|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 47 ° 38 ' N , 13 ° 0' E
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|County :||Berchtesgadener Land|
|Height :||572 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||35.63 km 2|
|Residents:||7698 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||216 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||83471|
|Area code :||08652|
|License plate :||BGL, BGD, LF , REI|
|Community key :||09 1 72 116|
Market administration address :
|First Mayor :||Franz Rasp (CSU)|
|Location of the Berchtesgaden market in the Berchtesgadener Land district|
Berchtesgaden is a market in the Berchtesgadener Land district in the far south-east of Upper Bavaria . As the middle center of the southern part of the Berchtesgadener Land district, it belongs to the planning region of Southeast Upper Bavaria in terms of regional planning , in which the district town of Bad Reichenhall and Freilassing form the next regional center ; Salzburg , close to the border, in Austria partially performs central functions. The next big city within Germany is Munich .
The place was first mentioned in 1102 as a settlement of the monastery foundation berthercatmen , which as a collegiate monastery was granted forest sovereignty as early as 1156 and the associated freedom to mine salt and metal. Salt and metal extraction ensured an initial economic upswing and made the place grow into a market . The provosts of the Augustinian canons expanded it into the capital of a territory that was "secularly" independent as early as 1294. From 1559 to 1803 formed the Berchtesgaden spiritual and secular center of the Berchtesgaden Provostry monastery pen raised, and the prince provosts ruled from there about the true small but rich immediate Principality country Berchtesgaden and Berchtesgaden , which since 1973 as eponymous southern region part of the Berchtesgaden county land is.
In the middle of the 19th century, Berchtesgaden became a tourist destination with rapidly growing numbers of guests thanks to its sights and natural monuments . The upswing continued after the Second World War continued, at first especially because the leaders prohibited area in his Gnotschaft Obersalzberg and the related role of Berchtesgaden in the era of National Socialism . The Obersalzberg, located on the mountain of the same name, was by no means just a “place of pilgrimage for the people of the past”, but is still a regular part of the visit program of American tourists to Salzburg.
Since the 1990s, however, the number of guests has been declining and the community is trying to distinguish itself with ecology and more environmentally friendly tourism.
Berchtesgaden belongs to the administrative region of Upper Bavaria in the Free State of Bavaria . The municipality is part of the high alpine region in the southern district of Berchtesgadener Land , which is almost completely surrounded by the Berchtesgaden Alps and in the east, south and southwest by the Austrian state of Salzburg . These and the neighboring communities of Bischofswiesen , Schönau am Königssee , Marktschellenberg and Ramsau form the Berchtesgadener Land region within the geomorphological unit of the Berchtesgaden basin . ( See also section: Geographical socio-cultural assignments .)
In Berchtesgaden, the rivers unite Königsseer Ache from Berchtesgaden and the Ramsauer Ache from Ramsau to Berchtesgadener Ache . This flows at a relatively narrow valley level along the B 305 in a north-easterly direction to Marktschellenberg and from there into the Salzach near Salzburg. Tributaries within the municipality are the Anzenbach, which rises from the Rauhenkopf and flows into the salt mine on the left, and the Larosbach, which comes from the Buchenhöhe, and which flows into the Laroswacht from the right.
Apart from the valley level towards Salzburg, the community is characterized by different altitudes. The main station is at 520 m above sea level , the market center at 570 m, the elevations within the market are the Lockstein with 687 m and partly the Kälberstein with 786 m. Districts and Gnotschaften such as Au and Maria Gern are at 700-1100 m, Obersalzberg m in 1000 and the Eagle's Nest at 1834 m above sea level .
The community is about 20 kilometers south of Bad Reichenhall , 24 kilometers from Salzburg , about 150 kilometers southeast of Munich and 200 kilometers northeast of Innsbruck .
Together with the other communities in the Berchtesgadener Land district, it belongs to the apron of the Berchtesgaden National Park and is its administrative seat. The national park and the apron, which at the time was still mainly limited to the inner, southern part of the district, were officially declared Alpine Park Berchtesgaden in 1978 . In 1990, UNESCO declared the Alpine Park a Berchtesgaden Biosphere Reserve . Expanded into the Berchtesgadener Land biosphere reserve since June 2010 , it now includes the entire district.
The place is located in the middle of the Berchtesgaden Alps of the same name , the base of which is usually Ramsaudolomit . It is not uncommon for a layer of Dachstein limestone up to 1000 meters thick to lie above the dolomite . In the banked Dachstein limestone there are mussel shells, which are called cow steps because of their crescent shape . The algae mats embedded in thin layers of dolomite suggest the deposits of a tropical flat sea, which gave rise to lime within around 15 million years.
The quarry on the Kälberstein, of which only a part belongs to Berchtesgaden, shows stratigraphically lying areas . It continues the Hallstatt limestone profile and contains the lower Carnic Terrigen interval ( halobi slate) and the uninterrupted sedimentation over the Carnium / Norium boundary with an overlap area that encompasses Tuval 3 to Lac 1 .
The geophysicist R. Gaenger discovered the Berchtesgaden anomaly in 1954 , a strong disturbance in the earth's magnetic field due to the high magnetic susceptibility of the rock below the Northern Limestone Alps .
While the mountain slopes are often overgrown with mountain pines , fir and spruce forests predominate on the unearthed valley areas of the village .
The salt-bearing rock in the Berchtesgaden- Bad Reichenhall area is a hazel mountain range . Its average salt content is around 50 percent, but can fluctuate between 0 and 90 percent ( see also: Berchtesgaden Salt Mine ).
Berchtesgaden climate is as thermal and actinic described excessive charming mountain climate, which is also of foehn winds is embossed.
The annual mean temperature is 7.2 ° C. The warmest month is July with an average of 16.3 ° C, the coldest is January with an average of −2.7 ° C. The difference between the maximum and the minimum, the amplitude, is 19.0 ° C.
There is year-round rainfall for the place, the average amount of which is given as 126 millimeters per month. Peak values are measured in July with an average of 219 millimeters, the lowest amounts of precipitation in November with 85 millimeters. The climate is therefore humid . The annual precipitation is 1514 millimeters above the German average of 700 millimeters (as of October 2006).
The Berchtesgaden neighboring communities on the German side, like Berchtesgaden itself, belong to the Berchtesgadener Land district . Its north-western neighboring municipality is Bischofswiesen , which joins the community-free area Schellenberger Forst to the north . The municipality of Marktschellenberg borders in the northeast and the municipality of Schönau am Königssee in the southwest , which is also joined by a municipality-free area called Eck with the exclave Resten in the south and southeast . To the east of Berchtesgaden is the German-Austrian border crossing on the Dürrnberg and behind it the Austrian town of Hallein .
Berchtesgaden includes the market center as well as, after the incorporation of 1972 as part of the regional reform in Bavaria, the formerly independent communities Au , Gern and Salzberg , which are divided into twelve gnotships and a newer settlement, of which Obersalzberg because of its importance during the time of National Socialism achieved great fame. Remnants in the Au district form an exclave of Berchtesgaden, which is enclosed by the community-free area of the state forest of Eck . The remains of the Buchenhöhe housing estate for employees and civil servants were built on Obersalzberg during the Nazi era . The area of the municipality has increased from 1.5 to 35.62 km² after the incorporation. On January 1, 1984, a small part of the " Königssee Forest " was incorporated.
|Berchtesgaden market||150.92||Berchtesgaden market||main place||formerly the royal residence of the monastery in Berchtesgaden|
|Au||1080.78||Unterau||Gnotschaft||Independent municipality until 1971|
|Maria gladly||629.68||Hintergern||Gnotschaft||Independent municipality until 1971, until 1953 Place name: Gern|
|Salt mountain||1683.77||Anzenbach||Gnotschaft||Independent municipality until 1971|
|At the Etzerschlößl||Newer settlement||named after the "pleasure palace" Etzerschlößl at the foot of the Gnotschaft Gern, built by Prince Provost Jakob Pütrich in 1574 and
demolished in 1960
Kehlsteinhaus and five exclaves in the community-free Eck area ,
including the Purtschellerhaus
Early history, naming and first mention
For the early and prehistory of the region around Berchtesgaden, there are only scattered finds (predominantly hole axes ) from the Neolithic Age , which document the stay of fishermen and hunters 4000 years ago. A coin find from the Latène period (5th to 1st century BC) could also be explained by deportation, as no remains of settlements from this time have been found so far.
The first part of the name could be derived from either the Perchta or a settler named Perther , the second part from Gaden , a fenced-in residence. According to Feulner, this Perther could also have been an Aribone who had a one-story house or a hunting lodge there, in the vicinity of which some huts for servants had also been built.
Berchtesgaden was first mentioned in a document in 1102. The settlement of the place was preceded by a vow by Countess Irmgard von Sulzbach . After her husband, Count Gebhard II von Sulzbach, had a hunting accident, she wanted to found a monastery as thanks for his salvation. After Irmgard's death on June 14, 1101, her sons Berengar I von Sulzbach and Kuno von Horburg- Lechsgemünd campaigned for the fulfillment of this vow. They traveled to Rome between 1102 and 1105 with Eberwin, who was appointed provost of the planned monastery . Pope Paschal II confirmed the monastery foundation and placed the count's own monastery berthercatmen under his protection.
From the end of the 12th century, the documents often refer to berthersgaden , from the 18th century at the latest from Brechtolsgaden , in historical treatises of the Royal Bavarian Academy from 1807 on the "former Bertholdsgaden monastery" and in Herder's Conversations-Lexicon of In 1854 there are the alternating keywords “Berchtesgaden” and “Berchtoldsgaden”, which corresponds to a Berchtesgaden legend .
From the Augustinian monastery to the capital of a prince provosty
For the Klosterstiftskirche dispatched Berengar in 1100 under the leadership of the provost appointed Eberwins Augustinian canons and lay brothers to Berchtesgaden, but found the area to be very inhospitable. Since the construction of the monastery also dragged on, also because Berengar gave in to other political interests in the meantime, the monks went together with Eberwin to the Baumburg monastery, also founded by Berengar in 1107/09 in the north of today's district of Traunstein . Eberwin returned to Berchtesgaden around 1112 (according to Feulner probably around 1116) on his own initiative. He initiated the first major clearing and the Augustinian Canons settled there for good. In 1122, at least a first construction phase of the collegiate church of St. Peter and John the Baptist was consecrated by the Archbishop of Salzburg , Konrad , which is also indicated by an inscription on the church with the year 1122.
Berchtesgaden became the capital of a small ecclesiastical territory that was incorporated into the Baier tribal duchy . In 1156, Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa confirmed the size of the monastery in a "Golden Bull" and granted him forest sovereignty and the freedom to mine salt and metal. Wherein the younger historical research came to the conclusion that it is at the entry of the salt shelf to a not unusual at that time " interpolating " and the result after a distorting subsequent expansion of the act negotiated by the receiver. In any case, these regalia contained in the imperial privilege ensured an initial economic boom, which in 1201 turned the place into a parish and a few decades later into a market . (The designation “market” was first recorded in 1328 - an official “market survey” is not to be assumed, however, as there is no evidence of an independent civil legal development for the place closely connected to the residence.) From 1294 to 1380 the power of the pen was increased steadily and they achieved the status of imperial prelates . Already since the days of Eberwin because of territorial claims in conflict, the nearby Archdiocese of Salzburg was only able to take over the Schellenberger Saline as a pledge and from 1393 to 1404 the lucrative lands of the prince provost, so that in those years the market of Berchtesgaden was also under his rule.
In 1490 a monastery hospital near the parish church of St. Andreas and in 1565 a leper house were mentioned in a document.
In 1559, under the reign of Emperor Ferdinand I , the monastery was elevated to the status of the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden . Berchtesgaden was the capital of the smallest principality, the only prince provosty of the Bavarian Empire . From 1594 to 1723, however, it was subject to the Cologne administration of the Bavarian House of Wittelsbach , which was the first to represent Ferdinand of Bavaria with over 50 years of responsibility. As elector and archbishop of Cologne , however, Ferdinand could not take care of the prince's provosty. During his reign the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) fell, the destructive consequences of which Berchtesgaden itself was spared "as if by a miracle". However, it was "repeatedly asked to pay up" in order to repair the war-related damage in Cologne.
The Berchtesgadener Bürgerwald has always been outside of what is now the Berchtesgadener municipality. However, it was only moved to its current area in 1689, after the area of the predecessor forest, which the canons had allowed the Berchtesgaden citizens to use for their own use, possibly already in the course of the land letter of 1377. Because farmers from Bischofswiesen and the other neighboring areas had also supplied themselves with wood from it. Around 1800 the Bürgerwald came into the "actual" ownership of the Berchtesgaden market. After the dissolution of the prince provost of Berchtesgaden , the Berchtesgadener Bürgerwald, along with other larger forest districts, was free of parishes from 1812 to 1982. After 1982, the community-free area of the Bürgerwald was dissolved and incorporated into the community of Bischofswiesen and, to a small extent, Ramsau near Berchtesgaden. Despite the incorporation, Berchtesgaden has remained the landowner of the Bürgerwald.
In 1710 the first scientifically trained doctor was appointed to the site.
From 1723 the Berchtesgadeners were again subject to the prince provosts appointed by the Augustinian canons, who were the first to expel almost all local residents of Protestant faith in the course of the counter-reformation initiated by Ferdinand von Bayern . With the secularization in 1803, the prince-provost's rule over Berchtesgaden ended.
Secularization, connection to Bavaria
Within seven years of secularization and the end of the provincial rule, Berchtesgaden changed its political affiliation four times. From 1803, by order of Napoleon , it belonged to the new Electorate of Salzburg under the reign of the Habsburg Ferdinand III. , after the Peace of Pressburg in 1805 to the newly founded Austrian Empire and from 1809 to Napoleonic France for a short time . After the reorganization of Europe in 1810, Berchtesgaden, the capital of the Berchtesgadener Land, was annexed to the Kingdom of Bavaria along with Salzburg and remained there in contrast to Salzburg, which has belonged to Austria again since 1816.
Royal residence and first tourism
With its integration into the Kingdom of Bavaria , Berchtesgaden was assigned to the Salzach District from 1810 and from 1811 the seat of the Berchtesgaden Regional Court , which was responsible for the market itself as well as for the other (now four) municipalities of the Berchtesgadener Land . From 1817 the community became part of the newly created Isarkkreis , which has been called Upper Bavaria since 1838 . In 1862 the administrative district of Upper Bavaria was subdivided and the town was incorporated into the Berchtesgaden district office , which now also included the municipalities of the former Reichenhall district court .
The Bavarian kings have used Berchtesgaden as a summer residence since it belonged to Bavaria and expanded the canon monastery into a royal palace. In particular, Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria (1821–1912), who came to hunt every autumn, was very popular with the locals as a patron and benefactor. So he had, among other things, in 1892 the clearance Kugelfeldfrei , which until then had been used by the National Guard for public games and cattle markets and for a short time (1834–1835) as a parade ground , was converted into a small park with deciduous trees. In Luitpoldpark (previously: Luitpoldhain), today between Kälbersteinstrasse and Von-Hindenburg-Allee, the Berchtesgaden district had a bronze monument erected a year later , depicting the Prince Regent in hunting clothes.
In 1842, almost the entire market center fell victim to a "notorious arsonist". He had started a fire in the Schrannenhalle and as a result the tower of the St. Andreas parish church opposite also caught fire. In the years 1873 to 1875, the town hall, which is still in use today, was built on the site of the former Schrannenhalle , which until 1972 had the dual function of a magistrate and school building.
After the Franco-German War 1870-71 and the connection to the railway network by 1888 opened station Berchtesgaden , the developed tourism with rapidly increasing numbers of guests. Numerous industrialists as well as artists and writers also visited Berchtesgaden and its surroundings. The location, the immediate surroundings and the view of the Watzmann massif were popular motifs with the painters. Carl Rottmann had already created paintings of the Berchtesgaden Alps in the 1820s; see also the inspired Watzmann painting (1824/25) by Caspar David Friedrich . Regular guests included Ludwig Ganghofer , who had a number of his novels set in Berchtesgaden, and the Norwegian writers Jonas Lie and Henrik Ibsen .
Henrik Ibsen and Jonas Lie lived in this house
After the woodworking trade and the distribution of Berchtesgadener War had lost their importance, tourism began to develop into an important source of income alongside salt mining. As the first accommodation for paying guests, Mauritia Mayer opened the Pension Moritz on Obersalzberg in 1877 , where Adolf Hitler stayed several times decades later, even before he came to power .
After more and more Protestant guests had visited Berchtesgaden and also set up second homes there, an Evangelical Lutheran church was added to the three Roman Catholic churches in the market in 1899.
In 1903 a district hospital was opened in the former Salzberg Gnotschaft Anzenbach in Locksteinstrasse and in 1919 it was renamed the district hospital .
Time of the Weimar Republic
The Berchtesgaden possessions of the Bavarian royal family were transferred to the Wittelsbach Compensation Fund in 1923 . Until Hitler came to power, the former Crown Prince Rupprecht used the castle as a temporary residence. His daughter Irmingard was born in the village in 1923 , who lived in the collegiate church of Nuncio Eugenio Pacelli, who later became Pope Pius XII. , was baptized. In 1930, Rupprecht's son Albrecht married Countess Drašković von Trakošćan in Berchtesgaden .
As early as February 14, 1922, the Reichsbahnbetriebsarbeiter Wolfgang Trimpl founded the NSDAP local group in Berchtesgaden, at whose meeting on July 1, 1923, Adolf Hitler spoke “About the future of our people”. Hitler had previously visited Obersalzberg for the first time in May 1923 to meet his mentor Dietrich Eckart in the Obersalzberg mountain spa (formerly Pension Moritz , later Hotel Platterhof ). Since the beginning of the year he had tried to evade an arrest warrant for insulting officials with the help of Christian Weber . Arrested a week after the Hitler putsch in Munich, but soon released after severe heart attacks, Eckart died of a heart attack in Berchtesgaden at the end of 1923. In the years that followed, Hitler let many more follow his first stay in Obersalzberg.
In autumn 1923 there was an armed clash in Reichenhall and Berchtesgaden between patriotic and communist groups of north German KPD people.
On July 9, 1932, the day of the Reichstag election , Hitler took the parade of 3,000 Bavarian and 3,000 Austrian SA men on the “Greater German Day” in Berchtesgaden. A total of 2,000 ballot card voters voted in Berchtesgaden that day and the majority of them changed the vote in favor of Hitler.
time of the nationalsocialism
After the seizure of power , the regime declared Obersalzberg, today a district of Berchtesgaden, to be a prohibited Führer area with the Berghof in the center. The Kehlsteinhaus and the oversized Berchtesgaden train station are further evidence of National Socialist architecture. The extensive construction work in Obersalzberg as well as the Reich Chancellery Dienststelle Berchtesgaden established in 1937 in the neighboring district of Bischofswiesen in Stanggass as the second seat of government of the Nazi state were mostly associated with the name Berchtesgaden . The land, especially on the Obersalzberg, was partially squeezed from the owners at the instigation of Martin Bormann . The agreement of February 12, 1938 between the German Reich and the Federal State of Austria , known as the Berchtesgaden Agreement , came about under pressure and laid down a number of measures to favor the Austrian National Socialists.
In March 1933, members of the KPD were arrested in Berchtesgaden on charges that the KPD had supported the Reichstag arson foundation.
The first “and still somewhat free” elections in Berchtesgaden during the Nazi era resulted in the following distribution of seats in the local council on May 5, 1933: NSDAP 10, BVP 5, ( close to the German nationalists ) Black-White-Red List 1 and SPD 1. The first and second mayors were provided by the NSDAP.
Hitler receives Chamberlain
The Berchtesgaden Christmas shooters, who are connected to Christian customs, resisted their custom being appropriated by National Socialism. In particular, their board of directors also spoke out against the dissolution of the Franciscan monastery Berchtesgaden by the National Socialists, with the result that the association board member Brandner was drafted as the only Berchtesgaden post officer to the Wehrmacht . Its later honorary chairman Rudolf Kriss was sentenced to death by the People's Court for comments critical of the regime , but later pardoned to life imprisonment. The Berchtesgadener Weihnachtsschützen were recognized as a " resistance-like group" during the denazification and the Berchtesgadener Poststrasse was renamed in 1945 to Weihnachtsschützenplatz .
At the end of 1938, a cell of the Harnier Circle, which has been organized throughout Bavaria since 1933, was founded in Berchtesgaden . The resistance group had been spied on by the Gestapo since 1936 and broken up in 1939. Four members were arrested in Berchtesgaden.
The district office responsible for the place Berchtesgaden was renamed in 1939 in the district of Berchtesgaden with the same area of responsibility.
Despite the political symbolism of Berchtesgaden, the air raid on April 25, 1945 was limited to Obersalzberg. Apart from that, the local infrastructure and buildings suffered almost no war damage. The withdrawal of the Nazi leaders that had remained until then should have been the prerequisite for the handover to the Americans without a fight. Even before the end of the war, the Americans had stipulated that Berchtesgaden would be one of their bases and maintained it until 1996.
After the withdrawal of the Americans and against the initial resistance of various local politicians, the Obersalzberg documentation, which was opened in 1999, became a visible sign of critical reflection on the time of National Socialism in Berchtesgaden .
post war period
After District Administrator Karl Theodor Jacob surrendered the south of the Berchtesgaden district on May 4, 1945 without a fight, the Berchtesgaden market was occupied by US troops , some of which belonged to the 3rd US Infantry Division , and some French. The American occupation forces confirmed District Administrator Jacob and Mayor Sandrock in office for the time being. On May 7, however, she appointed the lawyer Karl Kollmann as the new mayor, who was followed on May 28, 1945 by the local scientist Rudolf Kriss , who was also appointed by the occupying power and known as a regime-critical brewery owner ; From then on, Kollmann was second mayor.
As a result of the war, the community took in refugees from the eastern areas of the former German Reich . This changed the composition of the population of Berchtesgaden significantly. The expellees, especially German Bohemians and Silesians , could initially only be accommodated in former workers' barracks. Some of them lived until the 1960s in the Vockenbichl refugee camp in Oberau, which was built for the SS and then occupied by the US Army, or they were sent to private houses and apartments.
The Nazi land was formally owned by the Free State of Bavaria in 1947, but the Americans continued to use a large part of the buildings and the site. From 1953 they set up one of the three Armed Forces Recreation Centers (AFRC) in Bavaria in the undestroyed Berchtesgaden .
After the war, the development of overnight stays in the Berchtesgadener Land and thus also in Berchtesgaden showed a rapidly increasing trend. In the five business years from 1948/49 to 1952/53 alone, with an average stay of seven days, they increased almost fourfold to a total of 1,127,272 overnight stays.
Especially at the beginning of the 1950s, the legacies of the Nazi regime on Obersalzberg , which still existed at the time, became a magnet for tourists. When the demolition and disposal of the ruins of former houses, including those of Adolf Hitler , arose, violent protests were heard from the people of Berchtesgaden, who saw it as “an economic problem”, even a “question of the existence” of tourism. So that the removal of the ruins did not become an occasion for “spontaneous neo-fascist commemorative or farewell events”, Bavaria's Interior Minister Wilhelm Hoegner had 30 police officers posted there. In the end, District Administrator Jacob booked it as a success that the Kehlsteinhaus was preserved. Berchtesgaden and Obersalzberg were by no means just “places of pilgrimage for the eternal yesterday”, but rather a regular part of the visiting program of American tourists to Salzburg, who were far less “overwhelmed” by the evidence of the past than, for example, by the Kehlsteinhaus panorama.
In 1952 , the district court of Traunstein brought a lawsuit against the forester Georg Küßwetter in the royal castle Berchtesgaden . Its arson and demolition of the former military powerhouse on the Blaueis Glacier , which was to be expanded into the new Blaueisütte , which was instigated in May 1946 , had caused a national sensation because of Küßwetter's anti-tourist motives.
In 1962 the new building of the district hospital Berchtesgaden was inaugurated in Locksteinstrasse . Renovated after the incorporation of Salzberg, this hospital has been part of the Southeast Bavarian Clinics Association since 1997 as the Berchtesgaden District Clinic .
From March 1, 1968 to 1991, a so-called short school ( Outward Bound School) was housed in the Glück Auf building in Maria Gern . a. from the point of view of willingness to help.
From the territorial reform to the present
In the course of the Bavarian regional reform on January 1, 1972, through the incorporation of the three previously independent municipalities Au , Maria Gern and Salzberg, the population of Berchtesgaden almost doubled and the area expanded several times over. In return, the Berchtesgaden market had to surrender its status as the district capital and the seat of the district office to the large district town of Bad Reichenhall on July 1, 1972 . This included the dissolution of the Berchtesgaden District Court and the transfer of its jurisdiction to the Laufen District Court . The Berchtesgaden district , founded in 1939, became the new, expanded Berchtesgadener Land district , to which the market has belonged ever since.
The headquarters of the national park administration of the Berchtesgaden National Park , founded in 1978, was initially set up in the town hall, but in 1982 it moved to the former home of the district administrator on Doktorberg. After initially great resistance from the population and local politicians, the Berchtesgaden National Park became one of the trademarks of the entire valley basin. Together with his apron he formed the Berchtesgaden Alpine Park. which was designated as a Biosphere Reserve Berchtesgaden by UNESCO in 1990 . In June 2010 it was expanded to form the Berchtesgadener Land biosphere reserve with a total of 840 square kilometers. To the park, which is 210 square kilometers over heights of 603.3 ( Königssee ) to 2713 m above sea level. NN ( Watzmann ), a national park apron, expanded to around 630 square kilometers, joins in the north, which, in addition to the Berchtesgaden market, includes all the municipalities of the Berchtesgadener Land district. After the National Park House was closed (1988–2013) in the Berchtesgaden Franciscan Monastery , a new environmental education and information center for the Berchtesgaden National Park was opened on May 24, 2013 as the House of Mountains .
With the withdrawal of the US armed forces in 1996, the use of the properties on Obersalzberg was transferred to the Free State of Bavaria as the owner. The state government decided on a two-pillar concept based on the establishment of the Obersalzberg documentation (opening: 1999) and the construction of the five-star hotel InterContinental Berchtesgaden Resort (opening: 2005). This required the demolition of the General Walker Hotel , one of the largest buildings used by the US Army from the Nazi era, and the relocation of the bus stop to the Kehlsteinhaus .
A citizens' initiative applied for a referendum in 2004/2005 with the aim of merging the five municipalities in the basin into one larger municipality . Only in Berchtesgaden was the referendum successful with over 60 percent approval. In Schönau am Königssee and Bischofswiesen , however, it failed, so that the initiators decided not to vote in Ramsau and Marktschellenberg .
In 2010, Berchtesgaden celebrated the 200th anniversary of its membership in Bavaria with the exhibition “Berchtesgaden Fateful Years 1803–1820” in the Berchtesgaden Local History Museum .
At the beginning of June 2013, the market and especially the districts of Maria Gern and Salzberg (sewage treatment plant) were affected by the "flood of the century" caused by floods and mudslides .
In January 2019, Federal Minister of the Interior Horst Seehofer and the Bavarian State Minister of the Interior Joachim Herrmann paid a visit to the Berchtesgaden fire station, which was used as an operations center, to get a picture of the situation on the occasion of the snow disaster at the time and to thank all the emergency services. The fire brigade belonged to the emergency services and was supported by other organizations such as THW , the Bundeswehr , the police and the BRK .
|Population development in Berchtesgaden|
|from 1812 to 1971|
|1) Numbers according to A. Helm; 2) Figures based on Manfred Feulner|
|Population development in Berchtesgaden from 1840 to 2009|
|converted to territorial status including incorporations after 1972|
|1840 1)||3789||1972 2)||8780|
|1925 1)||6606||1981 2)||8138|
|1939 1)||9787||1987 1)||7538|
|1950 1)||10955||1999 1)||7660|
|1970 1)||8683||2009 1)||7536|
|1) Figures: Bayer. State Office f. Statistics and Data processing; 2) Numbers: M. Feulner|
A. Helm put together “population figures” or 14 numerical surveys of the “souls” of the Berchtesgaden market for the years 1812 to 1925. Two years after its incorporation in Bavaria, the population was 1,300, which rose steadily to 3,733 until 1925, apart from a small decrease in 1880 by 24 people. In 1985, Manfred Feulner already referred to the incorporations of 1972 and also presented the figures after 1925. According to this, the population had increased further in 1939 to 4,491 inhabitants and in 1946 had reached the high of 5,752 through the admission of refugees and evacuees. In 1971, a year before the incorporation, the number of inhabitants had fallen back to 4,355 due to people moving away.
The current size of the community goes back to the territorial reform of 1972. With the incorporation of the previously independent communities of Salzberg , Maria Gern and Au , the number of inhabitants rose to 8,780. Ten years later it decreased to 8138 and, according to the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing, further to 7536 at the end of 2009. Of these, 6022 were Roman Catholic and 1112 were Protestant, the religious affiliation of the remaining 402 inhabitants was not broken down. Until 1987, the statistics of the censuses indicated the number of “foreigners” in addition to “Roman Catholic” and “Evangelical Lutheran”.
The Bavarian State Office published the figures from 1840 to 1970 and from 1987, but converted to the territorial status of January 1, 1994 including the incorporations of 1972.
Between 1988 and 2018 the market grew or stagnated from 7,644 to 7,780 by 136 inhabitants or 1.8%.
Geographical and socio-cultural assignments
Berchtesgaden is the eponymous capital and lies within the Berchtesgadener Land region, which is surrounded by the Berchtesgaden Alps . From 1155 almost congruent with the heartland of the monastery monastery Berchtesgaden, which became more and more independent over the centuries and was raised to the imperial provost of Berchtesgaden from 1559 to 1803 , this region is still today culturally and socio-culturally bordered by neighboring Chiemgau and within the same district Berchtesgaden from the former Duke of Bavaria Bad Reichenhall and the once the Archbishopric of Salzburg belonging Rupertiwinkel from. Thus, the municipal associations and regional authorities responsible for Berchtesgaden, such as the former Berchtesgaden district and the current Berchtesgadener Land district as well as the associated municipalities, go far beyond the socio-cultural conceptual unit of Berchtesgadener Land .
In relation to the Berchtesgadener Land region , a. The United Christmas Shooters of the Berchtesgadener Land was founded in Berchtesgaden in 1925 and in 1928 the nine traditional costume associations of this region merged to form the United Trachtenvereinen in Berchtesgadener Land . Since the Big Five tourist attractions such as Kehlsteinhaus and Königssee are also located within this region, the Berchtesgadener Land district , which was newly formed in 1972, and the Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus GmbH marketing company, which was founded in 2005 for the benefit of all municipalities in the district , seek to tie in with the socio-cultural meaning of the term Berchtesgadener Land .
In terms of regional planning , Berchtesgaden belongs as a middle center to the planning region of Southeast Upper Bavaria , in which Rosenheim is currently the only regional center , while Traunstein and the Austrian city of Salzburg partially perform central functions. Historically, these connections are reflected, for example, in the brine pipeline from Berchtesgaden to Rosenheim, administratively, for example, by the Federal Police Inspection Rosenheim , legally in the affiliation to the Traunstein Regional Court , infrastructural among other things in the EuRegio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein and on the S-Bahn Salzburg contrary.
Of the 7577 inhabitants recorded in a census at the end of 2011, 5039 were registered as Roman Catholic (a decrease of 16.3% compared to 1987) and 908 as Evangelical Lutheran (including free churches, a decrease of 18.7% compared to 1987); the religious affiliation of the remaining 1630 inhabitants was not broken down in the state statistics. So far, in addition to “Roman Catholic” and “Evangelical Lutheran”, only the number of “foreigners” is given in the statistics of the census - here with 819 (an increase of 75.0% compared to 1987) of the 1630 inhabitants, which are not specifically broken down . ( For the information provided in this regard in the 2011 census, see also the restrictive or critical sections: Household survey , questions on religion and scientific control .)
More than 78 percent of the residents of Berchtesgaden still belong to a Christian religious community, a percentage that tended towards 100 until secularization in 1803. After more than half of the Protestants emigrated in 1732/33 and the remaining members were re-missioned, they were exclusively members of the Roman Catholic Church. The edicts of King Maximilian I Joseph of 1808 and 1809 and the associated establishment of an Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria also allowed Protestantism to be revived in Berchtesgaden. But only after more and more Protestant tourists had visited Berchtesgaden and established second homes there, the Evangelical Lutheran Christ Church was added to the three Catholic churches in the market in 1899 . Before it was built, the Protestants used the dormitory in the royal palace and the former rent office building as prayer rooms .
→ See also the sections on the above paragraph: Reformation and Counter-Reformation, expulsions and emigration in the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden
- The two Roman Catholic parishes of Berchtesgaden, St. Andreas and Holy Family (Au), belong to the Berchtesgaden deanery of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising . The pastor of the parish of St. Andreas is currently (as of 2020) the head of the parish association Stiftsland Berchtesgaden and holds the office of dean.
The parish church of the parish of St. Andreas is the collegiate church of St. Peter and John the Baptist , the only so-called parish church of St. Andreas has functioned as a side church since 1803. The parish is also responsible for the pilgrimage church of Maria Gern in the district of Gern and the church of Maria am Berg in the district of Salzberg . The Franciscan Church (actually: Our Lady on the Anger ) of the Franciscan Monastery of Berchtesgaden is also located in the parish .
The parish church of the Heilige Familie Au parish belongs to the Holy Family in Oberau . The parish in Au maintains near the parish church in the Restener settlement Buchenhöhe the Francis Church as a branch church and belonged 2015 together with St. Nicholas and its branch and Pilgrimage Church of the Visitation (Ettenberg) in Marktschellenberg still the Pfarrverband Marktschellenberg on.
On November 1st, 2015 the parish association Stiftsland Berchtesgaden was founded, to which the three parishes St. Andreas Berchtesgaden , Hl. Familie Au and St. Nikolaus Marktschellenberg merged, and which was expanded on June 1st, 2019 to include the parish Herz Jesu Bischofswiesen .
- The Evangelical Lutheran parish is part of the Diaspora and part of the Traunstein deanery in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria . The Christ Church serves as the main church for the parish within the village . Outside of Berchtesgaden, the Hubertus Chapel in Unterstein / Schönau am Königssee , the Insula Church in Strub (Bischofswiesen) , the Creation Church in Bischofswiesen and the Church of the Good Shepherd in Ramsau also fall within their responsibility .
- In addition to the Christian parishes, Schöner also mentions 60 active Jehovah's Witnesses who inaugurated their Kingdom Hall in the rear building at Rathausplatz 16 in 1974 , and that from August 1, 1980 to September 30, 1981, in the back of a company building at Bahnhofstrasse 21 a "Mohammedan prayer room" was set up.
The Berchtesgaden municipal council consists of 20 councilors and the mayor. In the last local election on March 15, 2020 , 57.6 percent (2014: 55.7 percent) of those eligible to vote went to the polls. Since then, the distribution of seats has been as follows:
|Official distribution of seats by the municipal council
since the local elections on March 15, 2020:
|fraction||CSU||FWG||GREEN||SPD||Berchtesgaden Citizens' Group|
|in percent||34.5 (42.5)||28.5 (25.8)||19.1 (12.5)||7.0 (11.9)||10.9 (7.3)|
|Seats||7 (9)||6 (5)||4 (3)||1 (2)||2 (1)|
The first mayor is an additional member of the municipal council. The results from 2014
According to the result of the mayoral election, Franz Rasp ( CSU ) was elected mayor for the third time in Berchtesgaden in 2020 ; in the first ballot he received 57.08 percent (2014: 65.71 percent) of the vote. Up against him and defeated are Josef Wenig ( FWG ) (32.27 percent) and Andrea Grundner ( Greens ) (10.65 percent).
|Mayor of the Berchtesgaden market|
|from||mayor||Party / parliamentary group||Remarks|
|1945||Karl Kollmann||-||May 7, 1945 to May 27, 1945|
|1945||Rudolf Kriss||non-party (later CSU )||May 28, 1945 to March 13, 1946|
|1946||Stefan Imhof||(non-party?)||Honorary citizen of Berchtesgaden|
|1960||Martin Beer||FWG non- party group||Honorary citizen of Berchtesgaden|
|1980||Anton Plenk||FWG non- party group|
|1990||Rudolf Schaupp||FWG non- party group|
Berchtesgaden belongs to the Bundestag constituency of Traunstein and to the constituency of Berchtesgadener Land for state and district elections.
coat of arms
|Blazon : “Square with heart shield, inside the Bavarian diamonds; 1 and 4 in red crossed diagonally one gold and one silver key, 2 and 3 in blue six silver, three heraldic lilies placed two to one. "|
|Justification for the coat of arms: The two keys on a red background refer to Simon Petrus as one of the two patron saints of the collegiate church St. Peter and John the Baptist , the silver lilies on a blue background come from the coat of arms of Countess Irmgard von Sulzbach , who was one of the founders of the first monastery settlement in Berchtesgaden the reverence is paid. This basic arrangement of the coat of arms has been used since the 17th century. A central shield was always added to it, initially with the coats of arms of the respective prince provost, and since the Berchtesgadener Land became part of Bavaria in 1810 with the white and blue diamonds. This still valid coat of arms was officially awarded to the market in Berchtesgaden by Prince Regent Luitpold on December 15, 1891.|
Until the beginning of the 19th century, another seal image for the market coat of arms was mentioned in heraldic literature. The seal, already held by the Berchtesgadener Land- und Burgerschaft in 1630 , shows St. Andrew . The parish priest holds a book in his right hand and the cross named after him in his left .
Culture and sights
The Berchtesgadener Weihnachtsschützen have been shooting guns on church holidays (especially Christmas) since 1666 . On December 5th and 6th, St. Nicholas Day , basses (groups) of Nikolaus actors with buttnmandln (straw basses) or St. Nicholas with Kramperl (fur bass) pull through the market. At Palm Sunday are catkins produced. The Berchtesgaden variant of the palm bushes are not yet blooming, decorated with colorful "Gschabertbandl" or dyed thin wood shavings , which are fixed together with arborvitae and boxwood branches at the top of a one meter long hazelnut stick.
On February 24, 1958, the Berchtesgaden Carnival Guild was founded. Their later establishment of friendly relations with a guild in Opladen also led to Berchtesgaden weeks in Opladen and Leverkusen that promoted tourism .
On November 26, 1962 the association for local history of the Berchtesgadener Land was founded, whose name in 2012 on the occasion of its 50th anniversary in Heimatkundeverein Berchtesgaden e. V. was changed. He sees his task in “discovering the historical diversity of the region, presenting it and communicating it to a broader public”.
The Berchtesgaden traditional costume is a widespread custom, especially as festive clothing on Sundays and public holidays. The Berchtesgadener Trachtenvereine Almrauscher , D'Edelweißer and D'Untersberger (parent association) as well as D'Kehlstoana ( Salzberg ) and D'Weißenstoana ( Au ) are the United Trachtenvereinen des Berchtesgadener Land e. V. and the Gauverband I affiliated. In addition to the original costume, these clubs also maintain the Schuhplattler .
In addition to the High German as official and common language , a more or less pronounced is West Central Bavarian dialect spoken, which until the 1980's by the neighboring communities and since 1972 unincorporated hamlets slightly different.
Numerous legends play in Berchtesgaden and its mountains. The origin of the name Berchtesgaden is said to be derived from the legendary figure Berchta or Perchta , who is also equated with Frau Holle . Another legend claims that the name can be traced back to a Berchtold, whom a mermaid from Königssee showed the way to salt and to the righteous work as a miner in the Berchtesgaden salt mine .
Berchtesgaden as material and motif
In addition to Caspar David Friedrich , quite a few visual artists , especially landscape painters , graphic artists and copper engravers , have used Berchtesgaden and its surroundings as motifs for their oil paintings and book illustrations over the centuries .
Musically, Berchtesgaden is reflected in the children's symphony (original title: Berchtoldsgaden-Musik , i.e. Berchtesgaden-Musik)
Ludwig Ganghofer in particular set a literary monument to the country and people of Berchtesgaden and the surrounding area in a number of his novels. From July 4th to 7th, 1925, the first large Ganghofer celebration with a festival program and commemorative publication took place in Berchtesgaden in his honor . In addition, his contemporary Richard Voss should also be mentioned, whose bestselling novel Two People took up motifs from the life of Mauritia Mayer , who founded tourism on Obersalzberg , in the figure of Judith Platter and was filmed several times.
Peter Ostermayr was made an honorary citizen of the market in 1955 for his numerous films shot in Berchtesgaden and Berchtesgadener Land.
Theaters and cinemas
The Berchtesgadener Bauerntheater has had a permanent venue in Berchtesgaden since 1905, and since 1937 in an outbuilding of the Hotel Watzmann on Franziskanerplatz. From 1965, some of his productions were recorded for television under director Franz Hafner . In the mid-1990s, under Hafner's successor Elisabeth Hölzl-Michalsky, an open-air stage was set up in the quarry on the Kälberstein ( Lage ) where the ensemble of the Berchtesgadener Bauerntheater u. a. To stage plays by Ludwig Ganghofer such as Der Jäger von Fall .
Almost at the same time as the Berchtesgadener Bauerntheater was founded, Gabriel Gailler sold his puppet theater , with which he had previously been on tour in southeast Bavaria, to Ludwig "Quickei" Walch. Walch then gave demonstrations on Sunday afternoons at Gasthaus Neuhaus, especially during Lent . It had its last performance in 1936 at the Golden Bear inn in Berchtesgaden.
The market stage Berchtesgaden is an amateur ensemble, which u. a. Rehearsed pieces by Eugène Ionesco , Johann Nestroy and Ken Campbell , but also produced his own pieces. In Berchtesgaden, up until now, it has relied on the local youth home as a rehearsal room and venue, but the market stage often makes a guest appearance in the vicinity.
In Berchtesgaden, the Schwabenwirt cinema was set up in the rear building of the former Schwabenwirthaus in 1949 and the Kurkino in 1973 in the Berchtesgaden Kur- und Kongresshaus , which was taken over in 1979 by the founder and owner of the Schwabenwirt cinema , Kurt Klegraefe. Both cinemas operated together as Kinos Berchtesgaden . At the end of November 2012, the Schwabenkino was closed after 63 years of operation, on June 1, 2016 the Klegraefe family withdrew from the cinema business and passed the cinema in the Berchtesgaden Kur- und Kongresshaus into other hands. In the whole district there is only one other cinema in Bad Reichenhall .
Adelsheim Palace , built in 1614 on the northern edge of the town center by Stiftsdekan Degenhart Neuchinger, was first a noble bourgeois residence, from 1795 the seat of the Electoral Bavarian Main Salt Office and until 1803 the residence of the last Prince Provost of Berchtesgaden, Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg-Mös . It has housed the Berchtesgaden Local History Museum since 1961 .
The Royal Castle Berchtesgaden shows two collections in its rooms. The East Asian collection includes Japanese, Chinese and European porcelain from the Nymphenburg, Frankenthal and Meißen manufacturers from the 16th to 20th centuries. The Rehmuseum has a wild scientific collection with exhibits that Duke Albrecht of Bavaria (1905-1996) has collected personally mainly from the area Weichselboden and edited. Visits are only possible as part of a guided tour. In addition, the castle offers evening tours illuminated with candles; A small castle music takes place every Friday .
The Obersalzberg documentation , which was opened in 1999, seeks to shed light on the Obersalzberg's past as a “ Führer's restricted area ” and to work through the links to Nazi politics . It aims u. a. also to counteract the tourism interests, which until then were solely concerned with “commercial exploitation”, which for decades had allowed the kiosks at the Kehlsteinhaus stop to sell “historical garbage”, “souvenirs with idyllic Nazi motifs and, above all, lurid glossy brochures that apparently informed objectively about what happened on Obersalzberg during the Nazi era, but actually glorified history and played down the National Socialist regime. "
In the Haus der Berge , an information and education center of the Berchtesgaden National Park in Hanielstrasse, which opened in 2013, the focus is on the 900 m² exhibition "Vertical Wilderness" in addition to special and temporary exhibitions, in which, on a steadily increasing migration through the habitats of water, Forests, alpine pastures and rocks, visitors should get to know the entire spectrum of life in the Berchtesgaden National Park.
There are several brass bands in the market town of Berchtesgaden. The first was the Marktkapelle Berchtesgaden , founded on June 30, 1825 , which, at the request of Fragners (shopkeeper) and musician Ignaz Walch, was granted the Thurmer concession and thus permission to blow chorales from the church towers on high feast days. The Maria Gern brass band was founded in 1946 by Johann Rasp, but an earlier Gerer Musi was mentioned shortly after the First World War . Johannes Regner founded the youth brass band of the Berchtesgaden secondary school in 1974 and directed it until 1982.
As early as 1800 there was a predecessor of the Berchtesgaden Singing School , which, as a private institution run by teachers, primarily served to promote church singing and was merged with the church choir in 1857. In 1881 the teacher Mamertus Perzlmayer founded the still existing singing school, which the district school inspector Johann Bauer supported and financed. After the government of Upper Bavaria ordered in 1905 that singing schools were not allowed to be ancillary facilities of the elementary schools , it was maintained by the municipality from 1908 and continued by Perzlmayer until 1925. It was and is constantly active until the Second World War . The senior teacher and singing school director Maria Hartmann advocated the introduction of Orff's percussion and flute lessons in the 1960s .
The collegiate church choir keeps around 150 valuable manuscripts , autographs and copies of 60 composers, including works by Anton Cajetan Adlgasser , Giovanni Francesco Anerio , Giovanni Battista Casali , Anton Diabelli , Josef and Michael Haydn , Antonio Lotti , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the Berchtesgaden composers Franz Mathias Fembacher and Johann Baptist Fembacher.
The private music school Berchtesgadener Land e. V. has its office in Berchtesgaden and one of its five locations for teaching at the central school on Bacheifeld. It offers "basic musical courses" as well as lessons in instrumental and vocal subjects. In addition to the usual instruments such as piano and guitar, instruments for Bavarian music such as dulcimer and zither are also taught.
Berchtesgaden Fleitl is a three-part Soprano - Recorder , currently (as of 2014) only in Bischofswiesen is manufactured.
As a former member of the band Kraftwerk , Karl Bartos is still active today as a DJ , music producer and songwriter and is probably the most successful musician born in Berchtesgaden today.
The band Jaywalk , founded in Berchtesgaden in 1998, plays alternative rock and has received several awards.
The market fountain was first built in 1558. The central pillar with a lion is from 1628, the marble basin from 1677. The fountain was renewed in 1860 on the occasion of 50 years of membership in Bavaria.
The Lüftlmalerei from 1610 on the east side of the Hirschenhaus in Metzgerstrasse reflects human vices using monkeys. It comes from Johann Faistenauer and is probably the oldest design of a Renaissance facade in old Bavaria .
A war memorial in the form of an obelisk made of black basalt in honor of the fallen in 1870/71 was erected between the parish and collegiate churches on the site of the cemetery, which was abandoned in 1811 .
In July 1925, a memorial was unveiled in the Berchtesgaden spa gardens in honor of Ludwig Ganghofer by the Cologne university professor Friedrich von der Leyen , which was designed based on a template by Hans Grässel .
Lüftlmalerei on the Hirschenhaus in Metzgergasse
In 1910, the town hall square was equipped with a fountain on the occasion of 100 years of membership in Bavaria.
About the arches of the castle opposite Hofbaus created Josef Hengge 1929 fresco painting in honor of the 89 in the First World War fallen Berchtesgaden. The American military government had the fresco painted over in 1945. Uncovered again by Hengge in 1952 and added to the honor for those who fell in the Second World War , this war memorial was restored in 1961 by Gerhard Kommossa (1906–1973). Under two of the arcades there is a neo-Gothic fountain.
The Kronprinz-Ruprecht-Brunnen , designed by Bernhard Bleeker , was erected on the forecourt of the castle in 1960 on the occasion of 150 years of membership in Bavaria .
Wall painting, memorial of both world wars
From September 23 to 26, 2010, as part of the celebration of 200 years of belonging to Bavaria, an international symposium for visual art was held on the subject of the salt of home . Under the patronage of Professor Milan Knížák from Prague , twenty artists from nine different countries took part and exhibited their works of art created for this purpose within a few weeks. The four-day stay in Berchtesgaden concluded the symposium with the honoring of three award winners and the purchase of their symposium work.
In 2012, the mother and child fountain by the sculptor Fritz Schelle was installed on the market square between the Hirschenhaus and the Triembachereck . The bronze figures of this fountain were previously part of a fountain in front of Café Forstner , also created by Schelle , which was removed after more than 30 years during the construction of the new Hotel Edelweiß .
For two other fountains in the marketplace area with the motifs of a boy with a piglet and a ducat donkey , information about the time of their creation and their creator is still unknown.
Within the collegiate church , at the invitation of the responsible dean , six visual artists were given the opportunity for the first time from February 13th to March 22nd, 2013 to contrast the lent cloth wrapping of the main altar , which is common between Ash Wednesday and Easter , with contemporary interpretations of a wrapping.
After Ramsau near Berchtesgaden in the previous year, the " II. Open ExTempore for Visual Art in Berchtesgadener Land " took place in Berchtesgaden from June 20 to 23, 2013 , which was to be followed by further Extempores of this series of events in 2018 and most recently for the first time in the winter month of February 2020 . With more than 100 children, adolescents and adults participating, the Extempore work created on site in 2013 was then exhibited in the Kur- und Kongresshaus and awarded a prize there.
The former convent of Augustinian Canons Berchtesgaden went along with the built in the early 13th century and received fully in the Romanesque style cloister together Kreuzgarten from 1810 in the possession of the House of Wittelsbach over whose family is the building today as the Royal Palace use. Together with the collegiate church and the courtyard building opposite since the 16th century , which with its arcades served as a stables , they form one through two arched gates (south the castle gate , north the cashier arch , later rent office arch ) and the former rent office adjoining the collegiate church on the right , which housed the stable master's office before 1803 , a self-contained ensemble of buildings.
1758 was Prince Provost Michael Balthasar of Christalnigg at his own expense Książ together with a chapel with rococo inside build a retirement home for themselves. The chapel was profaned in 1913 , the castle today belongs to the Max Aicher group of companies and offers, among other things, several holiday apartments.
The Berchtesgaden town hall was built from 1873 to 1875 on the site of the former Schrannenhalle . It also served as a school building until 1972.
In the town center, which was converted into a pedestrian zone in 1978, there are historic houses such as the Hirschenhaus , whose Lüftlmalerei from 1610 reflects human vices using monkeys.
Built according to plans by the architect Ludwig Lange and completed in 1853, the Royal Villa was Berchtesgaden's first villa-style building. Maximilian II had the villa built to the west of the old market center at the foot of the Kälberstein as a residence, in which the future fairy tale king Ludwig II also spent many summer months as a child. It is on Kälbersteinstrasse opposite the Luitpoldpark, which opened in 1893 .
A historically significant buildings on the top of the Kehlstein is built from 1937 to 1938 Eagle's Nest , which also offers an impressive panoramic view of Berchtesgaden and its surroundings.
Berchtesgaden is the smallest municipality in Germany that has a main train station . The former station was in the years 1938 to 1940 for the numerous state visits on the Obersalzberg during the Nazi era for Berchtesgaden Central remodeled representative. However , Maria Harrich did not create the large frescoes on the east and west sides of the station hall until the early 1950s.
The Kur- und Kongresshaus , which opened in 1973, has become an expensive pile structure due to the poor subsoil , for which around 5 million DM were estimated in 1969, but four years later over 16 million DM had to be spent. Between 2014 and 2016 the spa and congress center was renovated inside and designed with a new facade on the outside, which is supposed to lean against the House of the Mountains with a “loose casing made of planed larch slats” .
In 2006, the roundabout in front of the main train station, resting on three bridges, replaced a traffic light-regulated intersection with two dilapidated bridges. It has a diameter of 85 meters.
In 2013 the Haus der Berge was opened in Hanielstrasse , which serves as an environmental education and information center for the Berchtesgaden National Park .
- Evangelical Lutheran
The Christ Church was built by August Thiersch between 1897 and 1899 in neo-Gothic style from calf stone marble at the end of Ludwig-Ganghofer-Straße and is the first and so far only Evangelical Lutheran church in Berchtesgaden.
- Roman Catholic
The collegiate church of St. Peter and John the Baptist , built in 1122, was part of the Augustinian canons' monastery and the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden until 1803 and has since been the parish church of the Roman Catholic parish of St. Andreas.
The parish church of St. Andreas on Rathausplatz next to the collegiate church was built by the citizens of the Berchtesgaden market in 1397. It was given its present-day appearance during the renovation in 1480, while its interior was baroque and expanded from 1698 to 1700.
The Franciscan Church (actually: Our Lady on the Anger ) on Franziskanerplatz, built between 1480 and 1488, was part of an Augustinian women's monastery until 1575 , the facilities of which were taken over by the Franciscans as a monastery from 1695 .
The Hilgerkapelle (Maria Dorfen) , used as a branch church , was built in 1725 under the Prince Provost of Rehlingen .
Prince Provost Michael Balthasar von Christalnigg equipped the Calvary with four secondary and one main chapel in 1760, despite the large debts of the prince provost of Berchtesgaden .
In the pilgrimage church of Maria Gern , built from 1708 to 1724, there is a carved miraculous image of a Madonna and Child from 1666 above the high altar. She is dressed in splendid baroque robes in the appropriate colors to match the period of the church year. Also noteworthy are the numerous votive tablets with which the faithful thanked them for hearing their prayers.
The parish church of the Holy Family was completed in 1908 based on a design by Franz Rank in today's Au district . The altar, donated by Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria , was created by Theodor Kolmsperger, the altarpiece and Leonhard altar by Waldemar Kolmsperger Junior. Since 1992 the Au parish has had a branch church on the Buchenhöhe with the Franziskuskirche .
Thanks to the private initiative and the personal contributions of Berchtesgaden citizens, the following two church buildings have recently been built:
- in the years 1929 to 1932 Maria am Berg on a slope of Kiliansberg in the district of Metzenleiten ;
- from 2007 to 2009 the Chapel of the Beatitudes (also: Kirchleitnkapelle ) on the Lockstein, which from Nonntal past nine bronze sculptures on steles made of cast concrete forms the end of a meditation path.
The Kurpark (also: Kurgarten or Kongressgarten ) was only designed in 1957 according to the plans of the garden architect Alwin Seifert , although the market, the Hofgarten previously operated as a horticultural company , was acquired by the Wittelsbach Compensation Fund on December 29, 1936 . Today it is attached to the Kur- und Kongresshaus .
The Luitpoldpark (previously: Luitpoldhain) is located opposite the Royal Villa between Kälbersteinstrasse and Von-Hindenburg-Allee. In the middle stands the bronze monument of Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria in hunting clothes, created by Ferdinand Freiherr von Miller . With the erection of the monument, the park was opened in 1893.
The graves of long-established middle-class families from Berchtesgaden with important grave monuments and the like are located in the old cemetery, which was laid out in 1685, next to the Franciscan church a. for Richard Voss and Mauritia Mayer . Right at the entrance is the honorary grave of Anton Adner (1705–1822), who at 117 years of age was the oldest Bavarian to date.
Sports and sports clubs
Berchtesgaden is home to many top athletes in winter sports and alpinism.
The Berchtesgaden Alpine Club Section , founded on May 17, 1875, is the largest club on the market today with 10,680 members (as of December 31, 2018).
In 1906, the Berchtesgaden Ski Club (SKB) followed, which has the alpine skiing , Nordic skiing and biathlon departments as well as a children's and youth ski school for the next generation. From the club Friedl Däuber became slalom world champion in Cortina d'Ampezzo in 1932 and, together with club mate Josef Ponn, was part of the Olympic team that took part in the 1936 Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen .
The toboggan club Berchtesgaden for short RC Berchtesgaden was founded in 1923 and is one of the most successful toboggan clubs in the world. He can point to an impressive medal table: 7 times gold, 6 times silver, 5 times bronze at the Olympic Winter Games , 30 times gold, 19 times silver, 17 times bronze at world championships and 23 times gold, 11- times silver, 8 times bronze at European Championships (status: 2010). Prominent club members include Georg Hackl , Felix Loch , Hans Stanggassinger and Franz Wembacher .
The first Olympic champion in alpine skiing ( combination ) at the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen was Franz Pfnür, born in the Berchtesgaden district of Au .
The world's first FIS ski race took place on Jenner in the neighboring community of Schönau am Königssee under the leadership of SK Berchtesgaden. The team house and sports hall of the Federal Luge Competence Center with the world's first combined artificial ice rink on neighboring Königssee for national and international bobsleigh , toboggan and skeleton competitions are located in Berchtesgaden. FIS jumping competitions are also held on the ski jumping facility of the market town of Berchtesgaden am Kälberstein in the neighboring Bischofswiesen . The CJD -Christophorus School Berchtesgaden am Dürreck, in the neighboring community Schönau am Königssee , offers students the opportunity to combine top-class sport and school.
In the 1980s, Berchtesgaden applied for the 1992 Winter Olympics on the initiative of local politicians from the CSU , FWG , SPD and with the support of high-ranking Bavarian politicians, including then Prime Minister Franz Josef Strauss . The Greens, represented at the time by a local council, spoke out against the application and protested massively against the application. Berchtesgaden was the first of the seven applicants to drop out.
Despite this rejection, the opportunities to practice winter sports and train at a high performance level remained a trademark of Berchtesgaden and the Berchtesgaden valley basin and were expanded in the following years. The CJD Christophorus School in Berchtesgaden, for example, expanded its headquarters on Dürreck in neighboring Schönau am Königssee to the Buchenhöhe in Berchtesgaden. Among the many successful German tobogganers, the Berchtesgaden native and multiple Olympic champion Georg Hackl also benefited from the ideal conditions in these sports centers. The bobsleigh and sledge association for Germany has had its office in Berchtesgaden since 2000. The association's president is Josef Fendt from Berchtesgaden , who was one of the most successful luge riders of the 1970s.
There are other winter sports and alpinism clubs in the form of ski clubs from earlier municipalities and in the area of ice stock sports and ice skating as well as hiking, hang-gliding and paragliding.
The oldest sports club in Berchtegaden is the Königl.-privil. Fire rifle association Berchtesgaden . The TSV Berchtesgaden , founded in 1883, has as gymnastics and sports club twelve departments especially for the grassroots . The wrestling department has already reached Bundesliga level. The twelve departments are: basketball, body art, soccer ( district league 4), judo, athletics, Nordic walking, wrestling, step aerobics, table tennis, trampoline, gymnastics, volleyball. There is also a rehab sports group. A department for the revival of the Schäfflertanz in Berchtesgaden is to be set up soon.
There are also specialized sports clubs for various other sports.
The Bergfest or Bergknappenjahrtag is since associated with privileges freedom letter of the miners zunft the salt mine Berchtesgadens celebrated to 1627 only as praise and thanks service in the Collegiate , after imparting a flag in 1628 by an elevator with drumming and pipers in Place. Even today, at Whitsun after the service, the miners march through the streets of the market in a pageant.
In 2002, 900 years of Berchtesgaden u. a. celebrated on April 7th with a pontifical mass and on July 14th with a big pageant.
On October 10, 2010 Berchtesgaden celebrated 200 years of belonging to Bavaria with thousands of visitors and a pageant with 1400 participants. Also present were the head of the House of Wittelsbach, Duke Franz von Bayern , the Bavarian Finance Minister Georg Fahrenschon , Federal Minister of Transport Peter Ramsauer and District President Christoph Hillenbrand .
For centuries, it has been the custom in Berchtesgaden and its neighboring communities within the historic Berchtesgadener Land to offer Stuck , a roll- shaped rye biscuit with currants and cinnamon , from November 1st - sometimes already from September to the 1st of Advent and get in the mood for the pre-Christmas season.
Economy and Infrastructure
Berchtesgaden's economic strength is mainly based on the tourist exploitation of its cultural assets as well as the scenic and climatic advantages within the high alpine region. According to the Bavarian State Statistical Office, only a few of the employees in the municipality who are subject to social insurance contributions are employed in the manufacturing industry, but more than half work indirectly or directly as independent or employed service providers. According to a work report by the ARL , the “contribution of tourism to the national income (in the district) Berchtesgadener Land (..) shares of more than 10 to over 15%.” And according to a documentation by the Ö.TE from 2005, the “Greater Berchtesgaden strongly shaped by tourism ”. However, the number of guests and their length of stay have been declining since 1991, so that the municipality as a member of Berchtesgadener Tourismus Land GmbH wants to set new accents and seek to make tourism more environmentally friendly in the future.
The surrounding communities contribute to the financing of numerous central facilities , actually to be created solely by the market as a medium-sized center , such as the spa and congress center and the indoor and adventure pool Watzmann Therme .
There is no large industrial operation in Berchtesgaden, only smaller operating units. The largest employer is the salt mine with 135 employees, followed in second place by the spa management (including seasonal workers) with 100 employees.
The municipality is represented with a seat and a vote in the Berchtesgaden-Königssee Tourist Region Association (until 2004: Berchtesgadener Land Tourist Association ). The Berchtesgaden spa directorate located in town is not only the administrative seat of this association, but also u. a. also the marketing company Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus, which has been attracting guests across the district for the first time since 2005 .
Since the middle of the 19th century, Berchtesgaden has been a popular tourist destination due to its sights and natural monuments on site and in the surrounding area - with increasing numbers of guests until the 1990s. Since the end of the Second World War , the Obersalzberg district has been another "attraction" due to its role in the Nazi era , but by no means only as a "place of pilgrimage for the yesterday". The Obersalzberg is still a regular part of the visit program of American tourists to Salzburg.
Within the municipality there are three of the major tourist attractions of the southern district, known as the Big Five : the Kehlsteinhaus , the salt mine and the Watzmann Therme . The salt mine offers guided tours through some tunnels as well as a large salt healing tunnel for speleotherapy . It has been the community's largest employer for centuries.
Until the 1990s, mass tourism was the predominant economic factor. According to the tourist associations, the number of guest arrivals in 2003 for the entire district was 578,082, the number of overnight stays 3,696,851 and the average length of stay 6.4 days. Guest arrivals reached their peak in 1991 with 692,381 guests. The enormous increase of around 10 percent (from 1990 to 1991) was explained by the first influx of tourists from the new federal states. Since 1991, with the exception of the period from 1998 to 2000, the numbers have been steadily decreasing. For example, the accommodation establishments located in the Berchtesgaden market with nine or more guest beds recorded 413,716 overnight stays with an average length of stay of 5.0 days, while in 2008 they increased to 440,751 overnight stays but the average length of stay was only 4.3 days amounted to. The trend for accommodation establishments with fewer than nine guest beds is even clearer, according to which 169,325 overnight stays were counted with a stay of 7.2 days in 2003, but only 148,954 overnight stays with a stay of 6.4 days in 2008.
The motto "natural - sporty - adventure - healthy", of the Berchtesgadener Tourismus Land GmbH founded in 2005 , reflects a new tourist orientation. Berchtesgaden, along with Bischofswiesen, Marktschellenberg, Ramsau and Schönau, is one of the district's “healing-climatic communities”, which means that it has five of the 16 healing-climatic locations in Bavaria.
As a member of the Alpine Pearls cooperation , Berchtesgaden is also trying to set new accents and make tourism more environmentally friendly. Since then, popular sports activities such as ski touring and the combination of snowshoeing and snowboarding within the national park have been seen as problematic for the fauna living there, especially if they are also carried out at night. So far, however, this has only been countered by initial “ steering measures ” for visitors, such as signage and voluntary support for such measures.
However, the measures taken seem to have had little effect so far: In 2014, the accommodation establishments based in Berchtesgaden with nine or more guest beds recorded significantly more overnight stays with 160 668, while the length of stay tends to be an average of 3.3 overnight stays per guest continues to decline - Accommodation establishments with fewer than nine guest beds recorded 145,314 overnight stays and an average length of stay of 5.7 overnight stays per guest, so that here the negative trend continued or stagnated at a low level.
According to the figures from the Bavarian State Office for 2008, of a total of 2936 employees subject to social insurance contributions in Berchtesgaden, only 517 (17.6 percent) have a job in the manufacturing industry. In addition, 94 (3.2 percent) in agriculture, forestry and fishing, 982 (33.5 percent) in trade, transport and the hospitality industry, 277 (9.4 percent) in corporate service providers and 1,066 employees in public and private service providers ( 36.3 percent) employed. A large part of the jobs can be related to tourism.
Hellmut Schöner also discovered at the beginning of the 1980s that there were only a few companies with more than 50 employees within the “inner district of Berchtesgaden”. For the municipality, the salt mine with 135 employees was listed as the largest employer, in second place the spa management (including seasonal workers) with 100 and in third place the Hofbrauhaus Berchtesgaden with 65 employees.
The Berchtesgaden main station (Berchtesgaden Hbf) is the destination station of the InterCity train Königssee from Hamburg. The drive to Freilassing is just under an hour. The line to Freilassing has been electrified since 1916. Local traffic on the Freilassing – Berchtesgaden route has been included in the Salzburg S-Bahn system since 2006 . The Berchtesgadener Land Bahn connects Berchtesgaden via Bad Reichenhall with Freilassing as line S4 . There is u. a. Connection to Salzburg, Munich and Mühldorf .
From 1908 to the 1930s, the travel time from Berchtesgaden to Salzburg via the Berchtesgaden – Hangender Stein local railway , which connected across the state border to the Salzburg – Hangender Stein local railway , was much shorter than it is today via Freilassing. However, this connection was discontinued in the course of the expansion of the road between Berchtesgaden and Marktschellenberg and because of a planned two-lane main line via Marktschellenberg to Salzburg. Plans and ideas for re-establishing this railway connection appear regularly, but there are bottlenecks at the Hangendenstein border crossing, in Unterau and just before Berchtesgaden near Gollenbach and the salt mine. The main regional light rail project Salzburg – Bavaria – Upper Austria (RSB 5) aims to build a regional light rail line that will run from Königssee near Berchtesgaden via the city of Salzburg and Mondsee to Bad Ischl. The route has been served by buses since rail traffic was discontinued.
Until 1965 there was a railway line from Berchtesgaden to Königssee ( Königsseebahn ) , so that at that time there was next to the main train station an Ostbahnhof on the route to Salzburg at today's bus stop Watzmann Therme and the Königsseer Bahnhof at Triftplatz .
Steep stretch over the Hallthurm pass
As one of the first post bus routes , the connection Berchtesgaden - Hintersee was established in 1907 from the forecourt of the former Berchtesgaden train station .
The road-bound local public transport to and from Berchtesgaden is now provided by the bus lines of Regionalverkehr Oberbayern (RVO) , which mostly run every hour from the central bus station (ZOB) on the forecourt of Berchtesgaden main station in a star shape in all directions to the well-known excursion destinations and to Salzburg and Bad Reichenhall run. From there, u. a. the following final destinations or places can be reached directly: Hintergern, Hinterbrand, Roßfeld, Kehlsteinhaus , Königssee , Jennerbahn , Strub , Bad Reichenhall , Freilassing and Salzburg .
The junction or the Bad Reichenhall junction (115) of the BAB 8 leads on to the B 20 and connects it via Reichenhall and Hallthurm with Berchtesgaden, around 25 km away. Another approach would be to use the BAB 8 to the Austrian Autobahn West Autobahn (A1) and Tauern Autobahn (A10), from the Salzburg Süd junction to the three kilometer long Austrian state road B 160 or Berchtesgadener Strasse and behind the border to get on the German B 305, which leads to Berchtesgaden.
For the federal roads leading through Berchtesgaden, the roundabout in front of Berchtesgaden main station has been the intersection since 2006 . From the north-west, the B 20 , which goes south and the B 305 , which continues east , meet there . Shortly before the roundabout, also from the north-west, district road 1 goes to the Schönau district of Oberschönau . The Königsseer Ache and the Ramsauer Ache flow together under the bridges to form the Berchtesgadener Ache .
- :… - Bad Reichenhall - Bayerisch Gmain - Hallthurm (pass) - Bischofswiesen - Berchtesgaden - Königssee / Schönau am Königssee
In the Berchtesgaden area, the B 20 is part of the German Alps – Baltic Sea holiday route, which runs across Germany from south to north , begins around five kilometers south of Berchtesgaden at Königssee and ends around 1,730 km further in Puttgarden or on the island of Fehmarn ; the B 20 branches off in the direction of Furth im Wald and ends at the border with the Czech Republic . The next larger town on this route is Bad Reichenhall, 20 kilometers away. A few kilometers after Reichenhall, the junction leads to the BAB 8.
- :… - Reit im Winkl - Schneizlreuth / Weißbach - Schwarzbachwacht (pass) - Ramsau - Engedey - Berchtesgaden - Marktschellenberg - border crossing - Grödig - Salzburg
The B 305 is part of the German Alpine Road , which begins in Lindau on Lake Constance and runs from west to east along the Alps to Berchtesgaden. In the time of National Socialism , the Roßfeldhöhenringstrasse was planned as the final loop of the Alpine road , which can now be reached via the branches from the B 305 to the B 319 via the districts of Obersalzberg or Oberau. The B 305 connects Berchtesgaden in a north-westerly direction with Bernau am Chiemsee , while in an easterly direction along the Berchtesgadener Ache to the German-Austrian border crossing and then to Salzburg, around 24 km away, and to the junction of the Austrian A10 motorway. The B 305 is used as a bypass road to relieve the center of Berchtesgaden from through traffic.
The Berchtesgadener Anzeiger has been publishing local news from the region in its own editorial department since 1882 , while national and international reports are taken from press agencies .
Berchtesgaden receives the programs of the Bavarian Radio via the transmitter Berchtesgaden in Schönau am Königssee .
The market operates two kindergartens and a youth home as well as the Martin-Beer-Haus retirement home . It also manages the Bürgerheim Foundation as a nursing home . Among the community's sports facilities include a skating rink , several gyms , a sports field as well as in the field of neighboring community Bischofswiesen scale jumps on Kälberstein . The community has a small market library . The community's volunteer fire brigade provides fire protection and general help; it maintains three fire stations .
Other authorities and institutions in the municipality are the tax office, the only one remaining in Berchtesgaden, with tasks that extend beyond the inner district, a police inspection , the national park administration and the spa administration as the administration of the Berchtesgaden-Königssee tourism region . The Berchtesgaden forestry operation of the Bavarian State Forests manages the region's state forests. The municipal housing development Berchtesgadener Land is also based in Berchtesgaden.
The Markt's sewage treatment plant is shared by the communities of Bischofswiesen , Ramsau and Schönau am Königssee , and the Marktschellenberg slaughterhouse is also co-financed by the aforementioned communities . The administration of the cemetery association is integrated into the municipal administration. In addition, the municipality's registry office is also responsible for the neighboring municipality of Schönau am Königssee.
The market is a member of syndicates tourist region Berchtesgaden-Koenigssee and Cemetery Association Berchtesgaden . The tourism association maintains the spa and congress center as well as the indoor wellness pool Watzmann Therme , the cemetery association maintains the old cemetery and in neighboring Schönau am Königssee the mountain cemetery that was awarded the end of September 2015 in a nationwide competition as the winner of the Berchtesgadener Land district , where the majority the Berchtesgaden citizen is buried.
The district of Berchtesgadener Land maintains the multiple gymnasium of the federal performance center for bobsleigh and toboggan, which is also used for school and popular sports.
The Berchtesgaden District Clinic in the Salzberg district is a standard care hospital with 118 beds and 32 rehab beds. It belongs to the municipal clinic association Kliniken Südostbayern AG . Among other things, the clinic ensures emergency care in the region for simple cases with the ambulance . The clinic specializes in orthopedics .
At the beginning of the 1980s there was only one elementary and one secondary school in Berchtesgaden, as well as the state high school Berchtesgaden . Pupils without a recommendation from a grammar school who wanted to obtain a secondary school certificate or intermediate secondary school diploma attended the secondary schools in Freilassing , while girls also attended the secondary school of the Sankt Zeno monastery in Bad Reichenhall .
Today, there are next to the elementary school and middle school Berchtesgaden Am Bach Eifeld on the book height in the district remains another primary school and a secondary school of CJD Christophorus Schools Berchtesgaden , be promoted in children with allergies or asthma, learning disorders and obesity. The CJD also maintains a local secondary school on Dürreck in neighboring Schönau am Königssee and a grammar school since 1960.
The communal primary school in the Au is a dwarf school because of its small, relatively remote catchment area .
The Berchtesgaden grammar school was in Salzburger Straße from 1921 to 2004 and has been housed in a new building complex on Am Anzenbachfeld since summer 2004, within sight of the salt mine.
The vocational school for wood carving and joinery in the district of Berchtesgadener Land , usually just called wood carving school on site , trains wood carvers and joiners . The training period at this vocational school is three years and ends after successful final examination with the acquittal for journeymen . Particularly successful graduates were awarded the State Prize of the Government of Upper Bavaria for their journeyman's pieces made at this technical school .
After the cultural group founded in Rupertigau at the end of 1946 with headquarters in Berchtesgaden as a precursor, the Berchtesgaden Adult Education Center was founded on June 30, 1948 .
In addition to many well-known athletes such as Georg Hackl and Anja Selbach , née Anja Huber, visual artists , musicians and writers were born in Berchtesgaden . The place was and is also the place of work and residence of many athletes, scientists and writers not from Berchtesgaden such as Ludwig Ganghofer and Carl von Linde . Also, some of the highest-ranking National Socialists (including Adolf Hitler , Martin Bormann , Hermann Göring and Albert Speer ) had a residence during the so-called “ Third Reich ” within the “ Führer's prohibited area ” on Obersalzberg , which belongs to Berchtesgaden - their work has now also been carried out within Berchtesgaden extensively and critically examined in the documentation Obersalzberg .
- Walter Brugger (ed.) U. a .: History of Berchtesgaden. Volume 3: Berchtesgaden in the Kingdom and Free State of Bavaria from 1810 to the present, Part 1. Church, art, culture, alpinism, sport, associations. Plenk Verlag, Berchtesgaden 1998, ISBN 3-927957-10-0 , pp. 231, 246.
- Manfred Feulner : Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Berchtesgadener Anzeiger Verlag , Berchtesgaden 1986, ISBN 3-925647-00-7 , pp. 8, 9, 18, 20, 37, 159, 222.
- Hellmut Schöner (Ed.), A. Helm : Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Reprint from 1929. Association for local history d. Berchtesgadener Landes. Verlag Berchtesgadener Anzeiger and Karl M. Lipp Verlag, Munich 1973, pp. 12, 31, 46, 71-72, 106-111, 176, 208-209, 346-347.
- Hellmut Schöner (Ed.): Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary volume I, Association for Local Studies d. Berchtesgadener Landes, Berchtesgadener Anzeiger and Karl M. Lipp Verlag, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-87490-528-4 , pp. 18, 27 f., 64 f., 86–88, 109–111, 146–147, 152 f., 168, 171 f., 175, 185, 204, 269 f., 281, 309 f., 318, 321, 322, 340, 345-352, 452 f.
- Official homepage of the municipality of Markt Berchtesgaden
- Entry on the coat of arms of Berchtesgaden in the database of the House of Bavarian History
- ↑ "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- ↑ Mayor. Market administration Berchtesgaden, accessed on May 30, 2020 .
- ↑ a b c zeit.de Gerd Henghuber: concern about reputation ; To “After the Second World War, the place was able to reconnect with this upswing, precisely because of its historical importance during the time of National Socialism ” the quote from the source: “In addition to the tourists, fifty years after the end of the war, hordes of journalists discovered Obersalzberg. A connection between the tourist crowds and the magazines was quickly established: The Obersalzberg, as was broadcast and written from Stuttgart to Seoul, had become a 'place of pilgrimage for the yesterday'. ” In Die Zeit 24/1995.
- ^ A b c DiePresse.com , February 26, 2005: Bavaria: Vacation on Hitler's favorite mountain.
- ↑ planetoutdoor.de Height information on Lockstein and Kälberstein from the tour description Lockstein, Kälberstein, Baderlehenkopf .
- ↑ a b Figures, data, facts , under “Overview” on the municipality's website, online at gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de .
- ↑ www.nationalpark-berchtesgaden.bayern.de (PDF; 164 kB): National Park Ordinance , § 1.2.
- ↑ For the use of the term Alpenpark Berchtesgaden before the official declaration in 1978 see for example Kosmos , Volume 71, 1975, p. 436.
- ↑ District Office Berchtesgadener Land ( memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF): UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Berchtesgaden (PDF; 5 kB), for the identical size and mapping of the Berchtesgaden Alpine Park and Berchtesgaden Biosphere Reserve , see Hellmut Schöner (ed.): Berchtesgaden through the ages. - Supplementary volume I, p. 27 f.
- ↑ Treatises of the Federal Geological Institute, Vienna. (PDF), December 1999, p. 10 of 22.
- ↑ steinkern.de , sequence diagram.
- ↑ Topographic map 1: 25,000 ( memento from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) - to Berchtesgaden Ost with marked exclave remains; PDF file (5.21 MB), online at gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de
- ^ "Snippet quote" on the Buchenhöhe housing estate in the exclave remains from Winfried Nerdinger, Katharina Blohm: Building in National Socialism: Bavaria, 1933–1945 .
- ↑ Community directory online quick query ( memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) on M Berchtesgaden , online via statistik-portal.de
- ↑ Local history in the Neolithic Age, online at gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de .
- ↑ Festgabe for Gerold Meyer von Knonau, 1913, p. 93.
- ↑ A. Helm: Berchtesgaden through the ages. P. 31 - it says: “The name certainly comes from a certain Perther, a representative of the Aribones family, who used a so-called hunting ground in the forested mountain basin. Gaden, a one-room building, erected. "
- ↑ Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 9.
- ↑ Gadem. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 4 : Forschel – retainer - (IV, 1st section, part 1). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1878, Sp. 1131–1134 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ). see also the etymology of the word "garden" .
- ↑ Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 8.
- ↑ Monumentorum boicorum collectio nova, Volume 31, p. 456.
- ↑ Brechtolsgaden online at google.de
- ^ Map of the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1806 , available online in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek at bvbm1.bib-bvb.de
- ↑ zeno.org On the name "Berchtesgaden": Herders Conversations-Lexikon . Freiburg im Breisgau 1854, Volume 1, p. 488.
- ↑ On the name "Berchtesgaden": Historical treatises of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences , Volume 1. Munich 1807 (Archive of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences ).
- ↑ books.google.de On the name “Berchtesgaden”: Further references to Bertholdsgaden .
- ↑ A. Helm: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Keyword: History of the country, pp. 106–111, pp. 107–108.
- ↑ Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 18.
- ↑ "So in Berchtesgaden (..) a new document, an expanded new edition, was created on the basis of a real preliminary document, with the purpose of safeguarding the salt shelf." In Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - History of the country and its residents. P. 37.
- ↑ Ulli Kastner: Salt has been part of Berchtesgaden's history for 900 years . Report in the Berchtesgadener Anzeiger from May 22, 2002 and June 3, 2002.
- ^ To the parish in Pleickard Stumpf: Bavaria: a geographical-statistical-historical manual of the kingdom , p. 95.
- ↑ geschichte.digitale-sammlungen.de Historical Atlas of Bavaria - Out of print volumes; Volume: Altbayern Series I, Issue 7: Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden. P. 29.
- ↑ Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 20.
- ↑ a b c d Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 269 f.
- ↑ Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 159.
- ↑ Manfred Feulner : Our Berchtesgadener Bürgerwald. In: Berchtesgadener Heimatkalender 2001 (published 2000), pp. 122–131.
- ^ Pert Peternel: Salzburg Chronicle . Salzburg 1984, ISBN 3-7023-0167-4 .
- ↑ a b Hellmut Schöner (ed.), A. Helm : Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Keyword: Luitpold u. Luitpoldhain pp. 208-209.
- ↑ a b Hellmut Schöner (ed.): Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Supplementary volume I, p. 171 f.
- ↑ On going to school from 1875 - Berchtesgaden through the ages. P. 272, keyword town hall. P. 322 Schrannenhalle .
- ^ Paul Bruppacher: Adolf Hitler and the history of the NSDAP. 2008, p. 87.
- ↑ Ulrich Chaussy, Christoph Püschner: Neighbor Hitler: Führer Cult and Destruction of Home on Obersalzberg. (6) 2007, p. 30.
- ↑ Article Eckart, Dietrich. In: Hermann Weiss (Ed.): Biographical Lexicon for the Third Reich. 2nd Edition. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-10-091052-4 .
- ↑ Wolfgang Domarus, National Socialism, War and Population , 1977, p. 226.
- ↑ Georg Franz-Willing: The Hitler Movement: 1925 to 1934. 2001, p. 304.
- ↑ Ernst Hanisch: Berchtesgaden in the Weimar Republic. In: Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Stift, Markt, Land. Volumes 3/2, 2002, p. 984.
- ↑ Josef Geiß: Obersalzberg - The story of a mountain from Judith Platter to today. 17th edition. Josef Geiß Verlag, Tann Ndb. 1985. A “factual report” that could be obtained on site for decades.
- ^ Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Stift, Markt, Land. Volume 3/2, 2002, p. 963.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 175.
- ↑ Ernst Hanisch : Berchtesgaden in the Weimar Republic. In: Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden. Volume III / 2, 2002, p. 1001.
- ↑ Rudolf Kriß: The Christmas shooters of the Berchtesgadener Land and their customs. 4th edition. Berchtesgadener Anzeiger, Berchtesgaden 1994, pp. 93-95.
- ↑ Ernst Hanisch: Berchtesgaden in the Weimar Republic. In: Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden. Volume III / 2, 2002, pp. 1000-1001.
- ↑ Rudolf Kriß: The Christmas shooters of the Berchtesgadener Land and their customs. 4th edition. Berchtesgadener Anzeiger, Berchtesgaden 1994, p. 121.
- ↑ Merlin Ergert-Gillern, Bavaria's Resistance to Hitler. Der Harnier-Kreis , In: Weiß-Blaue Rundschau , No. 5 - 62nd year, Rosenheim 2019, p. 14 f.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 168.
- ↑ Walter Brugger (ed.) U. a .: History of Berchtesgaden. Volume III / 2, 1991, p. 1014.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 204.
- ↑ Figures for overnight stays by guests in the Berchtesgadener Land , i.e. in the inner district with Berchtesgaden, Bischofswiesen, Schönau am Königssee, Marktschellenberg and Ramsau - in Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, pp. 146-147.
- ↑ OBERSALZBERG - limited consumption . In: Der Spiegel . No. 49 , 1951, pp. 10-12 ( online December 5, 1951).
- ↑ sueddeutsche.de Finally the location is safe from avalanches , see paragraph “Küßwetter” in Süddeutsche Zeitung of August 9, 2009.
- ↑ To document the process date, quote from Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden Alps: Mountain Guide for Hikers and Mountaineers. P. 105 above.
- ↑ kliniken-suedostbayern.de Chronicle of the “ District Hospital Berchtesgaden” once located in Salzberg.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary volume I, 1982, Kurzschule p. 110.
- ↑ uni-lueneburg.de ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) data collection with reference to a speech on the closure of the Berchtesgaden short school.
- ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 434 .
- ^ Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Stift, Markt, Land. 1999, Volume 3/1, p. 231.
- ↑ Berchtesgaden fateful years 1803–1820 - exhibition on the occasion of the Berchtesgaden anniversary 200 years near Bavaria , documentation of the Berchtesgaden Local History Museum and the Berchtesgaden Local History Association , PDF file 48 pages, online at museum-schloss-adelsheim.de
- ↑ And again it says: Land under. online in the Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. 2nd June 2013.
- ↑ Ulli Kastner: Horst Seehofer and Joachim Herrmann thank the emergency services report in the Berchtesgadener Anzeiger of January 14, 2019, online at berchtesgadener-anzeiger.de
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.), A. Helm : Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Keyword: Population figure p. 46.
- ↑ Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 222.
- ↑ a b statistik.bayern.de ( Memento from May 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Statistics on the division of the population into Protestant and Roman Catholic.
- ↑ statistik.bayern.de (PDF) Bavarian State Office on Population Figures, p. 6 of 27.
- ↑ Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus GmbH: The history of the district of Berchtesgadener Land ( memento of July 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ): “The 'district of Berchtesgadener Land' forms a unity both historically, culturally and economically; all three parts - the actual 'Berchtesgadener Land' (in the narrower sense of the former sovereignty of the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden), the city of Bad Reichenhall and the land around Laufen - stood in the early Middle Ages over the centuries until the beginning of the 19th century Tension between the Archdiocese of Salzburg and the Duchy of Bavaria, who both claimed the richness of salt in the area. ” - online at berchtesgadener-land.com
- ↑ Ditto: Use of the term Berchtesgadener Land - “The Berchtesgadener Land (let's not let the irritating district name in the course of the territorial reform unsettle us!) Is the designation of the territory of the former bishopric of Berchtesgaden. The extent of the territory must therefore be determined exactly. ”- Günter Kampfhammer: Territory names in Bavaria p. 621; Dieter in Harmening, Erich Wimmer, Wolfgang Brückner (ed.): folk culture, history, Region: Festschrift for Wolfgang Brückner 60th . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1992.
- ↑ www. prangerschuetzen.de : The Rupertiwinkel
↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.): Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Supplementary Volume I, page 18.
The Berchtesgaden according Beautiful in includes "its historical borders Schellenberg to Hallthurm , Schwarzenbach forest and Hirschbichl " or analogous to the Berchtesgaden valley only the southern part of the district with the communities Berchtesgaden, Bischofswiesen , Berchtesgaden , Marktschellenberg and Ramsau near Berchtesgaden , which together, at the time split up into smaller gregarious entities , formed the core area of the state of Berchtesgaden , ruled first by Stiftspröpsten and finally by prince provosts .
- ↑ www.berchtesgadener-land.com : Trachtenvereine in Berchtesgadener Land.
- ↑ oete.de ( Memento from April 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ; PDF) Regarding “Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus GmbH”: “The naming and the seat in Berchtesgaden underline the focus of the Berchtesgaden region with its southern communities. The northern areas hope that, as municipalities with weaker tourism, they will benefit from joint marketing of the district. ”See Documentation of Ecological Tourism in Europe , p. 66 u. 67 of 117 pages.
- ↑ statistik.bayern.de (PDF) Bavarian State Office on population figures, on censuses 1970 and 1987, p. 6 of 29.
- ↑ berchtesgaden-evangelisch.de ( Memento from November 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Alfred Spiegel-Schmidt: Reformation and Emigration in the Berchtesgadener Land. Text on the emigration of Protestants from the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden.
- ↑ Structure plan 2020 - Deanery Berchtesgaden , graphic as well as a link to a PDF file with the associated parish associations, online at erzbistum-muenchen.de
- ↑ From Petersplatz to Watzmann Article on the current (as of 2020) pastor of the parish of St. Andreas in Berchtesgaden, online at stiftsland.de .
- ↑ erzbistum-muenchen.de ( Memento from May 26, 2011 in the Internet Archive ; PDF) List of parishes by deanery, including the independent parish “Au b. Berchtesgaden - Holy Family ”see p. 2 of 29 pages.
- ↑ Walter Brugger (ed.) Among others: History of Berchtesgaden. Volume III / 1, 1999, p. 246.
- ↑ erzbistum-muenchen.de ( Memento from May 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) to the parish association Marktschellenberg .
- ↑ AP: Pfarrverband Stiftsland Berchtesgaden officially established , report in the Berchtesgadener Anzeiger of November 23, 2015, online at berchtesgadener-anzeiger.de
- ↑ Pfarrverband Stiftsland Berchtesgaden newly founded , review of festive pontifical vespers with auxiliary bishop Wolfgang Bischof in the collegiate church , online at stiftsland.de
- ↑ Stiftsland Berchtesgaden , parish association structure appears after clicking on “Pfarrverband”, online at stiftsland.de .
- ↑ Our congregations , membership of the ev.-luth. Parish of Berchtesgaden to the Evangelical Dean's Office Traunstein , online at ev-dekanat-traunstein.de
- ↑ berchtesgaden-evangelisch.de Homepage of the Evangelical Lutheran Church Community of Berchtesgaden.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, Religion p. 322.
- ↑ a b Local election Bavaria 2020: Rasp (CSU) remains in office in Berchtesgaden - local council counted , report, online at bgland24.de
- ↑ Preliminary result of the municipal council election in the Berchtesgaden market on March 16, 2014 (PDF; 2.6 MB) portal.gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de ( Memento from May 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ a b c hdbg.de On the meaning and origin of the Berchtesgaden coat of arms House of Bavarian History .
- ↑ berchtesgaden.de Comments on Palm Sunday.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.): Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Supplementary Volume I, p. 88.
- ↑ bgd-faschingsgilde.de ( Memento from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Website of the Berchtesgadener Faschingsgilde .
- ^ NN: Local history association with a new homepage . Report in the Berchtesgadener Anzeiger on July 11, 2012.
- ↑ heimatkundeverein-berchtesgaden.de Homepage of the local history association Berchtesgaden e. V.
- ↑ United Trachtenvereine des Berchtesgadener Land e. V. (Ed.), Franz Rasp: Berchtesgadener Mundart. For the 60th anniversary of the association in 1985. Berchtesgadener Anzeiger publishing house, Berchtesgaden 1985, ISBN 3-925647-05-8 .
- ↑ A source on the world of legends: Gisela Schinzel-Penth : Sagas and legends about the Berchtesgadener Land. Ambro Lacus Verlag, Andechs 1982, ISBN 3-921445-27-2 .
- ↑ Festschrift for the Ganghofer celebration in Berchtesgaden from 4th to 7th July 1925, Berchtesgaden 1925.
- ↑ berchtesgaden.de Peter Ostermayr.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.), A. Helm : Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Keyword: Theater pp. 346–347.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.): Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Supplementary Volume I, pp. 86-88.
- ↑ berchtesgadener-bauerntheater.de To the open-air stage in the quarry on the Kälberstein in Berchtesgaden
- ↑ For the puppet theater in Berchtesgaden see Friedrich Schelle: Walks through Berchtesgaden and the surrounding area 1860–1920 . Photos with captions. Plenk Verlag, Berchtesgaden 2nd edition 1977. Unpaginated, seventh from last page.
- ↑ To the marionettes in the Berchtesgaden Local History Museum , online at heimatmuseum-berchtesgaden.de
- ↑ marktbuehne.de ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Website u. a. with programs from the Berchtesgaden market stage.
- ↑ For the problem of a missing venue, see kp: Young actors come from outside the country. Report in the Berchtesgadener Anzeiger from August 20, 2010.
- ↑ UK: A cinema era is coming to an end. In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. 4th June 2016.
- ↑ kino-berchtesgaden.de Historical picture gallery of the “Kinos Berchtesgaden”.
- ↑ kp: The last curtain for the Schwabenkino. Report in the Berchtesgadener Anzeiger from October 27, 2012.
- ↑ Guided tours of East Asia ( memento of February 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), On the East Asian Collection in the Royal Berchtesgaden Castle , online at haus-bayern.com .
- ↑ Rehmuseum ( Memento of 2 February 2014 Internet Archive ) at the Royal Palace Berchtesgaden, online at haus-bayern.com
- ↑ "Place of the perpetrator" and historical investigation . Lecture by Volker Dahm (employee of the Institute for Contemporary History ; Munich-Berlin, technical director of the Obersalzberg documentation) on the occasion of a symposium in two parts (December 5 to 7, 2002, January 16 to 17, 2003), to be read in the proceedings p. 198-210, citation p. 199 f. ( ns-dokumentationszentrum-muenchen.de ( Memento from April 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive ; PDF; 1652 kB))
- ^ Permanent exhibition “Vertical Wilderness” in the House of Mountains , haus-der-berge.bayern.de
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, pp. 345-352.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, pp. 110-111.
- ↑ a b Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 352.
- ↑ musikschule-bgl-ev.de Website of the music school Berchtesgadener Land e. V.
- ↑ Original Berchtesgadener Fleitl from the Oeggl turnery in Bischofswiesen
- ^ A b Christian Fischer: Everything facade. In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. 10/11 November 2007 and November 15, 2007.
- ^ Inauguration of the monument under short messages In: Vossische Zeitung . Evening edition, July 7, 1925, p. 3.
- ↑ a b Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary volume I, 1982, on the castle pp. 185, 309 f.
- ^ JW: Art above the salt mountain. In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. October 3, 2010.
- ↑ salz-der-heimat.eu See review: PROJECTS - first entry at the bottom of the 1st International Symposium for Visual Art in Berchtesgaden.
- ↑ bgland24.de preliminary planning for mother and child fountain by sculptor Fritz clamp.
- ↑ waymarking.com To mother-child fountain by the sculptor Fritz Schelle.
- ^ Christian Holzner: Contemporary art in the Berchtesgadener Stiftskirche ( memento from September 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) ; Television report for regional television Upper Bavaria (RFO) on February 13, 2013.
- ↑ “Fasting to look” in the Berchtesgaden collegiate church ( memento from September 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), PDF file on a contemporary wrapping project from February 13 to March 22, 2013 with the participation of six artists, online at stiftskirche -berchtesgaden.de .
- ↑ berchtesgadener-anzeiger.de Rediscover the sacred in »fasting the eyes«. In: Traunsteiner Tagblatt . 21st March 2013; online via Berchtesgadener Anzeiger.
- ↑ salz-der-heimat.eu Notes on the project from the participating artist and organizer Peter Karger.
- ^ Christian Holzner: Painters meet in Berchtesgaden ( Memento from September 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) ; a contribution to the “international 'ExTempore' for visual art” from June 20 to 23, 2013 in Berchtesgaden for regional television Upper Bavaria on June 21, 2013.
- ↑ Veronika Mergenthal: 2nd prize for carving student Daniel Janzarik. In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. June 25, 2013.
- ↑ See review: Projects - to III. Open ExTempore for visual art in the Berchtesgadener Land in Berchtesgaden, online at salz-der-heimat.eu .
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, on the cloister, p. 185.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.), A. Helm : Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Keyword: Royal Villa, p. 176.
- ↑ Dieter Meister: The haven of calm for kings, artists, coffee drinkers and children. In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. No longer available online at berchtesgadener-anzeiger.de, without a date.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 64 f.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 152 f.
- ↑ Ulli Kastner: wooden slats instead of "aquarium". In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. March 28, 2015.
- ↑ berchtesgaden-evangelisch.de ( Memento from August 16, 2010 in the Internet Archive ; PDF) To the Christ Church, Evangelical Lutheran parish in Berchtesgaden.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, Religion p. 321.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.), A. Helm : Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Keyword: Evangelical Lutheran Church, pp. 71–72.
- ↑ stiftskirche-berchtesgaden.de ( Memento from April 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) About the collegiate church : Homepage of the Roman Catholic parish of St. Andreas in Berchtesgaden.
- ↑ stiftskirche-berchtesgaden.de ( Memento from December 28, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) to the Franciscan Church .
- ↑ A. Helm, Helmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. 1929, Kirche in der Au, p. 12.
- ↑ AH: Popular pastor and genealogist , online in the Traunsteiner Tagblatt. June 29, 2013 at traunsteiner-tagblatt.de
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 318.
- ^ Mo: Blessed are those who live in Berchtesgaden ( Memento from May 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. September 15, 2009, online at cho.chiemgau-e.com
- ↑ Historical walk through Berchtesgaden (PDF), online at berchtesgadener-land.com.
- ↑ Memorial page on Anton Adner's grave, with photo .
- ↑ skberchtesgaden.de Club history of the Berchtesgaden ski club .
- ↑ sports-reference.com Lt. In this compilation, Helmut Schuster was not a participant in the 1928 Winter Olympics.
- ↑ sports-reference.com Josef Ponn, participant in the 1936 Winter Olympics.
- ↑ Our celebrities ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), page of the RC Berchtesgaden with medals and prominent club members, online at rodelclub-berchtesgaden.de .
- ^ Spiegel Online: Olympia - The Hidden Games , accessed on January 22, 2010.
- ↑ A beautiful thing ' . In: Der Spiegel . No. 8 , 1984, pp. 57-60 ( online February 20, 1984).
- ↑ zeit.de - Anna v. Miinchhausen: With gentian schnapps and snuff , Die Zeit No. 44, October 28, 1983.
- ↑ Voting result see section Olympic Winter Games 1992 - application table below Choice of venue for the 91st IOC session in Lausanne on October 17, 1986 .
- ↑ tsv-berchtesgaden.de website of TSV-Berchtesgaden .
- ↑ Sports clubs , online at gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de .
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.): Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Supplementary volume I, p. 452 f.
- ↑ Ulli Kastner: It wasn't our goal to initiate the tourist boom. Interview with the mayor and head of the public order office on “900 years of Berchtesgaden” In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. February 18, 2003.
- ↑ kp: Berchtesgaden celebrates 200 years of membership in Bavaria. Interview with the mayor and head of the public order office on “900 years of Berchtesgaden” In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. October 12, 2010.
- ↑ a b statistik.bayern.de (PDF) Bavarian State Office on Population Figures, p. 8 of 27.
↑ Hubert Job, Marius Mayer (Ed.): Tourism and Regional Development in Bavaria (PDF) see problem , p. 165 of 257 pages, Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning - Leibniz Forum for Spatial Sciences , Hannover 2013, online at shop.arl- net.de
“The Bavarian Alps have been a mountain region that has been used intensively for tourism for decades (cf. Bätzing 2003: 151), in which tourism plays an important role in the regional economy (cf. Soboll / Klier / Heumann 2012: 150; Mayer / Woltering / Job 2008: 42 f.). Soboll / Klier / Heumann (2012: 150) estimate the contribution of tourism to national income in the Alpine districts consistently higher than 5%, with districts such as Oberallgäu, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Miesbach and Berchtesgadener Land even having shares of more than 10 to over 15 % exhibit."
↑ a b Christine Garbe, Stefanie Höhn, Kerstin Koch, Michael Meyer, Bernd Räth: Future-oriented tourism development in the district of Berchtesgadener Land (PDF) On the “economic structure” of the district of Berchtesgadener Land: “The dominant industries include the areas of trade / hospitality / transport and the service sector. ” According to the following table, 31.4 percent of all persons in employment were active in these sectors, which are important for tourism in 2005.
It also says: “Within the district, there are clear differences between the areas of integration of the places Berchtesgaden and Freilassing. While the branch focus around Freilassing is more on the manufacturing industry, the Berchtesgaden area is heavily influenced by tourism. " ; see documentation of ecological tourism in Europe (Ö.TE) e. V. , 2005, p. 34 of 117 pages, online at oete.de
- ↑ a b c d oete.de ( Memento from April 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ; PDF) Ecological Tourism in Europe pp. 61 f., 64 f., 70 f.
- ↑ a b Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 340.
↑ a b Information on overnight stays from 2003–2008 based on an older version at the time
statistik.bayern.de (PDF) Bavarian State Office on overnight stays from 2009–2014, p. 15 of 27.
- ↑ svv-info.at (PDF) Public transport lines in the Salzburg area.
- ↑ For Berchtesgaden– Hintersee see Friedrich Schelle: Walks through Berchtesgaden and the surrounding area 1860–1920 . Photos with captions. Plenk Verlag, Berchtesgaden 2nd edition 1977. Unpaginated, therefore no page number possible.
- ↑ schedule download - enter search term; Access to timetables for the Upper Bavaria region to and from Berchtesgaden, online at rvo-bus.de .
- ↑ History of the office , online at finanzamt.bayern.de/Berchtesgaden-Laufen
- ↑ Friedhofsverband Berchtesgaden , online at gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de .
- ↑ Kliniken-suedostbayern.de ( Memento from December 3, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Website of the Berchtesgaden District Clinic .
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner (ed.): Berchtesgaden in the course of time. Supplementary Volume I, pp. 98-100, 103-106.
- ↑ grundschule-berchtesgaden.de Homepage of the Berchtesgaden primary school.
- ↑ mittelschule-berchtesgaden.de school chronicle middle school Berchtesgaden.
- ↑ Homepage of the CJD Christophorus Schools Berchtesgaden , online at cjd-christophorusschulen-berchtesgaden.de .
- ↑ gymbgd.de The development of the Berchtesgaden grammar school. Page of the school's own homepage.
- ↑ berufsfachschule-berchtesgaden.eu ( Memento from January 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Website of the vocational school for wood carving and carpentry of the Berchtesgadener Land district .
- ↑ ros: Through the journeyman's piece in the job. In: Berchtesgadener Anzeiger. July 31, 2010 and August 6, 2010.
- ↑ Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, On the Adult Education Center p. 109.