memorial sites for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation, volume 1. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 118
- ↑ Imprint of the website of Kur-GmbH Bad Reichenhall / Bayerisch Gmain , online at staatsbad-bad-reichenhall.de
- ↑ Bavarian State Office for Statistics : Tourism regions in Bavaria , PDF file, status: January 1, 2019, online at statistik.bayern.de
- ↑ Home page of the Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus GmbH (BGLT) website , online at berchtesgadener-land.com
- ↑ Entries in the commercial register of Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus GmbH including a passage on the shareholders, online at online-handelsregister.de
- ↑ oete.de ( Memento of April 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) For "Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus GmbH" see PDF documentation of ecological tourism in Europe, p. 63 f. of 117 pages
- ^ Hubert Vogel: History of Bad Reichenhall , published by the city of Bad Reichenhall 1995; Printed by Anton Plenk KG, Berchtesgaden
- ↑ Hubert Vogel: History of Bad Reichenhall , p. 13f
- ↑ Johannes Lang: History of Bad Reichenhall , p. 806
- ↑ Max Aicher suggests the "Auentunnel" instead of the Kirchholz tunnel. heimatzeitung.de, November 23, 2016, accessed June 6, 2017 .
- ↑ Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2013 (PDF) BMVI, August 3, 2016, p. 102 , accessed on June 6, 2017 .
- ↑ Natural gas mobility at stadtwerke-bad-reichenhlall.de, accessed on May 3, 2020
- ↑ Johannes Lang: History of Bad Reichenhall , pp. 706–710
- ↑ Radiofabrik: Webpage Radio Reichenhall. Retrieved September 17, 2019 .